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tainly an artist. Whatever there is of pers” and the "cake-eaters” of the ments and the necessity of having to color and poetry in the neighborhood we younger generation, “Americans” to the "keep going,” we would have great poets, owe to him. “Little Italy," with its pic- core, the illusion would be complete. great artists, great musicians. Some day turesque markets, tenor-voiced venders, They “Americanize” the picture, but do we will have them. Vesuvio restaurants, candle-shops, statu- not destroy it. Paris is not more interestette dealers, religious and patriotic socie- ing nor Vienna gayer than this miniature OME day! But some day this neigh, is ,

borhood of mine will be gone. In men, is but a reproduction of Bella ples combined. To be sure, we have not fact, it is going now. America's doors are Napoli. The feast of Our Lady of the imposing opera houses, theaters, and fast closing, and the tide of a new civiliMount Carmel, one of many feasts hotels of those cities; no Boulevard des zation, a civilization which is not Anglothroughout the year, with its processions Italiens. We are a community of workers, Saxon or Latin or Slav, but "American," of barefoot devotees winding through and our life is proletarian. But we have is setting in. When the Great American the decorated and lighted streets, is a our cafés, rathskellers, spaghetti houses, Novel comes to be written, this “polydramatic event. There is about it a cabarets, 'dance-halls, and, since the Vol- glot boarding-house" of many “nations, touch of the Middle Ages.

stead Act, our "speak-easies” for the with its old customs and traditions, its

"regulars." We have Yiddish theaters and alien tongues and creeds, will have lived HAT is true of the Italian is true, Italian marionette shows, not to mention its day. Out of the crucible a new

or less, of others in the the movie and vaudeville houses. Our neighborhood is emerging, and the myrneighborhood, of the neighborhood in second-hand book-shops are as good as iad of little tots crowding the street and general. The life of the Old World is re- those of Paris. So are our music stores. packing the school are my neighbors of enacted here. Were it not for the “flap- Were it not for the soul-stifling tene- to-morrow, Americans all.

W".

more

What Co-operation Can Do

By HUGH J. HUGHES
Co-operation has been talked about as though it were a panacea for all the ills of
producer and consumer. Hugh J. Hughes tells simply and graphically

what it is, what it has done, and what it can do

T

—T

THE outstanding mystery about I submit that co-operation—the kind dealer does—and to do it a bit better.

co-operation is that its processes that does things-is merely our old And if the local co-operative tries to do have been made to appear mys

friend Private Ownership dressed up in a more than the local private dealer has terious.

new suit of clothes. He is no bigger, no found it profitable to do, the chances are From the day when it began to toddle better, no wiser, no more omniscient than that it winds up in bankruptcy. about in the guise of farmers' elevators, of old. He can stub his toe as easily or Take grain. The local private elevastores, and creameries, back in the 'seven- go broke as surely under the new name tor buys, sells, margins, mixes grain. ties, it has been press-agented as the as ever he did under the old.

Collects and ships in volume. Knight in Shining Armor that was come

It is exactly this, no less and no more,

The Test of Experience to deliver the farmer from the whole

that the co-operative can do and does. brood of dragons that harass him—the AKE your own experience with co- Of course it adds, now and then, other Monopolies' dragon, the Low Prices operation first, if you please, with things to its list, such as the purchase of dragon, the Mortgage dragon, the Over- some local co-operative venture.

flour, feed, coal, salt, etc. So might, and Production dragon, the Exportable Sur- Dollars to doughnuts, it was started so does, the private dealer. plus dragon, etc. It has been represented on its way with the assistance of a lot of There is here no difference in the work as the Sir Galahad of business, able to “hot air” about putting “the dealers” out performed. The difference to the farmer conquer because its heart was pure. Its of business.

lies in the fact that, as part owner of the advocates have said little about prepara- And what happened was this: After business, he shares in its profits, when tion, ability, equipment, necessity for it, the battle was over (and usually it was there are any, and if he is a good partpractical obstacles to be overcome, etc. some battle) there was another dealer in ner in the business, if he gets to know its

It's about time that we get over this the local field—another store, elevator, "inside,” that knowledge may help him childish vision of co-operation as a creamery, or what not. Nobody exter- to gear his farming a bit closer to market dragon slayer, and talk about it in terms minated. No business "wiped out." requirements. of twentieth-century business.

Whatever happened in that line So we might analyze the service perIt goes without saying that co-opera- amounted to this: The new association formed by each and every local co-operation has made wonderful progress within became the owner of a business which it tive from coast to coast. And from these the United States, and more especially either took over or else built up by a comparisons we would be able to draw during recent years. That fact is not transfer of its members' patronage from the general conclusion that the local asmerely admitted; I wish to stress it as other business men to themselves.

sociation does for itself, or has done for showing that, in spite of all the false The local co-operative does exactly it by the farmer member, down to the bally-hooing and misunderstanding of what the local private dealer did and last item and detail everything that the the aims and scope of co-operation, it has does, and its only chance to win out in a private dealer does with the product he accomplished wonders.

business way is to do all that the private buys from the farmer, and that what the

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sport

THE new Packard club sedan enameled trunk, which is removmight well be called the

sport able without affecting the car's model enclosed car.

beauty of line. This beautiful new body combines

For all social uses the new club the roominess of a sedan with the

sedan is destined to be very popuintimacy of a coupe.

lar. It will appeal also to the busi

ness or professional man who wants But unlike a coupe, the club sedan

beauty, distinction and comfort has four doors. There is no crowd combined with unfailing perform ing when the rear compartment ance in his motor car. passengers enter or leave.

Thenewclub sedan bodyis mounted Those who tour will appreciate on the improved chassis of both the the new watertight and dust proof! Packard Eight and the Packard Six.

PACKARD

ASK THE MAN WHO OWNS ONE

The Packard Eight club sedan is illustrated-$4890 at Detroit. The Packard Six club sedan is priced at $2725 at the
factory. Packard dealers welcome the buyer who prefers to purchase his Packard out oincome instead of capital.

local “co-op" has done is to make the I, the writer, and a few more of our out, and in the sales contract there is farmer a partner in the business, just as “bunch" set up a wholesale business. exactly the same sort of bargain, and Jones and Smith were partners in the It's a perfectly fair thing to do. Each there should be no sneak-out in it either. same line of business, and, further, that of us puts in $5,000. We incorporate And the net profit must, of course, be if the "co-op" is on the road to lasting for thirty years. We rent offices, organ- in fair proportion to the amount of busisuccess it passes back to each member a ize our forces, set the wheels to turning. ness each member contributes to the partner's responsibility.

After a few months I get tired and want association. Any profits made by the local firm, to quit.

The promoter talk about "new methwhether private or “co-op," comes usu- So I go to the cashier's window, pre- ods of marketing" is a bit overdrawn. ally out of assembling goods for market, sent my stock shares, and demand: The "co-op" sales agency has made no often out of sorting or grading, seldom "Gimme m' money!” Just like that. new routes from producer to consumer. out of speculative holding. As in retail The cashier looks at me coldly and re- What it has done is to take over the selling, comparatively large volume and marks, icily and distinctly: "Mr. Ura methods and practices of private business quick overturn are the main essentials to Quitter, when the Board of Directors of men, adapt them to its own particular profit in local co-operative selling. this corporation get good and ready to situation, and go ahead.

Now let us circle a bit wider. Beyond buy your stock they will do so, and not Private business, for example, never the local dealer stands next in line on the until then. You can sell to some one else has found a way to control the market. road to the consumer the man who buys you want to do so, and if the directors Every so often somebody tells you that at wholesale what the local dealer has to approve. But you put $5,000 in this he has the "corner” idea worked out, and sell, and who sells either in large or corporation for thirty years, and unless proceeds to demonstrate. Then his smaller quantities what his customer- you make provision to leave a like friends mournfully gather up the fragthe packers, the millers, other brokers amount in the assets of the firm when ments that are left and inter them along and dealers—the consumer, so far as we you go,

then you can't get out at all un- with the bones of the dodo. And the are concerned, wants to buy.

til the thirty years are up! Please excuse "co-op" that starts out to control prices Elimination that Doesn't me now, for I'm busy."

through control of supply is bound to the That's what membership in a corpora

same end-disaster-for the same reaEliminate

tion means.

It means sticking to the son; it's a perfect system, this "corner" W

HEN the farmer, working along ship through thick and thin. It means idea, but it just doesn't work!

any one of the plans that is to that we have put our combined capital "eliminate” the "middleman," sets up a

No Corners in Green Things at work and that my capital can't sneak wholesale marketing organization, he has

", "eliminated" nothing and nobody. .

you can't "corner” the corn crop, What he has done is merely to buy or ment stands there is a chance that we nor oats, nor cotton, nor tobacco, nor create another wholesale concern, con- may go broke, but not through violation sugar, nor apples, nor potatoes, nor butsisting of himself and some hundreds or of our contract to stand by one another ter, nor oranges, nor any other living thousands of other farmers as partners, with our capital. Exactly the same logic growing green thing on God's footstool. geared to do exactly what any first-class applies to the “co-op” and the much- All you can do is to tie up the mowholesale firm of like kind does. No discussed “contract.

ment's supply and create an economic more and no less. The field of such a Private business is based largely, vacuum into which rushes with all posconcern is limited. It takes on where the though not wholly, on capital. Good sible speed the growers of this and other local group or concern leaves off; it will and experience are vital factors. lands in the hope of.profiting through the leaves off where the buyer takes up the Location, volume-many other matters forced and temporary scarcity. Result: burden. In the main its work is to stand are important; but capital, and the Increased acreage and yield, and the next to the market, study that market, power to hold capital to the job at all “controlled” market goes out of control. sort, grade, condition its salable product, times and in all seasons, is the keystone Surplus piles up. Prices fall. Another direct its flow, ease the market burden of the structure. In the co-op" market- dream goes glimmering. where it can, get the best price possible. ing agency the keystone is volume of Private business can and does hold This is the work of any private whole- produce, which is the output of farm over necessary market supplies, but this saler; this also is the work of the co- capital. That is supplied to the "co-op” is quite another thing from "cornering.” operative wholesaler.

as the produce moves forward, but if the Take eggs as an example: In the spring, Again let us compare. The private output does not come forward disaster when the egg harvest is on, the dealer live-stock commission firm acts as a follows. Just as disaster would follow stores up eggs, but the moment the desalesman at the terminal market. It re- the private concern that locked its capi- mand outruns the supply that same ceives, unloads, feeds, waters, sorts, tal up and refused to invest it in the dealer is selling eggs, gradually, so as to grades, weighs or watches the weighing, business for which it was created.

meet the seasonal demand. dickers, haggles, and sells. Then it ren

The Stockholder's Obligation

In like manner all agricultural prodders its account back to the shipper.

ucts are held for the time of need. That Every item of this service is duplicated So, if it is fair to demand of the stock- is legitimate "orderly marketing,” and it by the wholesale "co-op.” And if the holder in a corporation the use of his is as far away from the idea of forcing service rendered is equal, then the part- money for the term of the investment, it up prices through “cornering" methods ners in the co-operative business stand is equally fair to demand of the "co-op" as one pole is from the other. to profit in the same sum total that the member the use of his crop for sales pur- And this normal spreading out of the owners of the private firm profit, but in poses during the lifetime of his member

crop over the season of demand is the a somewhat different way, and for an- ship. In the one case the stockholders' natural job of the co-operative wholesale other reason that fits in right at this agreement is a bargain to use and to give organization, just as it is the natural job point.

for use a certain amount of money for a of the private wholesaler. Let's assume that you, the reader, and certain length of time, with no sneak- Another real service that the wholesale

[graphic]

"Here is one of the Most Satisfactory

Heating Plants in the Country"

[graphic]

These are the words of Mr. John W. Kelly of the Alaska
Plumbing and Heating Company of Portland, Oregon. He
refers specifically to the Capitol steam boiler installed by
his organization in the Multnomah Block Automotive
Building of Portland.
"When we put on the first test,” says Mr. Kelly, “the farthest
radiator from the boiler was warm in twenty-six minutes
from the time the fire was started. This is remarkable per
formance for a low pressure heating plant carried on one
boiler in a building of 228,000 square feet.
"The Austin Company, engineers and builders, believe
it to be one of the best and largest single boiler instal-
lations of the kind ever made. This Capitol continues
to do wonderful work with surprisingly small fuel
consumption."

We shall be glad to send you an illustrated booklet
which fully explains the modern idea in house heating.

UNITED STATES RADIATOR ORPORATION

General Offices, Detroit. Michigan

Capitol Boilers

BRANCH AND SALES OFFICES
Boston~Springfield, Mass. ~ Portland, Me. Providence, R.I.Troy, N.Y.~*New York
Brooklyn Harrison, N. J. ~ Philadelphia Baltimore ~ *Buffalo *Pittsburgh Cleve-
land New Haven ~ Columbus ~ Cincinnati ~ Detroit – Chicago (No. Side) Chicago
(So. Side) - Milwaukee Indianapolis Louisville-St. Paul-St. Louis Kansas City
Des Moines-Omaha – Denver - Seattle - Portland, Ore. *Warehouse stocks carried
at all points except those indicated by star.

Please mention The Outlook when writing to the UNITED STATES RADIATOR CORPORATION

marketing "co-op" can render is that of over the quality of the produce delivered long been attributed to anything carrygiving to each patron his returns accord- for sale.

ing the name “co-operative.” It can do ing to the sales value of his patronage. What the “co-op” can do, additional and does all that privately owned and Sorting, grading, reassembling, packing, to the service rendered by the private operated business can do and does. Its labeling, branding to market taste and dealer, is to lift up the average level of sales contract is as necessary as the corfancy, make money for the stockholder quality as delivered by the producer, and poration contract, and for the same reain the private wholesale concern. The so to advance the average price received

sons.

It can cut out marketing wastes same service, well done, makes money by the association and, in the end, by by control of the quality of the prodfor each member of the “co-op" ac- each one of its members.

ucts marketed. It can, and usually does, cording to the sales value of his patron- In a word, co-operation has the same raise the general average of prices paid age.

field of action, the same limits, the same to the grower through raising the genWhen the volume of business of the chances of success and failure, as private eral quality average of produce delivco-op” is controlled by contract with business. Co-operation is merely another ered. the grower, the "co-op" has what the form of private business, and the only That's co-operation of the sure-footed, private dealer never has had perhaps mystery about its place and purpose is businesslike sort that the farmer can well never will have a measure of control that unusual powers and results have so afford to tie to.

Three Thieves

By BILL ADAMS

W

ILLIAM JAMES MACGIL

“What brought you to begging? motionless above, stood in a pasture near LIVRAY walked down the Drink, hey?" asked the farmer.

by. The last wisp of alfilaria, the last highway that runs for mile "Keep your coffee, mister," said W. J. burr clover seed, long since picked by on mile beside the railroad track. Upon MacG., and went upon his way.

grazing beasts, the bare earth shone with his back, secured by a strap, was a blan- Ranch houses were growing few and a pallid glow. Down the track a way ket roll. He was what is known as a far between. He was passing through a stood a ranch house; peach trees, yellow “blanket stiff,” a “hobo,” or a “bum.” stretch of arid country. He walked with and crimson leaved, beside and behind The highway and the track were popu- steadier feet till close to another house. it; roofs of house and of barn distinct lous with such as he. It was the fall of "I've got to eat before I can work,” he against the dimming sky. W. J. MacG. the year. Haying was long ago over. thought.

had been warned of the place. The grape, the melon, the sweet potato, A farmer, coming from behind olive "They keeps a savage dog, an' sets and the prune harvests were done. trees that bordered the driveway, met

him on ye.” There were old men with white hair, him. Ere he could speak the farmer He unfastened the strap of his blanand men of middle age, prematurely spoke.

ket roll. His eyes were swimmy. He gray. There were young men and there “I only hire Japs,” said the farmer. was conscious of a oneness with the light were boys. Some, and these walked At the next house a woman came to above the barren pastures. It seemed to mostly in twos, were Industrial Workers the door. Because light loads grow

him that he was become transparent, of the World. These, seeking recruits heavy with long carrying, he laid his volatile, yet unable to escape from the from the boys, found some tractable blankets down.

shadows that darkened above and about and were roundly damned by others. “If you'll chop me some wood, I'll give him. He saw a double surrey come from

As was the case with W. J. MacG., you coffee,” she said in reply to his amid the peach trees and drive off practically all were white American. question.

toward the distant town. He heard a There were those who had left a wo- “Chopping wood's my middle name, dog bark. man and a child in a shanty somewhere, lady. Where's the ax?” said W. J. When the surrey was become a blur while seeking work for the approaching MacG.

far away, he sighed deeply and laid his winter. W. J. MacG. was one of these. “Good luck to you, lady," he said blanket roll at the foot of a fence post. Because he had lately been ailing, he when he handed the cup back. Then he A Billy owl flew from the top of the walked with weary feet. The previous went on his way. The sun was gone.

post with quick ghostly motion and no day he had not eaten. He had not eaten Clear in the west the Coast Range hills sound. At the moment that he entered to-day. Shivers ran through his frame. rose dark. In the east the Sierras the driveway to the house a large tawny

An overland train clanged by, and as gleamed with pink and purple lights, dog rushed, roaring, from behind the its din died in the southward he crossed snow on their highest peaks. Soon he house. He strode on, as though he had beneath its trail of oil smoke and made came to the jungles.

met the surrey on the highway and had toward a ranch house on the other side When, riding down the great valley bought the place from its owner. The of the track.

you see a little fire with raggedy men dog stopped before him, and, its eyes on At thought that he would be scarce beside it, there is the jungles. Where his face, growled low. able to work did he find work, he bit his "stiffs" foregather is the jungles.

"Reuben Ranzo,” he said, "how do lip. "When at his rap a farmer came to The jungles was deserted. A few old

you get that way?" the door and gazed down on him, he felt cans lay scattered by dead ashes. А The dog, the hair on its back erect, a sort of horror.

bent iron tire and a few spokes from an walked beside him to the back step. “Mister,” he said, “could you spare old buggy wheel lay by the cans. A cat- "Reuben," he said, "it's great to be a une a cup of coffee?

tle trough with water in it, a windmill dog."

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