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Virum integrum et in senten- JUSTUM ac tenacem propositi virum tiâ constantem de firmo propo- Non civium ardor prava jubentium, Non vultus instantis tyranni

sito non dimovet vehementia

civium improba præscribentium, nec facies tyranni urgentis, ne

Mente quatit solidâ, neque Auster, que Notus turbator Adriatici Dux inquieti turbidus Hadriæ,

Si ruat mundi soluta compages,
intrepidum opprimet casus. Istâ
pollens virtute Pollux, et erra-

maris procellosi, nec potens
dextra Jovis fulmen vibrantis. Nec fulminantis magna manus Jovis :
Si fractus illabatur orbis,
Impavidum ferient ruinæ.
arte Pollux, et vagus Hercules

bundus Hercules, ædes ad igni- Hac
tas ascendit: inter quos Augus- Enisus arces attigit igneas;

tus sedens ore roseo nectar po

tat. Istâ clarum te, Liber pater,
traxere tuæ tigres indomitâ cer-

Quos inter Augustus recumbens
Purpureo bibit ore nectar.


vice jugum ferentes. Per istam Hac te merentem, Bacche pater, tuæ
Vexere tigres, indocili jugum
Collo trahentes.

Hac Quirinus



No terrors shake the man who is at once just and firm in his purpose. It was thus Pollux, Hercules, and Bacchus won immorality, and thus Augustus wins the same glory. By the same virtues Romulus forced Juno to give up her hatreds against the Trojan race, and consent to receive him among the Gods, on condition, still, that Troy should never be rebuilt. This condition forms so conspicuous a portion of the poem, that the poet's purpose was doubtless to divert Augustus from the plan he appears, at times, to have entertained of removing the seat of empire to Troy. Horace had expressed his abhorrence of a similar scheme on the part of Cleopatra. Od. i. 35.

1. Tenacem propositi.] Firm in the prosecution, of course, of a just purpose.

Propositi.] Of what is purposed, or planned on the principles of justice. 2. Ardor.] Madness

perverted excite


Prava jubentium.] Of his fellow-citizens, commanding, by suffrage or acclamation, what is contrary to justice. The usual term on passing a law-Velitis, jubeatis, Quirites? were the words of the tribune; volumus, jubemusque, the reply of the people.

3. Non vultus, &c.] Nor the frown of a threatening tyrant. Phalaris licet imperet, &c. Juvenal, viii. 79.

4. Mente solida, &c.] Shake him from his fixed resolve.

Neque Auster, &c.] Even physical violence is equally ineffective. The terrors of shipwreck in the Adriatic, when roused by the




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10. Enisus.] Toiling, with indefatigable labours, he finally reached the skies.

Arces igneas.] The lofty regions of the sun and stars" those lights that burn eternally."

11. Quos inter, &c.] Deified by the same virtues, Augustus, by anticipation, drinks nectar with the Gods. Cum diis epulari―deorum mensa et dapibus adhiberi, &c. ancient phrases for deification. This is the first time the name Augustus is met with in Horace. The title was conferred 727 U. C. Od. i. 2.

12. Purpureo.] Repeatedly used of any thing conspicuously beautiful or brilliant, in things or persons. Here it is the refulgence of the deity. Virg. Æn. i. 5. 90.

13. Merentem, &c.] Proving himself deserving to be elevated to the skies.

Tua vexere tigres, &c.] After his conquest of India, Od. ii. 19. 17. Tigers, the fiercest animals of India, subdued and tamed, drew his triumphal car.

14. Indocili.] From their fierceness not easily taught obedience.

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Cum populo et duce fraudulento. Jam nec Lacænæ splendet adulteræ Famosus hospes, nec Priami domus

Perjura pugnaces Achivos

Hectoreis opibus refringit; Nostrisque ductum seditionibus Bellum resedit. Protenus et graves Iras, et invisum nepotem,

Troïa quem peperit sacerdos, Marti redonabo. Illum ego lucidas


16. Martis equis, &c.] For these same virtues Romulus escaped Acheron, borne up by the horses of Mars, his father, to the skies.

17. Gratum elocutá, &c.] Speaking welcomely-Juno made a speech which was acceptable to the Gods. She surrendered her hostility to the Trojans, and the Romans their descendants, for the sake of her son Mars.

Consiliantibus.] Deliberating upon the reception of Romulus.

18. Ilion, &c.] Construe-Paris and Helen levelled with the dust Troy, already given up, with its king and people—a deodand-to Juno and Minerva, from the time that Laomedon cheated the Gods of their pay.

19. Fatalis.] Avoñaρıç—aivóñapıç— destined to be the destruction of Troy.

Incestus.] For running away with the wife of the man who had welcomed him to his house.

Judex.] Invidiously for Paris. Appointed umpire by the Goddesses, Juno, Minerva, and Venus, he assigned the prize of beauty to Venus, and by that act especially offended Juno. Virg. Æn. i. 27.

20. Mulier peregrina.] for Helen.


21. Ex quo destituit Deos.] Apollo and Neptune had bargained to rebuild the walls of Troy, for a set of horses; which Laomedon, on the completion of the work, refused to deliver. Iliad, xxi. 443. Hence Laomedontea perjuria gentis. Virg. Æn. iv. 542.

Destituit, &c.] Said of those who break their engagements-who leave their creditors in the lurch.


Martis equis effugit inferos; Junone apud Deos concilium habentes dicente rem jucundam: Funestus (dixit) et flagitiosus arbiter, et barbara fœmina in favillas redegit Trojam, mihi et pudica Palladi cum plebe et rege fallaci addictam, ex quo tempore Laomedon numina defraudavit promisso stipendio. Non ampliùs machæ Lacedæmoniæ fulget hospes infamis; 25 neque Priami gens fraudulenta Græcos feroces expugnat viribus Hectoris; quievitque bellum nostris discordiis protractum. Ergo etiam deinceps grandes inimicitias, et nepotem odiosum, quem genuit sacrificula Trojana, 30 Marti remittam. Hunc ego

23. Damnatum.] Ilium, sentenced and consigned to Juno and Minerva, as insolvents to their creditors, who were then entitled to ex

act, by forced labour, &c. satisfaction for the fraud committed on them. Why Ilium is thus given up to Juno and Minerva, for an offence against Apollo and Neptune, does not appear-unless the debt had been, as we say, made over to them.

24. Cum populo, &c.] Frauds were supposed to be visited on posterity (Od. i. 28. 30.)—the third and fourth generation of the Decalogue; and subjects to suffer for their kings. Ep. i. 2. 14.

Duce fraudulento.] Priam, who by protecting his son shared his guilt. He was an accessory after the fact.

25. Nec splendet.] No longer shines-no longer charms the Spartan Helen, by his beauty and accomplishments.

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sinam ingredi domicilium splen- Inire sedes, ducere nectaris dens, bibere nectaris liquores,

atque numinum felici numero accenseri. Dummodo Trojam

inter et Romam ingens mare Dum longus inter sæviat Ilion fremat, quâcumque in regione Romamque pontus, qualibet exules In parte regnanto beati;

imperent fortunati extorres.

Modò super sepulchrum Priami et Paridis greges lasciviant, et

Dum Priami Paridisque busto belluæ illæsæ fœtus suos ab- Insultet armentum, et catulos feræ scondant, stabile floreat Capitolium, et Roma bellicosa leges Celent inultæ, stet Capitolium

imponat victis Medis. Illa for-
midabilis procul ad extremas
orbis partes famam propaget;
sive ubi mare interfusum sepa-
rat Europam ab Africâ ; sive ubi

Fulgens, triumphatisque possit
Roma ferox dare jura Medis.
Horrenda late nomen in ultimas
Extendat oras, qua medius liquor
Secernit Europen ab Afro,

Nilus intumescens agros per-
fundit: generosior contemnendo
aurum nondum inventum, atque

Qua tumidus rigat arva Nilus ;

ita convenientiùs positum, dum Aurum irrepertum, et sic meliùs situm,
terra contegit ; quàm addicendo Quum terra celat, spernere fortior
illud usui hominum, manu quod-
libet sanctum deprædante. Quis-
quis mundi finis impedivit, hunc

Quam cogere, humanos in usus
Omne sacrum rapiente dextrâ.
bello obtineat, cupiens investi- Quicunque mundo terminus obstitit,
Hunc tangat armis, visere gestiens,
Qua parte debacchentur ignes,

gare, quo loco æstus,

Succos, et adscribi quietis
Ordinibus patiar Deorum.


34. Ducere.] Od. i. 17. 22.

35. Adscribi, &c.] To be enrolled in the tranquil ranks of the Gods, instead of theranks of the tranquil Gods. The felicity of the Gods is ascribed to the peace and calm of their condition, undisturbed by human passions-the common sentiments of the Epicuræans, and even of the Stoics, but awkward words in the mouth of Juno, who is only, at the moment, after the wrath of ages, resigning her angry resentments. Virg. Æn. iv. 379.

37. Dum.] Provided that, &c. Inter sæviat, &c.] The wide sea rages between Rome and the ruins of Troy-that is, separates them—prevents their uniting.

38. Exules, &c.] The Romans-the posterity of Troy-driven from their paternal land-let them reign where they will-the whole world over, &c.

40. Dum, &c.] So that cattle trample upon the tombs of Priam and Paris, and wild beasts, undisturbed, lay their young in them, the Capitol may stand (fulgens) refulgent, the seat of their triumphs, &c. The respect for tombs was such, that no stronger expression could be imagined for the bitter enmity of Juno.

42. Celent, &c.] Lay them, there-in the tombs of Priam and Paris---unexposed to any disturbance from man. It expresses the utter desolation of the scene.

43. Possit, &c.] Rome may, for me, be






powerful enough to triumph over the Parthians, and impose laws upon them.

45. Horrenda, &c.] Formidable from her power and bravery, she may extend her name to the extremities of the world-where the sea divides Europe from Africa, and the swelling Nile floods the lands of Egypt. Here is an allusion to Augustus's conquests in Spain and Egypt, the extremities of the Roman power, east and west, at the time.

49. Aurum irrep. &c.] Construe-Fortior spernere (Gr. instead of spernendo, or dum spernit) quam cogere, (aurum cogendo) dextrâ rapiente omne sacrum in usus humanos. Rome will be braver and greater while she curbs the desire of wealth, &c.

Irrepertum.] That is, as Horace explains, while terra celat.

Sic melius situm.] So better placed-better remain buried in the earth, than brought forth to excite cupidity.

51. Humanos.] That is, profane uses. 52. Omne sacrum.] Temples-every thing most sacred.

Rapiente.] Seizing and plundering for the sake of golden ornaments, &c.

53. Quicunque, &c.] Whatever limit bounds the world, which Rome desires to visit, whether where the fires or the rains rage, that let her reach with her armies. To every extremity of the world, if she wishes it, she may extend her arms.

55. Qua parte debacch.] The torrid zone.

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56. Qua nebula, &c.] The frigid zone (Od. i. 22. 17.) the regions of which Horace characterises as wet, rather than frozen-still from the absence of the sun.

58. Hac lege, &c.] But these fortunes of the brave Quirites, I pronounce-on this condition only.

Ne nimium pii, &c.] That, in their reverence for the seat of their ancestors, and confidence in their prosperous fortunes, they do not attempt to rebuild Troy, &c.

61. Troja renascens, &c.] Instead of renascentis. The fate which she has already experienced-rebuilt with luckless omen, she shall again experience.


Alite lugubri.] Malá avi. Od. i. 15. 65. Ter si resurgat, &c.] If a third time, her walls, and brazen ones, should rise, and Apollo build them,-a third time should they fall, destroyed by my Greeks, &c. And of course oftener, if oftener it should be attempted-totiens quotiens.

69. Non hæc, &c.] Comp. Od. ii. 1. 37. where the same kind of interruption is given to the detail of Roman wars.

70. Pervicax.] Equivalent to the procax of the same passage.

72. Magna, &c.] And depreciate, or degrade, grand subjects with petty measures or music.


DESCENDE cœlo, et dic, age, tibiâ
Regina longum Calliope melos,



The poet, invoking Calliope, and recognising her presence, confesses himself indebted to her protection, on many critical occasions; and, as a devout worshipper, has full confidence of safety, under her auspices, go where he will. Cæsar (Augustus) in like manner experiences her protection; when exhausted with wars, he cultivates, in repose, her favours. On the other hand, all who neglect her for more turbulent pursuits, suffer from their

quo nubila et imbres sæviant. Verùm fata sancio Romanis militiâ inclytis, eâ conditione, ut, non plùs quàm fas est pii, neve opibus innixi, satagant antiquæ 60 Troja domos instaurare. Nam

que sors Troja resurgens infaustis auspiciis repetetur casu iterum luctuoso, triumphantis exercitûs ductrice me Jovis uxore et sorore. Si ter ex ære monia reparentur favente Apolline, ter 65 quoque diruta prosternantur à Græcis mihi dilectis: ter captiva conjux plangat maritum ac filios. At ludenti citharæ ista minimè congruunt. Quò pergis, ó Musa? Cessa audax Deorum verba narrare, atque humili carmine diminuere grandia.


O Princeps Calliope, veni ex Olympo; et cantionem longiorem cane fistulâ,

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sive placet magis, voce clarâ,
vel chordis vel lyrâ Apollinis.
An auditis? An me decipit
jucundus furor? Videor audire Auditis? an me ludit amabilis
et cernere illam ambulantem in Insania? Audire et videor pios
sacris nemoribus, per quæ rivi Errare per lucos, amœnæ

Seu voce nunc mavis acutâ,
Seu fidibus citharâque Phobi.

penetrant ac venti. Me puerum defessum ludendo, somnoque

oppressum celebratæ palumbes Me fabulosa Vulture in Appulo, recentibus foliis cooperuere in Altricis extra limen Apuliæ, Vulture Appulo extra fines

admirationem cunctis faceret,

Apuliæ nutricis meæ: quæ res Ludo fatigatumque somno
Fronde novâ puerum palumbes
quotquot sublimis Acherontiæ Texere: mirum quod foret omnibus,
pos, agrosque opimos Ferenti Quicunque celsa nidum Acherontiæ,
Saltusque Bantinos, et arvum

domos incolunt, et Bantiæ cam

depressi, quo pacto somnum ca-
perem securo corpore à nigris
viperis atque ursis: quâ etiam
ratione contectus essem sacratâ

Pingue tenent humilis Forenti;
Ut tuto ab atris corpore viperis
Dormirem et ursis; ut premerer sacrâ
Lauroque collatâque myrto,

lauro et myrto congestâ, pueru-
lus ego non sine numinum tu-
telá impavidus. Vester, 6 Mu-
sæ, vester sum;

Non sine Dîs animosus infans.
Vester, Camenæ, vester in arduos

Quos et aquæ subeunt, et auræ.


3. Acutá.] Shrill and loud-clarisoná, as Catullus has it, lxiv. 320.

5. Auditis?] Do you hear Calliope singing? The poet seems to hear the Muse, and addresses the by-standers.

Amabilis insania?] Or does some sweet illusion cheat my senses?

6. Audire et videor, &c.] I seem to hear her, and I seem myself to be roaming, or pacing in the groves of the Muses. Compare Od. iii. 25. 12-14.

Pios.] Sacred to the Muses, and only to be frequented by their pious protegés.

8. Quos et, &c.] Gliding streams, and fanning zephyrs-essential to the beauty of groves dedicated to the Muses.

9. Me fabulosa, &c.] From my childhood I have enjoyed the favour and protection of the Muses. It was they who protected me, when, while a child, I strayed from home, and fell asleep in a strange place, exposed to snakes and bears. The poet speaks as of a fact. The agency of the pigeons is, of course, as ornamental as that of the Muses. Pindar has something of the same kind of his childhood.

Fabulosa.] Whose ministry is often employed in tales and fables. Odys. xii. 62.

Vulture in Appulo.] Vultur, or Vulturnus, a mountain of Apulia, which extends into Lucania. Appulo is added, apparently, to indicate the Apulian side of the range of hills.

10. Altricis Apuliæ.] My Apulian nurse -my birth-place, Venusia, which stood on the confines of Apulia and Lucania.





Nam Venusinus arat finem sub utrumque colonus.

Sat. i. 2. 35.

Extra limen.] Out of the boundaries of Venusia. The child had strayed out of the limits of the town-or of his father's grounds.

11. Ludo, &c.] i. e. Ludo somnoque fatigatum-strictly, tired with play, and overcome with sleep. Just so in Hom. Il. xii. 98.

12. Fronde nová.] Compare line 19, where the boughs are said to have consisted of laurel and myrtle.

13. Mirum quod foret, &c.] Which—my sleeping in the open air, and being covered with leaves by the wood-pigeons-was matter of marvel to all the people of the three towns of Acherontia, Bantia, and Forentum, in the neighbourhood of the Vulturnus.

14. Celsa nidum Ach.] Acherontia was on the crest of the hill-like a nest on the top of a tree.

15. Saltusque Bantinos.] Bantia begirt

with forest-lands.

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