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climb the Sabine hills-where Horace had his villa or farm. Od. ii. 18. 14.

22. Frigidum Præneste.] Now Palestrina -a town of ancient Latium, built on a hill, and so exposed and comparatively cold.

23. Tibur supinum.] Now Tivoli, built on the gentle slope of a hill.

24. Liquida.] Baiæ, a favourite marine residence of the Romans on the Campanian coast. Liquida expresses, apparently, what we call a watering-place, unless the word be referrible solely to the purity or transparency of the waters. Volcanic convulsions have so changed the scene, that the very site of Baiæ is no longer discoverable.

25. Vestris amicum, &c.] Me, because I am fond of your fountains and society—me, because am a poet, &c.

26. Philippis, &c.] The routed armythe defeat at Philippi did not crush me, &c. He attributes his safety, on that occasion, to Mercury. Od. ii. 11. 7.

27. Devota.] Accursed. Od. ii. 13. 1-3. 28. Palinurus.] Now C. Spartimentoa promontory on the Lucanian coast, near Velia. Off this cape, Palinurus, Æneas's pilot, was drowned. Virg. Æn. vi. 381.

Sicula unda.] Strictly, Palinurus is two degrees of latitude north of the Straits of Sicily. Horace has not elsewhere alluded to this peril of shipwreck off Palinurus.

29. Utcunque, &c.] In your company, I shall go any where without apprehension. 30. Bosporum.] Od. ii. 13. 15.

31. Tentabo.] I will brave-I will boldly attempt, &c.

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Arentes arenas, &c.] The dry sandsthe sandy deserts of Syria-not literally of the shore, but of Palmyra, &c.

33. Hospitibus feros.] They were said to sacrifice strangers.

34. Concanum.] The Concani occupied the province of Asturias, in Spain. Of this practice of theirs no mention is made elsewhere, but, according to Strabo, they had much in common with the Scythians, iii. p. 165. Compare Virgil, Georg. iii. 464. and Mart. Spec. iii. 4.

35. Gelonos.] A tribe of Sarmatians, between the mouths of the Danube and the Dnieper. They are described as sagittiferi by Virg. Æn. viii. 725.

36. Scythicum amnem.] The Tanais, now the Don, usually considered as the western limit of the Scythians.

37. Vos, &c.] You, too, refresh, &c. In your society he relieves his labours, &c. Suetonius (Oct. 51.) speaks of the literary pursuits of Augustus.

Altum.] Lofty-elevated, beyond all others, in rank.

The

38. Oppidis, &c.] When he has laid up his exhausted troops in the towns. veterans, on their discharge, had lands assigned them by Augustus in colonial towns.

39. Labores.] I. e. of war.

40. Pierio, &c.] Pieria is a mountain of Macedonia. Any retreat, supposed to be

attractive to the Muses.

41. Lene consilium, &c.] It is you who suggest gentle measures, &c.-alluding to the temperate use Augustus made of his

benignæ lætamini. Novimus Gaudetis almæ. Scimus ut impios

quomodo sceleratos Gigantes, ac
ferocem phalangem misso ful-
mine profligârit is, qui terram
immobilem, qui mare ventis ob- Qui terram inertem, qui mare temperat
noxium moderatur, atque oppi- Ventosum, et urbes, regnaque tristia,

Divosque, mortalesque turbas
Imperio regit unus æquo.
Magnum illa terrorem intulerat Jovi
fratres Pelion superaddere co- Fidens juventus, horrida brachiis,
Verùm Fratresque tendentes opaco
Pelion imposuisse Olympo.

da, mœstasque regiones, Deos-
que et homines solus gubernat
potestate legitimâ. Jovi metum
ingentem incusserant immanes
illi juvenes, lacertis confisi, et

nati Olympo umbroso.
quid Typhon, et fortis Mimas,

vel quid Porphyrion staturâ ter

ribili, quid Rhœtus, et Encela- Sed quid Typhoeus, et validus Mimas, dus eradicatas arbores torquere Aut quid minaci Porphyrion statu, Quid Rhœtus, evulsisque truncis Enceladus jaculator audax,

nisus, valeant adversùs crepan

tem Minervæ clypeum irrum-
pentes? Ex hâc parte certabat

ardens Vulcanus, et domina Ju- Contra sonantem Palladis ægida
no, necnon Phœbus arcum sem- Possent ruentes? Hinc avidus stetit
per humeris gestans, qui Cas-
talii fontis aquâ liquidâ passos
capillos perfundit, qui Lyciæ

Titanas, immanemque turmam
Fulmine sustulerit caduco,

victories-attributed, dexterously, to his love of the Muses.

Et dato gaudetis, &c.] And rejoice to see your suggestions executed.

42. Scimus ut, &c.] We know, from historians and poets, how Jupiter destroyed the impious Titans, &c.-men, rude and uncivilized, alien from the Muses, and prompted by brutality to acts of violence, &c. Pindar; Pyth. i. 25.

Impios.] From their attempt to dethrone the Gods.

Vulcanus, hinc matrona Juno, et
Nunquam humeris positurus arcum,
Qui rore puro Castaliæ lavit
Crines solutos, qui Lyciæ tenet

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NOTES.

43. Immanemque turmam.] Troop of giants proud of their size and strength.

44. Caduco.] Fallen-cast. Od. ii. 13.

11.

45. Inertem.] What neither moves, nor can be moved. Bruta, Od. i. 34. 9.

46. Regna tristia.] Tartara. 48. Equo.] Just and mild.

49. Terrorem intulerat, &c.] Od. ii. 12. 7. Illa horrida juventus.] Those youth, horrible in appearance, and formidable in strength.

51. Fratresque.] Otus and Ephialtes, the Aloidæ, Virg. Æn. vi. 580. They are reckoned among the giants, as having made the same attempt. The attacks of the Titans and Giants seem to have been distinct fables with the older poets-they were confounded by the later ones, and the names of each used indiscriminately.

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53. Sed quid, &c.] The most formidable of the giants were unable to resist the might of Minerva, Vulcan, and Juno.

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Typhoeus.] Tvpwεvs—Typhōeus-Typhon, a monster of most horrid form (Hesiod. Theog. and Apoll. i. 6. 3.) who was cast by Jupiter under the foundations of Et

Mimas.] Enumerated among the giants by Eurip. Ion. 215.

54. Porphyrion.] Distinguished alike for his horrible shape, and cruelty. Pindar calls him βασιλεὺς γιγάντων.

55. Rhoetus.] Od. ii. 19. 23.

Evulsisque truncis, &c.] A daring hurler, armed with up-torn trees-who tore up trees by the roots, and flung them at the heavens.

56. Enceladus.] Distinguished from Typhoeus, but like him thrown under Ætna. Virg. Æn. iii. 578.

57. Sonantem agida.] The very sound of which struck terror into her foes.

58. Possent, &c.] What could they do? Avidus.] Scil. pugnæ. Eager for battle. Virg. Æn. xii. 430.

59. Matrona.] With reference to her superior dignity. Always a term of respect.

60. Nunquam hum. &c.] A periphrasis for Apollo, just as lines 45-48 are of Jupiter. Castalia, Patara, and Delos, are his favourite haunts-where the rites of his worship are most piously observed.

Positurus, &c.] Who will never lay down his bow-whose bow always hangs on his shoulders.

61. Castalia.] A fountain of Parnassus. 62. Qui Lycia tenet, &c.] That is, Patara, a town of Lycia, where Apollo resided in the winter months, as he did the summer

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months, in Delos, here called natalem silvam. Hence he is styled Delius et Patareus.

63. Dumeta.] Loosely, for woods or groves. Patara, it must be supposed, had its sacred groves, connected with the worship of Apollo. Natalemque silvam.] The woods in which he was born-that is, in the island of Delos.

65. Vis consili expers.] Force, without wisdom, defeats its own efforts. ̔Ρώμη ἀμαθὴς πολλάκις τίκτει βλάβην. Frag. Eurip.

66. Vim temperatam.] Scil. consilio. 67. Idem odere, &c.] Mɩoɛĩ yàp ỏ bɛòc rǹv Biav, Eurip. Hel. 909.

68. Omne nefas, &c.] Those who, not guiding their power by wisdom, but relying blindly upon it, meditate every crime.

69. Testis mearum, &c.] Instances in evidence of the truth of my assertion or declaration, are Gyges, Orion, Tityos, and Pirithous.

Gyges.] Son of Cœlum and Terra, driven, with his brothers, Cotto and Briareus, into Tartarus by his father. He was fetched back by Jupiter to aid him in repelling the attacks of the giants. Hesiod. Theog. 617. Here,

nemora et silvam natalem obtinet, Patareus atque Delius hinc dictus. Robur sine prudentiâ 65 proprio cadit pondere. Moderatum robur ipsa numina promovent ad amplius; vires autem quodlibet scelus machinantes aversantur. Dicta mea manifestè comprobat Gyas centum manus habens, pariter et Orion oppugnator castæ Dianæ hujus Virginis telis confossus. Terra suis portentis imposita ægrè fert; atque filios ad foetida Tartara fulmine detrusos dolet. At vo

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rax flamma non absumit Ætnam 75 injectam: neque libidinosi Tityi hepar demittit vultur luxuriæ vindex oppositus; amantem verò Pirithoum trecenta coërcent vincula.

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apparently, confounded with the giants and
their attempt.
The notorious.

70. Notus.]

71. Orion.] Attempting violence on the person of Diana, he was pierced by her arrows.

73. Injecta, &c.] Burdened with her own monstrous progeny-they were cast down upon the earth, their parent.

74. Partus.] Those to whom she had given birth-her sons.

75. Nec peredit, &c.] Nor does the rapid fire eat its way through Etna piled upon them—the fire which these monsters exhaled. They could not escape, nor get rid of the mountain that pressed them down. 77. Tityi.] Od. ii. 14. 8.

Incontinentis.] Not controlling his passions. 78. Ales, nequitiæ add. cust.] The vulture, which, like a sentinel at his post, never left him, but exacted the penalty of his crimes, by gnawing his liver.

79. Amatorem, &c.] The son of Ixion, who descended into Hades, in company with Theseus, to seize Proserpina, and was fastened with chains to a rock by Pluto. Apoll. ii. 5. 12.

CARMEN V.

Non dubitavimus Jovem CELO tonantem credidimus Jovem cœlo dominari, quando intonuit; et Augustus vivens censebitur Regnare: præsens Divus habebitur numen, additis Imperio Romano Augustus, adjectis Britannis Imperio, gravibusque Persis. Ergone Crassi miles uxoris pe- Milesne Crassi conjuge barbarâ

Britannis, et Persis terribilibus.

regrinæ vir infamis extitit ?

Etiamne Marsus et Appulus in Turpis maritus vixit? et hostium-
agris hostium socerorum conse- Pro Curia, inversique mores!-
Consenuit socerorum in arvis,

nuit sub principe Medo, Anci-
liorum, nominis, togæque, et
perennis Vestæ immemor, stante Sub rege Medo, Marsus, et Appulus,
Jove et civitate Romanâ? O Anciliorum, et nominis, et togæ
Senatus, et corrupti mores!
Oblitus, æternæque Vestæ,
Incolumi Jove, et urbe Româ?

NOTES.

ODE V. METRE VIII.

The submission of the Parthians and the Britons to the power of Augustus, made at once a perfect deity of him. Phraates, king of the Parthians, in apprehension of the advance of the Roman troops (U. C. 734) gave up to Augustus the captives and standards taken many years before at the defeats of Crassus and Antony. These captives had married Parthians-grown old in the service of their masters-forgotten Rome, and were, Horace considers, unworthy of the name of Romans, or of being restored to the Imperial city. To confirm his sentiments, he introduces Regulus, and the advice which he gave to the senate, at the sacrifice of his own life, against the redemption of prisoners of war.

1. Cœlo tonantem, &c.] As we believe Jupiter reigns in heaven, because he thunders there, so we must believe Augustus is a God upon earth, because he has added the Parthians and the Britons to the Empire. Credidimus.] Indefinitely-we have always believed-we usually believe.

3. Adjectis Brit. &c.] Though an expedition was meditated, none was ever actually undertaken by Augustus against the Britons; but, it appears, by the testimony of Strabo, (iv. p. 138.) that many of the chieftains had tendered their submissions to the emperorwhich is sufficient ground for the poet's adulatory purposes. Besides, the word is adjectis, and not subjectis. It was the same with the Parthians, they were never conquered by Augustus.

4. Gravibusque.] Who had inflicted so great a calamity and stain upon Rome by the defeat of Crassus.

5. Milesne, &c.] The poet is shocked at

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the degeneracy of the Roman spirit. Has Crassus' soldier lived, a husband, in degradation, with a barbarian wife? Could Roman soldiers degrade themselves by marrying Parthian wives?

Conjuge barbará turpis, &c.] Conjuge barbará must be construed with turpis--not with maritus, a construction which would have required a genitive.

7. Pro Curia.] i. e. Curia inversa! corrupted senate, that could ever consent, not, in this case, to redeem, but to receive back these degenerate Romans.

Inversique mores.] O the corrupted habits or principles of the times, to sanction such degeneracy.

8. Consenuit socerorum, &c.] Grown old on the lands of those whose daughters they have married—though the enemies of their country.

9. Medo.] For Parthian-as often occurs. Marsus, et Appulus.] Repeatedly, the natives of these provinces are distinguished as the bravest of the Roman troops. Od. ii. 20. 18.

10. Anciliorum.] Scil. imperii. These ancilia were regarded as the pledges or palladia for the eternity of Rome. Of the twelve shields, called ancilia, or ancylia, from the Greek word ayrıλog, expressive of their form; one, the gift of Egeria to Numa, was held in the profoundest respect. Wherever that might be, there must be the seat of empire.

Toga.] The national and peculiar dress of the Roman citizens.

12. Incolumi Jove, &c.] The Capitol, still under the protection of Jupiter, and the city in safety.

Jove.] i. e. Jupiter Capitolinus, and by implication, the Capitol itself, which was under the especial protection of Jupiter.

Hoc caverat mens provida Reguli,
Dissentientis conditionibus

Fœdis, et exemplo trahenti
Perniciem veniens in ævum,
Si non periret immiserabilis
Captiva pubes. Signa ego Punicis
Affixa delubris, et arma

Militibus sine cæde, dixit,
Derepta vidi; vidi ego civium
Retorta tergo brachia libero,

Portasque non clusas, et arva

Marte coli populata nostro.
Auro repensus scilicet acrior
Miles redibit. Flagitio additis

Damnum. Neque amissos colores
Lana refert medicata fuco,
Nec vera virtus, quum semel excidit,
Curat reponi deterioribus.

NOTES.

13. Hoc caverat, &c.] Hoc, i. e. a disgrace of this kind, inflicted by the return of prisoners of war, the care of Regulus had provided against, &c.

Reguli.] Regulus had been taken prisoner with his army, in the first Punic war, and being himself despatched by the conquerors to Rome to negotiate the redemption of the prisoners, he dissuaded the senate from an act which would tend to the ruin of Roman valour and discipline. The case of the captives, voluntarily restored by the Parthians, was not precisely that of the captives at Carthage; but the principle was the same-brave men should prefer death to captivity.

Mens provida Reg.] The provident measure, on the part of Regulus, who saw how pernicious such an example would prove to the state.

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21. Civium-tergo-libero.] Instead of tergo liberorum civium. I have seen Roman citizens with their hands tied behind their backs-a circumstance of disgrace adapted to alienate and exasperate the senate.

23. Portasque non clusas.] The gates of Carthage thrown wide open-indicating how little the Carthaginians regarded the powe of the Romans. Clusas, an old form, for clausas.

Arva Marte, &c.] Lands which we had laid waste, cultivated by our own soldiers, as captives.

25. Scilicet.] Sarcastically. The term is often thus employed, as affirming, what in effect is denied.

Auro repensus, &c.] Redeemed with gold, the man, forsooth, will be the braver soldier!

26. Flagitio add. damn.] You add the loss of your money to the disgrace incurred by your armies. You will throw away the money without effacing the infamy.

27. Neque amissos, &c.] The sense isthe bravery of men is like the purity of wool; once dyed, the wool never resumes its original colour; and the brave man, who has once lost his spirit, never recovers it again.

Amissos.] The original colour lost and merged in the dye.

28. Refert.] Resumes.

Medicata fuco.] Fucus is sea-weed-not the dyeing material, but used as a mordant to fix the new colour. Of course" lana medicata fuco" is meant to express "wool dyed." 29. Quum semel excidit.] When once she leaves the soldier-when once the soldier loses his courage.

Nec curat, &c.] She cares not-that is,

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