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Si pugnat extricata densis

Si quidem cerva strictis retibus
expedita dimicat, erit etiam
Cerva plagis, erit ille fortis,
strenuus is qui perjuris hosti-
bus se commisit: atque in alio Qui perfidis se credidit hostibus;
certamine Carthaginienses con- Et Marte Pœnos proteret altero,
culcabit, qui ligatis retrò bra-
Qui lora restrictis lacertis
chiis vincula tulit ignavus, ac
mori formidavit. Ignorans ille
Sensit iners, timuitque mortem.
unde vitam acciperet, pacem Hic, unde vitam sumeret, inscius,
cum bello confudit. Proh de- Pacem duello miscuit. O pudor!
decus! O gloriosa Carthago, tur-
pibus Italiæ cladibus excelsior! O magna Carthago, probrosis
Altior Italiæ ruinis!

Regulus velut capite deminutus,

à se dicitur repulisse suavium Fertur pudicæ conjugis osculum, faciem generosam ferox in ter- Parvosque natos, ut capitis minor, Ab se removisse, et virilem

castæ uxoris, atque filiolos, et

râ defixisse, usque dum vacillantes Senatores suasor confir

maret monitione haud unquam

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Torvus humi posuisse vultum ; datâ; et per medios familiares Donec labantes consilio patres dolentes illustris exul abiret. Firmaret auctor numquam alias dato, Noverat tamen quæ sibi sta- Interque moerentes amicos

tueret immanis carnifex. At

Egregius properaret exul.

nihilominus cognatos dehortan

tes, plebemque discessui obsis- Atqui sciebat, quæ sibi barbarus
tentem amolitus est, non secùs Tortor pararet; non aliter tamen
ac si post litem decisam nego-
Dimovit obstantes propinquos,
tia prolixa

Et populum reditus morantem,
Quam si clientum longa negotia

NOTES.

she scorns to be replaced in-to return to the degenerate.

31. Si pugnat, &c.] If the deer, which has escaped the toils, will fight, and not run frightened away, then will be brave the man who has crouched to the foe;-and, in another battle, will he beat the Carthaginians, who have felt their chains and dreaded death!

33. Se credidit.] i. e. By surrendering. 35. Restrictis.] Equivalent to the retorta of line 22, with their arms bound behind their backs.

36. Iners.] Without resisting-insensible to the infamy.

37. Hic, unde sumeret, &c.] He, the coward Roman, who knew not from whence he should take life-that he should owe life to his sword, and not to the contempt of his enemies.

38. Pacem duello miscuit.] Instead of fighting bravely to the last, thought of peace -bargained for life by submission.

41. Fertur, &c.] He is said to have repelled the embraces of his family, and to have sternly fixed his face upon the ground, as a slave, unworthy to embrace a wife and children, not slaves like himself,—or to hold up his head in an assembly of freemen.

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42. Ut capitis minor.] One who had lost any of the rights of a citizen, was said to be capite deminutus. This deminutio capitis, loss of rank or caste, was of three degrees

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maxima, when citizens, by capture, or otherwise, lost not only their freedom as Romans, but became slaves, as was Regulus's case; minor, or media, when they lost freedom only; minima, when adopted into another family they lost the privileges of their own.

43. Virilem.] Eminently that of a freeman-opposed to capitis minor.

45. Donec, &c.] Whilst he laboured to fix the wavering senators, and hastened, without regard to any thing else, to quit the country. That is, his sole object was to urge upon the senators his advice, and depart without exercising, farther, the rights of a citizen, and not at all those of a husband and father.

46. Numquam alias dato.] As a measure which involved his own ruin.

48. Egregius.] With reference to the unparalleled disinterestedness of his counsel.

49. Atqui sciebat, &c.] Yet he knew the tortures which awaited him at Carthage. The story of Regulus has been questioned, of late years, by some critical investigators of Roman History.

50. Non aliter, &c.] He put aside his.relatives, and the people who gathered round him and opposed his departure, just as-with the same indifference as if he was only leaving his clients in a crowded court, after the business of the day, and going into the country.

Dijudicatâ lite relinqueret,
Tendens Venafranos in agros,

Aut Lacedæmonium Tarentum.

NOTES.

55. Venaf. in agros.] In Campania,—but put for any country retirement.

CARMEN VI.

AD ROMANOS.

DELICTA majorum immeritus lues,
Romane, donec templa refeceris,
Ædesque labentes Deorum, et

Foda nigro simulacra fumo.
Dîs te minorem quod geris, imperas ;
Hinc omne principium, huc refer exitum.
Dî multa neglecti dederunt
Hesperiæ mala luctuosæ.
Jam bis Monæses, et Pacori manus
Non auspicatos contudit impetus

NOTES.

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56. Lac. Tarentum.] Compare Od. ii. 6. 11, 12.

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dimitteret, in campos Venafri 55 properans, vel Tarentum Spar

tanum.

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O Romane, solves pœnas quas non es meritus, ob peccata patrum, donec resarcieris fana et delubra Numinum decidentia, atque imagines atro squalore deformatas. Regnas, quia te præstas inferiorem Numinibus. Inde omne primordium; illuc finem reduc. Spreta Numina plures calamitates intulerunt afflictæ Italiæ. Jam semel atque iterum Monæses et Pacori 10 exercitus repulit nostros conatus inauspicatos:

but the effect of accumulation of dust. The
statues of the Gods, too, were, when the rites
were in full observance, discoloured by smoke
from the frequent burning of incense, but
cleansed by annual lustrations.
The poet
may allude to the neglect of these lustrations,
as additional evidence of disregard for sacred
matters. Some of the simulacra, also, doubt-
less had suffered from conflagrations.

5. Dis, &c.] Because-or, as long as, you bear yourselves in subordination to the Gods, you command-you are the masters of the world. The empire depend upon your obedience to the Gods. Cic. de Harusp. Resp. 9.

6. Hinc, &c.] From the Gods trace every beginning-to them refer every end. Whether you plan or execute, do all under the auspices of the Gods.

7. Di multa, &c.] It is because they have been disregarded, that they have inflicted so many woes on Italy. Od. iii. 2. 30. 9. Jam bis, &c.] First, Monæses (usually called Surena, his official title, apparently) the commander in chief of Orodes, king of the Parthians, defeated Crassus; and next, Pacorus, son of Orodes, and himself king of Parthia, routed both Antony and his lieutenants. Dio. xlviii. 24. and xlix. 24.

10. Non auspicatos.] Undertaken without the sanction of the Gods-in contempt of

gaudetque nostra spolia addidisse
torquibus suis minoribus. Civi-
tatem dissensioribus detentam
propemodum extinxit Dacus et

Nostros, et adjecisse prædam
Torquibus exiguis renidet.
Pæne occupatam seditionibus

Æthiops, hic navibus potens, Delevit Urbem Dacus, et Æthiops;
ille telis jaciendis peritus. Hic classe formidatus, ille
Ævum delictis fertile primò
Missilibus melior sagittis.
fœdavit conjugia, et stirpem, et
familias. Ex istâ origine ma- Fecunda culpæ sæcula nuptias
nans calamitas in patriam et Primum inquinavere, et genus, et domos:
populum grassata est. Nubilis
puella studet ediscere saltatio-
nes Ionum, et jam formatur ar-
tibus: atque flagitiosos amores

Hoc fonte derivata clades

cogitat ab ætate molliori. Dein-
de machos adolescentiores sec-
tatur inter viri sui convivia :
nullumque delectum adhibet,
cui voluptates haud licitas fur-

tim indulgeat, extinctis lucernis. Mox juniores quærit adulteros
Sed præsente et consentiente Inter mariti vina; neque eligit,
viro pergit vocata, sive petit Cui donet impermissa raptim
negotiator,
Gaudia, luminibus remotis;
Sed jussa coram non sine conscio
Surgit marito, seu vocat institor,

NOTES.

In patriam populumque fluxit. 20
Motus doceri gaudet Ionicos
Matura virgo, et fingitur artibus ;
Jam nunc et incestos amores
De tenero meditatur ungui.

omens, or with neglect of some sacred rites. Many portents are recorded, which foreboded the ruin of Crassus. Val. Max. i. 6. 11. and Flor. iii. 11.

11. Et adjecisse, &c.] The Parthians were delighted with having added to their own petty ornaments, the richer spoils of the Romans.

Prædam.] Apparently, the larger and more valuable torques of the Romans, especially those of the knights-contrasted with their own exiguis torquibus.

13. Pæne occupatam, &c.] Involved in factions and wars, the city has been all but destroyed by the Dacian and Æthiopianalluding, probably, to the expedition and purpose of Cleopatra, defeated by the battle of Actium. Dacians as well as Egyptians were employed in the expedition. Od. i. 37. 7, 8.

14. Ethiops.] Egyptians are meant, as the next line shews-though Antony extended his power to the limits of the Ethiopes. Plut. Ant.

15. Hic classe formidatus.] I. e. Cleopatra's fleet.

16. Melior sagittis.] The Dacians, better skilled than others in the use of the bow.

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17. Fecunda, &c.] The allusion to Antony and Cleopatra, or at least to CleopatraAntony is always spared-leads the poet to ascribe much of the corruption of the times to the scandalous example presented by them. 18. Primum inquinavere, &c.] ertile in crimes, has, for the first time among Romans, polluted marriages-has introduced

Our age,

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a more general disregard for the sanctity of the marriage state. Comp. Catull. 113.

Genus.] Offspring-polluted, because parents inoculate them with their own vices.

19. Hoc fonte, &c.] Springing from this source, destruction has flowed upon the country and the people.

Ionic dances-pro

21. Motus Ionicos.] verbial for indelicacy. Ιωνικὴ ὄρχησις; Athen. i. 19. Διακινεῖν Ιωνικῶς; Aristoph. Con. 913. Motus for dancing; Ep. ad Pisones 214.

Gaudet.] Impelled, that is, by passions implanted by her parents, or prompted by their example.

22. Fingitur artibus.] She is drilled and fashioned by artists-professors of Ionic dancing-the lateris artifices of Ovid, Art. Am. iii. 351.

Artibus.] A dative. 23. Incestos.] I. e. non castos-impure— illicit.

24. De tenero, &c.] A Greek phrase ἁπαλῶν ὀνύχων—from her earliest years she plans, &c.-opposed to matura, when she

executes.

25. Mox.] As soon as she is married. Non for mox would improve the sense greatly.

Juniores.] Younger than her husband. 26. Inter mariti vina.] At her husband's table, where he himself is present.

28. Luminibus remotis.] When the lights are withdrawn-when people are gone to bed. 29. Sed jussa-surgit, &c.] common strumpet.

Precisely as a

30. Seu vocat institor, &c.]

The institor

Seu navis Hispanæ magister, Dedecorum pretiosus emtor. Non his juventus orta parentibus Infecit æquor sanguine Punico,

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Pyrrhumque, et ingentem cecidit
Antiochum, Hannibalemque dirum;
Sed rusticorum mascula militum
Proles, Sabellis docta ligonibus

Versare glebas, et severæ

Matris ad arbitrium recisos Portare fustes, sol ubi montium Mutaret umbras, et juga demeret

Bobus fatigatis, amicum

Tempus agens abeunte curru.
Damnosa quid non imminuit dies?
Ætas parentum, pejor avis, tulit
Nos nequiores, mox daturos
Progeniem vitiosiorem.

NOTES.

is the agent or broker of the navis Hispanæ magister-a person of inferior importance, though both her husband's guests. She is at the service of master or man, in fact.

32. Pretiosus emtor.] The liberal purchaser of her favours.

33. Non his juventus, &c.] Not from mothers like these sprang the youth, who dyed the sea with Punic blood, &c.

Juventus.] Soldiers and sailors—juventus, for they must of necessity be in the vigour of youth to sustain the hardships of war.

34. Infecit æquor, &c.] In the naval bat tles of the first Punic war. Od. ii. 12. 3.

35. Pyrrhum.] King of Epirus, the ally of the Tarentines-who invaded Italy, and was beaten by Curius and Fabricius. Flor. i. 18.

Ingentem.] To designate the greatness of his name and power.

36. Antiochum.] King of Syria, who, at the instance of Hannibal, attacked the Romans, and was defeated, first at sea by Æmilius Regillus, and finally on land by Glabrio and Corn. Scipio.

sive dominus navis Hispanicæ, flagitia remunerans ingenti mercede. Non ejusmodi parentibus nati juvenes mare tinxerunt cruore Carthaginiensium; et profligavere Pyrrhum, magnumque Antiochum, et sævum

Hannibalem: sed strenui filii

militum agrestium, assueti terram colere bipalo Sabino, et ad austeræ matris voluntatem amputata referre ligna, cùm mon40 tium vertit umbras et juga fessis bobus detrahit Sol, horam adducens jucundam recedente curru. Quid tempus edax non corrumpit? Evum patrum nostrorum avis deterius produxit nos pejores, deinde prolem edituros 45 etiam improbiorem.

Dirum.] Od. ii. 12. 2. and Od. iv. 4. 42.

37. Mascula.] Strong and muscular. 39. Versare glebas, &c.] Sabine youth, brought up to hard labour, and in rigid domestic obedience. Virg. Æn. ix. 608.

40. Matris ad arbit. &c.] To bring home firewood at night, at the command of a sharp and severe mother.

41. Sol ubi montium, &c.] When the sun lengthens the shadows-when the sun, in his declining car, bringing the time, or the hour, welcome to both cattle and labourers, took off the yokes from the wearied oxen. time, the Greeks call Boúλvoiç, or ßovλutós, Theoc. vii. 56.

The same

45. Damnosa.] deterioration. preciate ?

46. Etas parentum.] i. e. Our parents, themselves worse than our grandfathers, have produced us, a degenerate race, and we, in our turn, shall give birth to a progeny still more corrupt than ourselves.

What causes damage or But what does not time de

CARMEN VII.

AD ASTERIEN.

O Asterie, quare ploras Gy- QUID fles, Asterie, quem tibi candidi gen, stabili fidelitate adolescen- Primo restituent vere Favonii, tem, quem boni Zephyri initio

verni temporis tibi reddent Thynâ merce beatum,

Bithynis mercibus opulentum?

Constantis juvenem fide,

Hic ad Oricum ab Austris pul- Gygen? Ille Notis actus ad Oricum ⚫trum, noctes algentes ducit non Post insana Capræ sidera, frigidas

sus, post violentum Capræ as

dormiens, et abundè plorans.
Verùm internuntius hospita
anxiæ declarans afflictam Chlo-

Noctes non sine multis
Insomnis lacrimis agit.

en ingemiscere, tuisque flammis Atqui sollicitæ nuntius hospitæ,
ardere, variis illum rationibus Suspirare Chloen, et miseram tuis
astutè sollicitat. Exponit quem- Dicens ignibus uri,
admodum infidelis fœmina le-
vem Prætum injustis calumniis
excitârit

Tentat mille vafer modis.
Ut Prœtum mulier perfida credulum
Falsis impulerit criminibus, nimis

NOTES.

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cum, after the raging stars of the Goat-that is, by the storm excited by those stars, or at their setting or rising. Both the rising and setting were reckoned stormy seasons-the rising, at the end of September-the setting, in the beginning of January.

There he passes his nights

Frigidas.] alone.

7. Non sine, &c.] Sleepless and in tears, because detained from your arms.

9. Atqui, &c.] But yet he need not be thus comfortless, for a crafty agent, &c.

Hospita.] Of the lady, at whose house he resides, tempts him in a thousand ways-telling him that Chloe sighs, &c.

Sollicita.] In a state of anxiety, lest her affection should not be returned. 10. Chloen.] I. e. the hospita.

Tuis ignibus.] Is inflamed by your fires is deeply in love with your own Gyges. 12. Tentat.] Scil. the fidelity of Gyges. 13. Ut Prœtum, &c.] Changing his tactics, the nuntius vafer reminds him of women's vengeance for slighted love-among others, of Antea or Sthenolæa, and of Hippolyta, by the former of whom Bellerophon, and by the latter Peleus, were exposed to great dangers.

14. Nimis casto Bell.]
the lady, or for his own safety.
Impulerit maturare.]

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Mulier perfida.] Antea-unfaithful to her husband Prœtus. Homer tells the tale II. vi. 155.

raret.

Too honest to please

Greek, for ut matu

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