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Casto Bellerophonti

Maturare necem, refert. Narrat pæne datum Pelea Tartaro, Magnessam Hippolyten dum fugit abstinens; polytam è Magnesiâ. Quin Et docentes

15 mortem accelerare Bellerophon-
ti nimiùm pudico. Refert Pe-
leum tantùm non interfectum,
cùm temperans eluctatur Hip-

peccare
Fallax historias movet-
Frustra, nam scopulis surdior Icarî
Voces audit adhuc integer. At, tibi
Ne vicinus Enipeus

etiam deceptor narrat historias crimen admittere suadentes. 20 Sed incassum. Etenim rupibus Icarii maris durior ista verba excipit huc usque incorruptus. Tibi verò cave ne, plusquam par est, arrideat Enipeus vicinus. Tametsi nemo tam peritus

Plus justo placeat, cave;
Quamvis non alius flectere equum sciens 25 equum regendi in Campo Mar-
Eque conspicitur gramine Martio,

tio spectatur: nullusque tam expeditè flumen Hetruscum tranat. Ædes occlude nocte ineunte: nec in vias deorsum aspice ad sonitum canoræ fistulæ : et crudelem frequenter appel30 lanti, crudelis persiste.

Nec quisquam citus æque
Tusco denatat alveo.

Primâ nocte domum claude; neque in vias
Sub cantu querulæ despice tibiæ;
Et te sæpe vocanti

Duram difficilis mane.

NOTES.

18. Hippolyten.] Wife of Acastus, king of Magnesia, a region in Thessaly. Pindar, Nem. iv. 92.

Abstinens.] Refusing to yield to her seductions.

19. Et peccare, &c.] And other stories the insidious agent quotes-prompting to illicit compliance, to escape the vengeance of women's baffled passions.

21. Icari.] Scil. maris. Od. i. 1. 15. But
deafer than the rocks of the Icarian Sea, &c.

̓Αλλ ̓ ἴσα πόντῳ Ιονίῳ μύθων ἔκλυες ἡμε-
Tépwv. Philod. xx. 5. in Anthol. Gr.

22. Adhuc integer.] Still sound-with faith
unbroken.

Too much-beyond the

24. Plus justo.] point of propriety. 25. Quamvis, &c.] Although he does ride better than any body else in the Campus Martius, and swims, &c. Compare Od. i. 8. 6.

28. Tusco alveo.] In the Tiber, which flows through Etruria-the Tuscan country.

29. Prima nocte, &c.] Early in the evening close your door; nor look out of the window, into the street, at the music of his plaintive pipe.

CARMEN VIII.

31. Et mane.] And keep firm-not facilis -not giving way, or opening the door to him, though he call you ever so unkind.

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refertum, atque prune consti- Plena, miraris, positusque carbo tutæ in gramine virenti. Sci

Cespite vivo,

licet arboris ego lapsu ferè ex-
animatus lautas dapes et hoedum Docte sermones utriusque linguæ.
candidum Baccho promiseram. Voveram dulces epulas, et album
Libero caprum, prope funeratus
Arboris ictu.

En dies iste lætus anno vertente
recurrens corticem pice affixum
auferet dolio quod fumum con-
trahere cœpit sub Consulatu Hic dies, anno redeunte, festus
Tulli. O Maecenas, accipe cen- Corticem adstrictum pice demovebit

tenos scyphos, ob amicum inco

lumem, et lychnos accensos pro- Amphoræ, fumum bibere institutæ
duc usque ad diem. Longè ab-
Consule Tullo.
sit vociferatio quælibet et rixa. Sume, Maecenas, cyathos amici

Dimitte solicitudines de civi-
tate.

Sospitis centum, et vigiles lucernas
Perfer in lucem; procul omnis esto
Clamor, et ira.
Mitte civiles super Urbe curas:

NOTES.

presiding deity of wedlock, was wreathed with flowers. Ovid, Fast. iii. 253.

Acerra.] A small box, apparently, in which was usually kept the tus intended to be burnt at the sacrifice-not the pan or vessel in which it was actually burnt. Sat. i. 5. 36.

3. Carbo.] Coal, or charcoal rather, placed, ready for kindling, on the turf-altar.

4. Vivo.] Fresh-cut.

5. Docte, &c.] Well acquainted with both Greek and Roman literature-with the customs, and rites, and antiquities of both people. You wonder at these preparations of mine, not being aware, with all your knowledge, of any public or customary occasion for such a solemnity.

6. Voveram, &c.] It is not a public occasion, but entirely a private one. It is in consequence of a vow-a festival and a goat in honour of Bacchus, as a grateful commemoration of the day on which, but for his protection, I should have been killed, &c.

7. Libero.] In Od. ii. 17. 28. the escape is ascribed to Faunus, and Od. iii. 4. 27. to the Muses.

9. Hic dies, anno red. &c.] This festive day, the Calends of March, in each returning year, shall remove the cortex from an amphora, which has been drinking the smoke ever since the year Tullus was consul. The wine is kept for this especial purpose.

10. Demovebit.] Instead of the dimovebit of other editions. Dimovere applies to many things, demovere to one. Words compounded with di and de are often confounded-originating in the negligence or ignorance of transcribers.

Corticem.] The cork, or bung, fastened with pitch, or rosin, and sometimes with wax, and sealed.

11. Amphora.] Amphora, or cadus, was an earthen jar, with a narrow mouth, and two handles, containing eight or nine gallons.

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10

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The

Fumum bibere.] To imbibe smoke. ancients had repositories in the upper part of their houses, accessible to the smoke from below, where the wine in amphora was supposed to imbibe the smoke, and mellow-thus accelerating the slow effects of age. Colum. de R. R. i. 6. 20.

Instituta.] Set up, or placed in the apothecæ or repositories.

12. Consule Tullo.] That is, 689 U. C., the year in which L. Volcatius Tullus was consul with M. Æmilius Lepidus. Of course, if the Ode was written, as it appears from line 22 to have been, 734 U. C., the wine must have been forty-seven years old. Another Tullus was consul U. C. 721; but Horace twice speaks of wine of his own age, that is, of the vintage of 689 U. C. (Od. iii. 21. 1. and Epod. 13. 8.) This, however, may be not quite decisive, because those lines may have been written earlier than his forty-seventh year; but in Od. iii. 14. 18. he alludes to wine Marsi memorem belli, and that at a date which will certainly make it more than fifty years old.

13. Sume, &c.] Come and take a hundred cyathi, in commemoration of your friend's deliverance, &c.

Cyathos.] The cyathus held the twelfth part of a sextarius, (the sextarius about a pint)—it was of the form of a spoon, or bivalve-shell, and with it wine was measured into drinking-cups, and diluted in fixed proportions with water.

14. Vigiles lucernas, &c.] Keep the lamps burning till day-light-keep up the festivities -drink till morning.

16. Clamor, et ira.] Let there be no bickerings nor tumults.

17. Mitte, &c.] Mæcenas was, at this time, præfect of the city, 734 U. C. Augustus was in the East. Tacit. Ann. vi. 11. Dio. xlix. 16.

Occidit Daci Cotisonis agmen ;
Medus infestus sibi luctuosis
Dissidet armis;
Servit Hispanæ vetus hostis oræ,
Cantaber, serà domitus catenâ;
Jam Scythæ laxo meditantur arcu
Cedere campis.
Negligens, ne qua populus laboret,
Parce privatus nimium cavere;
Dona præsentis cape lætus horæ, et
Linque severa.

NOTES.

18. Daci Cotisonis.] The Daci, headed by Cotison, were repulsed by Lentulus this year. Suet. Oct. 21. and Fl. iv. 12.

19. Medus infestus, &c.] The Parthians were split into factions, and in hostility to each other. Revolts were excited by the friends of Teridates against Phraates, recently restored. Od. ii. 2. 17.

Luctuosis.] Comp. Od. iii. 6. 8., where is the same word applied to Italy, on a similar occasion.

21. Hispanæ ora.] The northern shore of Spain-the Cantabri.

22. Serd.] Subdued at last. Od. ii. 6. 2. 23. Scythæ.] These seem to be the Geloni, Od. ii. 9. 22., checked by Lentulus in the same campaign in which he routed the Daci. Apparently they occupied the shores of the lower Danube, or spread towards the Dnieper. The limits of the Sarmata and the Scythæ are ill defined. The boundary usually

CARMEN IX.

Deletus est exercitus Cotisonis Daci. Medus sibimet adversarius bello fatali distrahitur.

20 Cantaber Hispaniæ fines incolens, antiquus noster inimicus, subactus est, quamvis tardâ profligatus victoriâ. Jam Scythæ arcu remisso incipiunt agris discedere. Tu quasi privatus omitte 25 curare, et plusculùm consulere ne quid detrimenti capiat populus: atque temporis præsentis usurâ fruere, genio indulgens, et molesta abjice.

assigned is the Don; but there is no evidence that Lentulus did much more than cross the Danube.

Laxo arcu.] As suspending the use of it against the Romans, and retreating behind the lines of demarcation fixed by Lentulus.

24. Cedere campis.] Ready to recede, or retire from the plains occupied by them, and from which with facility they made incursions upon the Roman territory.

25. Negligens, &c.] Construe Privatus, parce nimium cavere, ne qua populus laboret, negligens. Though in so responsible an office, yet, as all our enemies, east and west, are subdued, or at least in no condition to trouble the empire, relax your cares, and, as if you were a private man, &c.

26. Parce, &c.] Do not be unnecessarily apprehensive about public dangers, &c. 28. Linque severa.] Official cares.

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Lyd. Quamdiu non alteram plùs Lyd. Donec non aliâ magis
dilexisti, nec Lydia posthabita
est Chloë; ego Lydia magnæ
famæ illustrior florui quàm Ilia Multi Lydia nominis
Romana. Hor. Mihi jam do-
minatur Chloë è Thraciâ, perita Hor.
suavium modulorum, ac pulsan-
dæ lyræ pro quâ non verebor

vitam profundere, si fata indul- Pro quâ non metuam mori,
geant animæ residuæ. Lyd. Me
urit mutuo amore Calais filius

Ornyti è Thurio, pro quo bis Lyd.
mortem oppetam ultro, si juveni

Arsisti, neque erat Lydia post Chloën;

Romanâ vigui clarior Iliâ.
Me nunc Thressa Chloë regit,
Dulces docta modos, et citharæ sciens; 10

Si parcent animæ fata superstiti.
Me torret face mutuâ
Thurini Calais filius Ornyti;
quo bis patiar mori,

vivo fata indulgeant. Hor. Quid Pro

si vetus amor reviviscat, et divulsos copulet æreo vinculo? si

Si parcent puero fata superstiti.
formosa Chloë rejicitur, et os- Hor. Quid? si prisca redit Venus,
tium meum aperitur pulsæ Ly-
diæ ? Lyd. Tametsi est ille
astro splendidior; tu verò es
levior subere, atque Adriatico

Diductosque jugo cogit aëneo?
Si flava excutitur Chloë,

Rejectæque patet janua Lydia?

mari procelloso ferocior; tecum Lyd. Quamquam sidere pulchrior

vivere cupiam, tecum gaudeam mori.

Ille est, tu levior cortice, et improbo
Iracundior Hadriâ;

NOTES.

Persarum rege, &c.] I was happier than the king of the Persians-selected as the richest, and, in the common estimate, the happiest and most enviable of mortals.

Tecum vivere amem, tecum obeam libens.

5. Alia arsisti.] As long as you loved nobody more ardently than myself. Ardere alia, instead of ardere ob aliam. Od. ii. 4. 7.

6. Neque erat, &c.] And as long as Lydia was not placed after Chloe-that is, as long as Chloe was not preferred to me. Horace only spoke vaguely of some youth-Lydia names her rival plump.

7. Multi Lydia nominis.] Known everywhere as the Lydia blessed with the love of the poet, and celebrated in his verses.

8. Romana Ilia.] I was more illustrious than Ilia, the mother of the founder of Rome, between whom and a king of Persia merely the difference was immense.

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9. Me regit.] Rules me-I am her subject and slave.

10. Cithara sciens.] Kidápaç sidvĩa. 12. Anima.] My life, that is, my Chloe. 13. Me torret face mutua.] Fires me with a mutual torch-with whom I am madly in

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CARMEN X.

AD LYCEN.

EXTREMUM Tanain si biberes, Lyce,
Sævo nupta viro; me tamen asperas
Porrectum ante fores objicere incolis
Plorares Aquilonibus.
Audis, quo strepitu janua, quo nemus
Inter pulchra satum tecta remugiat
Ventis et positas ut glaciet nives
Puro numine Jupiter?
Ingratam Veneri pone superbiam,
Ne currente rotâ funis eat retro.
Non te Penelopen difficilem procis
Tyrrhenus genuit parens.
O, quamvis neque te munera, nec preces,
Nec tinctus violâ pallor amantium,
Nec vir Pieriâ pellice saucius

Curvat; supplicibus tuis

NOTES.

ODE X. METRE III.

At the door of Lyce, in the night, when the snow lies on the ground, and the winds whistle, the poet deprecates the cruelty of his mistress, and implores her to admit himwarning her that his powers of endurance are limited. Compare Od. i. 25; Propert. i. 16.7; Ovid, Am. i. 6; Theoc. 3. and 23.

1. Extremum.] Not strictly as of the remotest river, but as very distinct. Just as extremi Arabes, extremi Indi, ultima Africa, &c. Tanain.] The Don.

Si biberes.] If you drank the waters of the Don-if you were the wife of a Scythian.

2. Savo nupta.] The wife of a Scythian, who would visit your infidelities with the

severest vengeance.

Asperas ante fores.] Before the cruel doors -expressively for, your doors thus cruelly closed against me.

3. Incolis.] That eternally dwell—are residents in Scythia. Od. i. 16. 6.

4. Plorares.] You would weep-you would have too much pity to expose me, thus prostrate, to the winds, &c.

5. Nemus inter pulch., &c.] The trees and shrubs in the impluvium-the interior, or court, or quadrangle, around which the dwelling and offices were built. Ep. i. 10. 22; Tibull. iii. 3. 15.

6. Pulchra tecta.] Lyce therefore occupied a considerable house, and may be supposed to have been of a respectable rank in life.

O Lyce, si potares ultimum Tanaïm marito juncta barbaro, nihilominus fleres me ante januam tuam duram extensum exponere ventis Septentrionalibus illic habitantibus. Nonne 5 audis quo murmure tuæ fores, quo nemus in ædibus magnificis consitum resonet ventis perflantibus? utque Jupiter puro numine constringat nives demissas? Abjice fastum Veneri odiosum, ne funiculus retrorsum abeat rotâ versatâ. Tyrrhenus pater haud procreavit te Penelopen amantibus intractabilem. O licèt te nec dona flectant, nec vota, nec violaceus pallor amore tabescentium, neque maritus 15 tuus amore pellicis Pieriæ vulneratus, indulge supplicantibus tibi,

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The snows which lay on the

7. Positas.] ground.

Et positas ut glaciet.] something like it, after et.

Supply percipis, or

8. Puro numine.] Clear sky-clear, frosty night. Jupiter for aër.

10. Ne currente rotá.] A crane-wheel, suppose, for raising weights aloft by means of a rope, which will run backward if the counteracting power be withdrawn. Do not strain your power, lest,-like the rope of a cranewheel, which, too heavily laden, runs down again-it fail you at last.

11. Penelopen difficilem.] As chaste as Penelope-the wife of Ulysses. Od. ii. 6. 7.

12. Tyrrhenus.] Lyce was thus an Etrurian, and the Etrurian ladies were not famed for severity. Athen. xii. 3.

14. Tinctus violá pallor.] Poetically for pallor violaceus. A bilious hue seems to be meant. Pliny speaks of violets, purpurea, LUTEE, alba. Comp. Ep. i. 10. 16. pallor luteus. This paleness is one of the symptoms of love-the effect of suspense and agitation, and harassed feelings.

Palleat omnis amans, hic est color aptus amanti.
Ovid, Am. i. 729.

15. Nec vir, &c.] Nor, though your husband is in love with a Pierian-a Thessalian harlot. Pieria is in Thessaly.

16. Curvat.] Bends you, or induces you to listen to my vows.

Supplicibus tuis.] Do not suffer me, your

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