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all nations, and thas hoped to render after conquering the enemies of his Egypt, once more, the centre of the com, country, panted only for the happiness merce of the world. But he was cut off, and the prosperity of mankind. Instead in the midst of his great projects, by his of being prompted by ambition, to one own brother-in-law; and the Turks, for a dertake the Egyptian expedition, we are time, otrailed a seeming ascendancy, assured that his sole motives consisted The Mamalukes, however, once more in the generous wish of delivering the raised their heads, and, although the inhabitants from slavery, of restoring Porte was permitted to send a bashaw to agriculture, and of , replanting the baEgypt, yet that officer was confined as a nished arts and sciences on the banks of state-prisoner, in the castle of Cairo, and the Nile. The dissertation concludes considered merely as the ambassador of with an appeal to the Genius of History, the Sultan.

to consecrate his exploits, to attest his This was the state of the country glory, and to render the Freneh name When Buonaparte, who had sustained the respectable among the nations of the declining fortunes of France, conceived earth. the idea of the conquest of Egypt. That It must be candidly acknowledged, event is too recent to require either that, in respect to paper, typography, comment or illustration, Suffice it to and engraving, the work in question, say, thal, after collecting ships and in every respect, forms an epoch in the trdops, with engineers, geographers, and history of printing.

P. H. men of letters, he sailed on an expedition, the object of which appears to have been kept a profound secret. His first To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. acquisition was the island of Malta,

SIR, which had so long been in possession of

N a Master. Thence he re gantic plans for forming new tidal paired to Egypt, obtained possession of channels for the Thames, between LongAlexandria, where he appears to have Reach Tavern and Dariford, and Nine committed dreadful ravages, and then Elms in Battersea, with a view to convert marched against the Mamalukes. While the intermediate parts of the old channel contending with these bold and warlike into vast floating docks for vessels, and for horsemen, his feet was attacked by a making a tunnel under the new channel, Squadron under Nelson, and experienced in East Ham Level, I am induced to such a signal defeat, as to have great in- state, that an able civil engineer, Mr. fluence on the fortunes of France, and Benjamin Bevan, who was, on one occa. the conduct of both her allies and her sion (3 or 4 years ago), consulted by the enemies. The subsequent escape of Rotherhithe Tunnel Company, at that Buonaparte, and the humiliating capi- time suggested, and has repeatedly since tulation of his companions in arms, are

conversed with me and others, on the deerents pregnant with great consequences. tails of a plan, similar to that which is Some part of this narrative is of course now announced, of forming a spacious more honourable to England than to and perfect road tunnel, under the line France; but it is evident, from the im- of an intended new channel for a river ; mense sums expended on the work now a scheine, which to me, and those whom under consideration, that the emperor I have conversed with on the subject, apstill cherishes the memory of his Égyp- pears perfectly and safely practicable, Lian expedition, and that he is proud of wherever large bends of a river, unina his exploits in a country, whence his cumbered with houses admit of its adop, troops have been expelled by those of a tion; as does also the plan which I pube rival nation, and where he himself could licly suggested in 1805, of laying a tun, not possibly attain any well-earned lau. nel at short lengths at a time, in sufficient rels, either by conquering barbarians on dry excavations, made within a very large the banks of the Nile, or succumbing conical tub, (open at both ends) that to Mussolmen, under a Christian leader, could be repeatedly moved forwards as at the siege of Acre.

the work proceeds, wherever the straightThe author of the historical preface ness of a river, or the previous occu. is at great pains to flatter the vanity of pation of its banks by 'houses (as at the Emperor Napoleon. In almost every Rotherhithe), may prrvent the diversion page, be is considered as a hero, who, of the same to a new channel.

As an inhabitant of the metropolis, I To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, beg however to protest, and call on all SIR, those who value the healths and lives of T is a subject of much regret that, in their fellow-citizens, to join me, in

protesting against converting the present yet known in the science of Meteorołogy. tidal channel of the Thames through The Monthly Magazine has, from its ear. London, into a stagnant “ dock or liest existence, been a record of facts basin," on account of the nuisance collected from

accurate observation, and destructive pestilence, which must which it is hoped may, at some period, infallibly follow, from the immense ac. be found of use to the philosopher, who cumulation of putrid filth, which the shall undertake to extend the limits of sewers of this vast town hourly carry in- our knowledge in this particular depart. to this channel, where nature has pro ment of science: with this view we again vided an effectual antidote, in the inces. present, in addition to our monthly resant motion of its waters, and which these

ports, a summary of facts for the whole rash schemers would at once stop. of the year that is lately concluded. John FAREY, Sen. The following is the average heat for the

years 1810 and 1811; the average height Ashover, Derbyshire,

of the barometer for each month in the Oct. 12, 1811.

year, and the whole year also; likewise, an account of the quantity of rain in depth, as it sell in the successive months.

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It will be seen from the above table the last year, compared with what fell in that the average heat of each month, the year 1810, (see Monthly Magazine, excepting January and September, for vol. 31, p. 25) is very nearly equal, and the year 1811, was greater than that of it will be found, by referring to the table, the several months in 1810, and the ave that the proportion may be reckoned as rage temperature of the year was almost agreeing with, or governed by, the avethree degrees greater for the last, as a sage height of the barometer for each whole, than that of the preceding year. successive month: thus, in January the The thermometer was lowest on the 10th quantity of rain was so small as not to be and 30th of January, on which days the noticed, and in that month the barometer mercury was at 19° and 200: the greatest was remarkably high: in February the degree of heat in the whole year was barometer was very low, and the quan78°, which occurred on the 11th of Sep. tity of rain considerable. The month of tember; on three or four other days the July may be regarded as an exception to thermometer was as high as 77°; the hot- the general rule: in this month there were test months of the year, compared with five inches in depth of rain, though the the same months ir other years, were mean height of the barometer was more March, April, and May.

than 29.6. In this part of our island The quantity of rain which has fallen July is usually a wet month,

In

130
10

In the course of the year 1811 the we refer to Mr. Loffi's papers, p. 266, number of brilliant days exceeded the vol. 32, of the Monthly Magazine, and number of those on which it mained or other parts of the same voluine. The snowed by eight, as will be seen by the month of October was warmer than that following table:

month usually is in this climate, the

No. of days. mornings were foggy, but the days exo Brilliant days Rainy

ceedingly bright. On the evening of the Those on which snow or hail fell

19th the fog was so thick as to render Days denominated fair

47 travelling exceedingly inconvenient, and Cloudy or foggy days

30 even dangerous. November was

markable for the large quantity of rain 365 that fell in the course of it. During the.

month of December the weather was We are again obliged to mention that mild. our annual observations with regard to Highgate, Jan. 11, 1912. the direction of the wind vary from those reported by the attendants at the apart. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. ments of the Royal Society: according to them the south-west wind prevails, but THE Old Testament, as the foun.

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18 11

48

winds are most frequent.

inodern theology, claims the attention of Direction of the wind in 1811. every thinking person, whatever be the

No. of days. degree of faith which he attaches to the North

miracles a::d supernatural agency reSouth

corded in it. Among the chief stumWest

96

bling-blocks of infidelity, may be men. East

32 North-west

65

tioned the supernatural longevity of the North-east

38

antediluvian patriarchs, whose alleged South-west

duration so far exceeded the vital in South-east

57 pulse of animated existence, as to throw

discredit on the whole of the sacred 365 writinys. Many hypotheses bave been.

invented to solve this difficulty; but, as In January there was much severe they could not be made to accord with weather, some thick fogs, the wind blow- all the dates and circumstances, they ing from the northerly points. February have usually ended in the disappointwas rather mild, and very wet, and in ment of their inventors. the course of it there were heavy falls of I have, however, lately met with a snow, March was dry, the temperature new hypothesis, in a disquisition on alimild, the air bright and serene, every other part of the Holy Scriptures, which, appearance denoting an early spring, if applied to the fifth chapter of Genesis, April was a warm nonth, and dry, the appears likely to afford a solution of wind came chiefly from the easterly this long.contested problem. points. May was remarkable for the The numerals of the Old Testament rain which fell; it was also a very hot appear on this hypothesis to have been month for the season: the rains were exaggerated by the different modes of accompanied with thunder and lightning, arithmetical notation, in fashion at difThe hot days in June were frequently ferent ages of the world, and among attended with severe easterly winds, different natio:s. Hence a Greek or which, though productive of very little Roman transcriber would mistake all effect on the thermometer, are felt see the distinctions of IIebrew notation, and verely by the animal frame, chiefly by a Hebrew transcriber himsell, at the the brisk air carrying away the heat of the distance of a few hundred years, would be body. July was wet and rather cold, likely to mistake the more ancient nowithout thunder or lighting, and the tation of that language, particularly after wind north-north-west. In August there the invention and general introduction: were no sultry days, but the weather was of the Arabic notation, regularly warm, and adapted to the The distinctions too, which varied the month. September was a dry month, distinguished for the constant appearance Vide Swinton's observations on the of a inost brilliant comet, which contie notation of Palmyra, Trans. Roy. Society, sued visible till the close of the year, vol. 48 and 58; Hewlett's Bible numbers, For observations on this beautiful body chap. i.

*

SQ

value of numerical expressions, were so first year, lived one hundred and eight arbitrary, and often so minute, as to be 'years after, and died at the age of one likely to lead to confusion, a dot over hundred and thirty-nine. This is a number indicating an increase ten-fold, rational, and at the same time so proand two dots a hundred-fold. The ad- bable, that, if adopted in our versions of dition of a dot would therefore convert the Bible, a stumbling-block at its very 1 into 10 or 100, or its omission reduce threshold would be removed, and the 100 to 10 or 1. In like manner, till system could be defended without drawthe introduction of the Arabic notation, ing so largely on credulity, as at present when numerals had a value increased by is necessary. their station, counted from right to left Seth then was born in the 31st year the more ancient and simple notation of the world, that is, thirty-one years consisted in specifying the several items after the creation of Adam. of the amount, and joining them together Further errors are evident, whenever with the Hebrew vau), synonimous to unity is made to follow the denomination the Arabic plus +.

1

hundred. Hence it is difficult to recona Let us apply this reasoning to the cile the previous dates in the life of Seth, ages of ADAM, given in GENESIS, Ch. 5. with the 9+100+12=121, his age at his

3 And Adam lived an hundred and death, according to verse 8. I suspect thirty years, and begat a son in his own consequently the correctness of verse 6; likeness after his image; and called his of the seven in verse 7; and of the twelve name Seth.

in verse 8. 4 And the days of Adam after he had Enos, on this hypothesis, lived 9+ begotten Seth were eight hundred years, 100+5=114 years, and conceiving and he begat sons and daughters. verse 6 to mean 25, he was born in the

5 And all the days that Adam lived 56th year of the world. were nine hundred and thirty years; and CAINAN was born perhaps in the 19th he died.

year of his father, or A.M. 75, and lived I assume then, that Adam lived nine, 119 years. and a hundred and thirty years, or one MAHALALEEL was born perhaps in the kundred and thirty-nine years; and not 27th year of his father, A. M. 102, and nine hundred and thirty years, as here died at 8+100+9+10+5=132 years tofore supposed; the difference arising of age. solely from adding the Hebrew cha JARED was born perhaps in the racter, between the nine and the hun- twenty-first year of his father, A. M. dred. That such omissions did take 123; and died, reckoning as above, place is evident, and that its introduction 9+100+6+10+2=127 years old. was not absolutely necessary, is also Enoch was born perhaps in the nine. evident, from the consideration that teenth year of his father, A. M. 142; and 900 expressed Hebraically would have lived 3-4-100+6+10+5=124 years. been 9; and that 91 could never be mis. MethuseLAH was born perhaps in taken for 9, by any person accustomed the twenty-first year of bis father, A. M. to Hebrew notation, although the sign of

163; and died at the age of 9+100 46 addition were not inserted.

+10+9=134 years, To prove my reasoning by analogy in twenty-fifth year of his father, A.M.

LAMECH was born perhaps in the the case of Adam, I conclude, that two

188; and died at 7+ 100+7+10+7 dots have been inadvertently placed over the 1 in verse 3, I shall therefore have 1

131 years of age. instead of 100; and it will be one and tieth year of Lamech, A. M. 208; and

Noah was born perhaps in the twen. thirty, instead of one hundred and

the flood took place in the 6+100= thirty It then in verse 4, I read eight and one

106th year of Noah, or in the year of the

world 314. hundred, for eight hundred, it will be

Instead therefore of counting 2018 one hundred and eight, which, added to one and thirty, makes the age of Adam, years before the flood, we find only 314; at bis death, 139. But by verse 5, if í and, on these data, the world, accordintroduce the plus sign between nine and ing to the system and chronology of a bundred, bis age also by that verse, hitherto been supposed to be.

is 2000 years younger than it has independently of the preceding result, will be nine tone hundred-thirty, or

The copies we now have of the an.

cient Scriptures are, the Hebrew, the 139. Q. E. D.

Adam therefore had Seth in his thirty- Samaritan, and the Greek, versions of

105

70

190 170 165 162

62
65
67

187

187

167
188

182

600

700

800 807

des at present.

800 807 815

715

830

830 800

800 200 802

the Septuagint; and these differ consi. Whenever this shall be done, I have derably from each other. I have ex no doubt it will appear that the errors hibited the variations of the three copies are analogous in their general principle; in the following table, with the addition consequently, the general principle on of the dates in Josephus, which may have which I bave corrected them will be been equally vitiated by transcribers. found to average the errors, and to have Ages at their sons' birth.

produced a result, not very remote from Heb. Sam. Sept. Jos. what may appear after a learned and lac Adana

130 130 230 130 borious investigation. Seth

105 205 105

It may perhaps be received as an in. Enos 90 90

90 direct confirmation of this hypothesis, Cainan 70

70

that the preternatural ages of the anteMahalaleel 65 65

65 Jared 162

diluvian patriarchs are no-where referred

62 Enoch

65

165

65

to in subsequent parts either of the Old Methuselah

or New Testainent; and, although many Lamech

53

182

deductions are made in various parts of Noah, at the food, 600

600 600 the writings of the Apostles, from re

markable facts contained in the Old 1656 1307 2262 1556 Testament, yet they have in no instance

made any allusion to these wonderful inYears they lived after their sons' birth. stances of longevity. I inter, therefore,

Heb. Sam. Sept. that in that age the text did not stand as is Adam Seth

707

If theologians can tolerate the med. Enos

815 Cainan

dling of mere reason, they will at least 840 810 740

view with candour this attempt to explain Mabalaleel

730 Jared

785

a great difficulty, and will, I hope, cheer Enoch 300

300 673 600

fully lend their peculiar resources of Methuselah 782

study and books to its perfect solution. Lamech

595
565
Jan. 3, 1912.

COMMON SENSE. These variations in several respects juslify the reasonings, and at any rate they To the Edilor of the Monthly Magazine. justify the position, that none of thein

Mr. present reading. Their variation, as well as their coincidence, prove some error in sical boy, appears to be very correct, esprinciple and conception of the early tran- cept as to his having made himself masscribers, and demonstrate that our only ter of several instruments, as he may mode of correcting them is hy correcting rather be said to have made himself acthe false reasonings of those transcribers. quainted with the practice of them, in a

The want of uniformity in disposing of manner that is very surprising, when we the numbers in English translations of consider that, two years ago, he received, the Bible, and in the several copies of as a present, the first instrument he ever the ancient originals, whence it was possessed, and that he now practises on translated, alone sufficiently demon- for four. strates that the numbers, as they now When he called on me, the first and stand, are altogether erroneous. There only tiine I have ever seen hiin, he can be no doubt that the first value of brought his flute in his pocket, and each oumber is unity, though the deno. played instantly, at sight, four airs that mination hundreds is given, yet it is I ain sure he could never have seen be. contrary to the analogy that unity should fore. The first was one of Rousseau's, follow over and over again in the same J'avois pris mes pantouflettes." The summation. Nor is it likely that the second, an air from Carolans Irish meloconstant repetition of nine is correct, or

dies: the third, The Old Jew, a very ir. that a single hundred should so generally regular Scotch air; and, lastly, one of precede the age at which the Patriarchs the Venetian airs, published by P. Ur. had their first children.

bani : all of which he played at first These, and many other points require sight very accurately, and then perform. to be accurately examined, by collating ed his own melodies; afterwards, at my ancient copies of the Hebrew originals, desire, copyed soine music with a rapia for this special purpose; and by a care- dity and correctness that would have ful investigation of the modès of notatio'n been creditable to a well-practised hand. used among the Jews at various periods, The reason he gave me for first think.

SIR,

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