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most ancient dress of the inhabitants of inhabitants of Nazareth, from the earliest this country.
period of its history. The rest of this short journey, like the preceding part of it, was over sterile limestone, principally ascending, until After leaving this fountain, we ascended we entered a narrow defile between the to the town, and were conducted to the hills. This, suddenly opening towards house of the principal Christian inba. our right, presented us with a view of bitant of Nazareth. The tremendous the small town or village of Nazareth, name of Djezzar had succeeded in pro. situated upon the side of a barren rocky viding for us, in the midst of poverty, elevation,' facing the 'East, and com. more sumptuous fare than is often found manding a long valley. Throughout the in wealthier cities: the convent had dominion of Djezzar Pacha, there was largely contributed; but we had reason no place that suffered more from bis ty- to fear, that many poor families had rannical government than Nazareth. Its been pinched to supply our board. All inhabitants, unable to sustain the bur- we could no, therefore, as it was brought thens imposed upon them, were conti- with cheerfulness, was to receive it nually emigrating to other territories. thankfully; and we took especial care The few who remained were soon to be that those from whom we obtained it stripped of their possessions; and when should not go unrewarded. no longer able to pay the tribute exacted Scarcely had we reached the aparta from them, no alternative remained, but ment prepared for our reception, when, that of going to Acre to work in his for- looking from the window into the courte tifications, or to flee their country. The yard belonging to the house, we beheld town was in the most wretched state of two women grinding at the mill, in e indigence and misery; the soil around manner most forcibly illustrating the might bid defiance to agriculture; and, saying of our Saviour. They were preto the prospect of starvation were added paring flour to make our bread, as it is the horrors of the plague. Thus it seemed always customary in the country when destined to maintain its ancient repu- strangers arrive. The two women, 'tation; for the Nathanael of his day seated upon the ground, opposite to might have inquired of a native of Beth each other, held between them two round saida, whether “any good thing could flat stones, such as are seen in Lapland, come out of Nazareth?” A party of and such as in Scotland are called querns; Djezzar's troops, encamped in tents but the circumstance is so interesting, about the place, were waiting to seize (our Saviour's allusion actually referring even the semblance of a harvest which to an existing custom in the place of his could be collected from all the neigh- earliest residence,) that a little reperibouring district. In the valley, appeared tion may perhaps be pardoned. In the one of those fountains, which, from time centre of the upper stone was a cavity immemorial, have been the halting-place for pouring in the corn; and, by the side of caravans, and sometimes the scene of of this, an upright wooden handle, for contention and bloodshed. The women moving the stone. As the operation beof Nazareth were passing to and from gan, one of the women, with her right the town, with pitchers upon their heads. hand, pushed this handle to the woman We stopped to view the groupe of ca- opposite, who again sent it to her commels, with their drivers, who were there panion,-thus communicating a rotatory reposing; and, calling to mind the man, and very rapid motion to the upper ners of the most remote ages, we re- stone; their left hands being all the while newed the solicitation of Abrahain's ser- employed in supplying fresh corn, as fast. vant unto Rebecca, by the Well of Na, as the bran and flour escaped from the. hor. In the writings of early pilgrims sides of the machine. and travellers, this spring is denominated The Convent of Nazareth, situated in ." the fountain of the Virgin Mary;" the lower part of the village, contailis. and certainly, if there be a spot, through- about fourteen friars, of the Franciscan. out the Holy Land, that was undoubtedly order. Its church (erected, as they rehonoured by her presence, we may con. late, over the cave wherein the Virgin, sider this to have been the place; be- Mary is supposed to have residedl) is a . cause the situation of a copious spring is handsome edifice; but it is degraded, as not liable to change; and because the a sanctuary, by absurdities too contempti. custom of repairing thither to draw water ble for notice, if the description of them bias been continued among the female did not offer an instructive lesson, shewo
ing the abject state to which the human plague, but tempted by the hope of obmind may be reduced by superstition. taining a little repose.
This we had The other objects of veneration in found impracticable the night before, in Nazareth, at every one of which indul- consequence of the vermin. The hope gencies are sold to travellers, are, 1. The was, however, vain; not one of our Work-shop of Joseph, which is near the party could close his eyes. Every inconvent, and was formerly included stant it was necessary to rise, and enwithin its walls; this is now a small deavour to shake off the noxious animals chapel, perfectly modern, and lately with which our bodies were covered. In whitewashed. 2. The Synagogue, where addition to this penance, we were sereClirist is said to have read the Scriptures naded, until four o'clock in the morning, to the Jews, at present a church. 3. the hour we had gxed for our departure, A Precipice without the town, where by the constant ringing of a chapel bell, they say the Messiah leaped down, to as a charm against the plague; by the escape the rage of the Jews, after the barking of dogs; braying of asses; howlo offence his speech in the synagogue had ing of jackals; and by the squalling of occasioned. Here they shew the impres- children. sion of his hand, made as he sprang from the rock. From the description given by St. Luke, the monks affirm, that, anciently, Nazareth stood eastward of We entered Cana, and halted at a its present situation, upon a more ele. small Greek chapel, in the court of vated spot. The words of the Evange. which we all rested, while our breakfast list are, however, remarkably explicit, was spread upon the ground. This grateand prove the situation of the ancient ful meal consisted of about a bushel of eity to have been precisely that which is cucumbers, some white mulberries, a now occupied by the modern town. In- very insipid fruit, gathered froin the trees duced, by the words of the Gospel, to reared to feed silk-worms; hot cakes of examine the place more atientively than unleavened bread, fried in honey and we should have otherwise done, we went, butter; and, as usual, plenty of fowls. as it is written, “out of the city, unto We had no reason to complain of our the brow of the hill whereon the city is fare, and all of us ate heartily.
We built," and came to a precipice corre- were afterwards conducted into the cha. sponding with the words of the Evan- pel, in order to see the reliques and gelist. It is above the Maronite Church, Sacred vestments there preserved. When and probably the precise spot alluded the poor priest exhibited these, he wept to hy the text of St. Luke's Gospel. over them with so much sincerity, and
In the evening we visited the environs, lamented the indignities to which the and, walking to the brow of a hill above holy places were exposed in terms so the town, were gratified by an interest. affecting, that all our pilgrims wept also. ing prospect of the long valley of Naza. Such were the tears which formerly ex. reth, and some hills between which a cited the sympathy, and roused the valour road leads to the neighbouring Plain of of the Crusaders. The sailors of our Esdraelon, and to Jerusalen. Some of party caught the kindling zeal; and little the Arabs came to converse with us. inore was necessary to incite in them a We were surprised to hear them speaking hostile disposition towards every Saracen Italian: they said they had been early they might afterwards encounter. The instructed in this language, by the friars ruins of a church are shewn in this place, of the Convent. Their conversation which is said to have been erected over was full of complaints against the rapa. the spot where the marriage-feast of Ca. cious tyranny of their governors. One na was held. It is worthy of note, that, of them said, “ Beggars in England are walking among these ruins, we saw large happier and better than we poor Arabs.” massy stone water-pots,' answering the " Why belter ?" said one of our party. description given of the ancient vessels
Happier,” replied the Arab whó båd of the country; not preserved, nor exmade the observation, “ in a good Go. hibited, as reliques, but lying about, vernment: better, because they will not disregarded by the present inhabitants, endure a bad one.
as antiquities wiih whose original use The second night after our arrival, as they were unacquainted. From their soon as it grew dark, we all stretched appearance, and the number of them, ourselves upon the floor of our apartment, it was quite evident that a practice of not without serious aların of catching the keeping water in large stone pots, each
HEAT OF THE CLIMATE.
holding from eighteen to twenty-seven mæleon, the lizard, the serpent, and all gallons, was once common in the country. sorts of beetles, basking, even at noon,
upon rocks and in sandy places, exposed
to the most scorching rays, About three miles bevond Cana, we rejoice in the greatest heat wherein it is passed the village of Turan : near this possible to exist. place they pretend 19 shew the field where the Disciples of Jesus Christ plucked the ears of corn upon the Sabbath. As we advanced, our journey led day. The Italian Catholics bave named through an open campaign country, unit the field “ degli Setti Spini,” and ga. til, upon our right, the guides shewed us ther the bearded wheat, which is annu. the Mount where it is believed that ally growing there, as a part of the colo Christ preached to his Disciples that nielection of reliques wherewith they return morable sermon, concentrating the sum hurthened to their own country. The and substance of every Christian virtue. heat of this day was greater than any to We left our route to visit this elevated which we had yet been exposed in the spot; and, baving attained the highest Levant; nor did we afterwards experience point of it, a view was presented, which, any thing so powerful. Captain Culver. for its grandeur,independently of the interhouse had the misfortune to break bis est excited by the different objects conumbrella ;--a frivolous event in milder tained in it, has no parallel in the Holy latitudes, but here of so much import. Land. ance, that all hopes of continuing our From this situation we perceived that journey depended upon its being repaired. the plain, over which we had been so Fortunately, beneath some rocks, over long riding, was itself very elevated. which we were then passing, there were Far beneath appeared other plains, one Caverns, excavated by primeval shep- Jower than the other, and extending to herds, as a shelter from scorching beams, the surface of the Sea of Tiberias, or Sea capable of baking bread, and actually of of Galilee. This immense lake, almost diessing meat: into these caves we crept, equal, in the grandeur of its appearance, not only for the purpose of restoring ihe to that of Geneva, spreads its waters umbrella, but also to profit by the op- over all the lower territory, extending portunity, thus offered, of unpacking our from the north-east towards the south. ihermonieters, and ascertaining the tein- west, and then bearing east of us. Its perature of the atmosphere. It was now eastern shores present a sublime scene twelve o'clock. The mercury, in a of mountains, extending towards the gloomy recess under ground, perfectly north and south, and seeming to close shaded, while the scale was placed so as it in at either extremity; both towards not to touch the rock, remained at one Chorazin, where the Jordan enters; and, hundred degrees of Fahrenheit. As to the Aulon, or Campus-magnus, through making any observation in the sun's rays, which it flows to the Dead Sea. The it was impossible; no one of the party cultivated plains reaching to its borders, had courage to wait with the thermo- which we beheld at an amazing depth meter a single minute in such a situation. below our view, resembled, by the va
All the pleasure of travelling, at this rious hues their different produce exhi. season of the year, in the lIoly Land, is bised, the motley pattern of a vast care suspended by the excessive beat of the pet. To the north appeared snowy sun. A traveller, wearied and spiritless, summits, towering, beyond a series of is often more subdued at the beginning intervening mountains, with unspeakable than at the end of his day's journey. greatness. We considered them as the Many rare plants and curious minerals summits of Libanus; but the Arabs beinvite his notice, as he passes slowly longing to our caravan called the princi. along, with depressed looks fixed upon pal eminence Jebel el Sieh, saying it was the ground; but these it is impossible for near Damascus; probably, therefore, a him to obtain, It appears to him to be part of the chain of Libanus. This sum, an act of unjustifiable cruelty to ask a mit was so lofty, that the snow entirely servant, or even one of the attending covered the upper part of it; not lying Arabs, to descend from his horse, for in patches, as I have seen it, during the purpose of collecting either the one summer, upon the tops of very elevated or the other. All nature seems to droop; mountains, (for instance, upon that of every avimal seeks for shade, which it is Ren - Nevis in Scotland,) but investing extremely difficult to find. But the chą. all the higher part with that perfect white
OTHER REVERED SITES.
PLAIN OF ESDRAELON.
and smooth velvet-like appearance which Along the borders of this lake may snow only exhibits when it is very deep; still be seen the remains of those ancient a striking spectacle in such a climate, tombs, hewn by the earliest inhabitants where the beholder, seeking protection of Galilee, in the rocks which face the from a burning sun, almost considers the
Similar works were before nga firmament to be on fire.
ticed among the Ruins of Telmessus. They were deserted in the time of our
Saviour, and had become the resort of As we rode towards the Sea of Tibe- wretched men, afflicted by diseases, and rias, the guides pointed to a sloping spot made outcasts of society; for, in the ac. from the heights upon our right, whence count of the cure performed by our Sawe had descended, as the place where viour upon a maniac in the country of the miracle was accomplished by which the Gadarenes, these tombs are parti. our Saviour fed the multitude: it is there- cularly alluded to; and their existence fore called The Multiplication of Bread; to this day (although they have been as the Mount above, where the Sermon neither noticed by priests nor pilgrims, was preached to his Disciples, is called and have escaped the ravages of the Em. The Mountain of Beatitudes, from the press Helena, who would undoubtedly expressions used in the beginning of that have shaped them into churches) offers discourse. This part of the Holy Land strong internal evidence of the accuracy is very full of wild animals. Antelopes of the Evangelist who has recorded the are in great number. We had the plea- transaction : " There inet him out of the sure of seeing these beautiful quadrupeds tombs a man with an unclean spirit, who in their natural state, feeding aimony the had his dwelling among the tombs." thistles and tall berbage of these plains, and bounding before us occasionally, as we disturbed them. The Arabs fre- Ilere, on this plain, the most fertile quently take them in the chace. The part of all the land of Canaan, (which, Jake now continued in view upon our ihough a solitude, we found like one lelt, The wind rendered its surface vast meadow, covered with the richest rough, and called to mind the situation pasture,) the tribe of Issachar“ rejoiced of our Saviour's Disciples, when, in one
in their tents. In the first ages of of the small vessels which traverse these Jewish [listory, as well as during the waters, they were tossed in a storm, and Roman Empire, the Crusades, and, even saw Jesus, in the fourth watch of the in later times, it has been the scene of night, walking to them upon
Here it was Oiten as this subject bas been painted, that Barak, descending with his ten combining a nuinber of circumstances thousand from Mount Thabôr, discomadapted for the representation of subli. fited Sisera and “all his chariots, even mity, no artist has been aware of the nine hundred chariots of iron, and all the uncommon grandeur of the scenery, me- people that were with him,” gathered morable on account of the transaction. is from Harosheth of the Gentiles, unto The Lake of Gennesareth is surrounded the river of Kishon;" when "all the by objects well calculated to heighten host of Sisera fell upon the edge of the the solemn impression made by such a sword; and there was not a man left;" picture; and, independent of the local when “ the kings came and fought, the feelings likely to be excited in its con. kings of Canaan in Taanach, by the templation, affords one of the most waters of Megiddo." Here also it was striking prospects in the Holy Land. It that Josiah, king of Judah, fought in is by coinparison alone that any due con- disguise against Necho, king of Egypt, ceplion of the appearance it presents-can and fell by the arrows of his antagonist, be conveyed to the minds of those who So great were the lamentations for his have not seen it; and, speaking of it death, that the mourning for Josiah becomparatively, it may be described as
an ordinance in Israel.” The Longer and finer than any of our Cum- great mourning in Jerusalem,” foreberland and Westmoreland lakes, al. told by Zechariahı, is said to be as the though perhaps it yields in majesty to the lamentations in the Plain of Esdraelon, stupendous features of Loch Lomond in or, according to the language of the proScotland. It does not possess the vast.. phet, “ as the mourning of Hadadrimpess of the Lake of Gelieva, although it mon in the Valley of Megiddon.” Josemuch reseinblęs it în particular points of phus often mentions this very remarkable view,
part of the Holy Land, and always under
the appellation of “ The Great Plain.” widely extended neighbourhood, and they It has been a chosen place for encamp- are exported to a great distance, upon ment in every contest carried on in this camels. In the niorning after our arrival, country, from the days of Nabuchodono- we met caravans coming from Grand sor, king of the Assyrians, (in the his. Cairo; and noticed others reposing in tory of whose war with Arphaxad, it is the large olive plantations near the gates. mentioned as the great Plain of Esdre- The traveller, directing his footsteps lom,) until the disastrous march of Na- towards its ancient sepulchres, as ever. poleon Buonaparte from Egypt into Syria. lasting as the rocks wherein they are Jews, Gentiles, Saracens, Christian Cru. hewni, is permitted, upon the authority saders, and Anti-Christian Frenchinen, of sacred and indelible record, to con. Egyptians, Persians, Druses, Turks, and template the spot where the remains of Arabs, warriors out of every nation Joseph, of Eleazar, and of Joshua, were which' is under heaven," have pitched severally deposited. If any thing contheir tents upon the Plain of Esdraelon, nected with the memory of past ages be and have beheld the various banners of calculated to awaken local enthusiasm, their nations wet with the dews of Thabôr the land around this city is pre-eminently and of Herinon.
entitled to consideration. The sacred A tolerably accurate notion of its ex. story of events transacted in the fields of tent, in this direction, may be obtained Sichem, from our earliest years is re. from a statement of the time we spent in meinbered with delight; but, with the crossing it. We were exactly seven territory before our eyes where those hours thus employed; proceeding at the events took place, and in the view of obes rate of three miles in each hour. Ils jects existing as they were described breadth, therefore, may be considered above three thousand years ago, the as equal to twenty-one miles. The peo- grateful impression kindles into ecstasy, ple of the country told us it was two days' Along the valley, we beheld “ a coin. journey in length.
pany of Ishmaelites, coming from Gia
lead," as in the days of Reuben and JuNAPOLUSE, OR SICHEM.
dah, “ with their camels bearing spicery The view of this place much surprised and.balm and myrrh," who would gladıy us, as we had not expected to find a city have purchased another Joseph of his of such magnitude in the road to Jeru. brethren, and conveyed him, as a slave, salem. It seems to be the metropolis of to some Potiphar in Egypt. Upon the a very rich and extensive country, hills around, Aocks and herds were feedabounding with provisions, and all the ing, as of old; nor in the simple garb of necessary articles of life, in much greater the shepherds of Samaria was there any profusion than the town of Acre. White thing repugnant to the notions we may bread was exposed for sale in the streets, entertain of the appearance presented of a quality superior to any that is to be by the sons of Jacob. It was indeed a found elsewhere throughout the Levant. scene to abstract and to elevate the mind; The governor of Napolose received and and, under emotions so called forth by regaled us with all the magnificence of every circumsiance of powerful coinci. an Eastern sovereign. Refreshments, dence, a single moment' seemed to con. of every kind known in the country, were centrate whole ages of existence. set before us; and when we supposed In the time of Alexander the Great, the list to be exhausted, to our very great Sichem was considered as the capital of astonishment, a most sumptuous dinner Samaria. Its inhabitants were called was brought in.
Samaritans, not merely as people of Sa. There is nothing in the Holy Land maria, but as a sect at variance with the finer than the view of Napolose, from other Jews. They consisted principally the heights around it. As the traveller of deserters from Judæa. They have descends towards it from the hills, ic ap- continued to maintain their peculiar pears luxuriantly embosomed in the most tenets to the present day. The ina delightful and fragrant bowers; half con. habitants, according to Procopius, were cealed by rich gardens, and by stately much favoured by the Emperor Justitrees collected into groves, all around nian, who restored their sanctuaries, and the bold and beautiful valley in which added largely to the edifices of the city, it stands.
Trade seems to Aourish The principal objec! of veneration among its inhabitants. Their principal among them is Jacob's Well, over which a employment is in making soap; but the church was formerly erected. This is sie manufactures of the town supply a very tuated at a small distance from the tow!,