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JERUSALEM.

STATE OF CULTIVATION.

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in the road to Jerusalem, and has been the dew of heaven, and the fatness of the
visited by pilgrims of all ages; but parti- earth, and plenty of corn and wine."
cularly since the Christian æra, as the
place where our Saviour revealed himself
in the woman of Samaria. The spot is No sensation of fatigue or heat could
80 distinctly marked by the Evangelist, counterbalance the eagerness and real
and so little liable to uncertainty, from which animated all our party, in the ap.
the circumstance of the Well itself and proach to Jerusalem; every individual
the features of the country, that, if no pressed forward, hoping first to announce
tradition existed for its identity, the site the joyful intelligence of its appearance.
of it could hardly be mistaken.

We passed some insignificant ruins,
either of ancient buildings or of modern

villages; but, had they been of more iin,
We left Napolose one hour after mide portance, they would have excited little
night, that we night reach Jerusalem notice at the tiine, so earnestly bent was
early the same day. We were, however, every mind towards the main object of
much deceived concerning the distance. interest and curiosity. At length, after
Our guides represented the journey as a about two hours had been passed in this
short excursion of five hours: it proved a state of anxiety and suspence, ascending
most fatiguing pilgrimage of eighteen. a bill towards the south-"Hagiopolis !"
The road was mountainous, rocky, and exclaimed a Greek in the van of our
full of loose stones; yet the cultivation cavalcade; and, instantly throwing him-
was everywhere marvellous; it afforded self from his borse, was seen bareheaded,
one of the most striking pictures of upon his knees, facing the prospect he
human industry which it is possible to surveyed. Suddenly the sight burst upon
behold. The linestone rocks and stony us all. Who shall describe it? The
valleys of Judæa were entirely covered effect produced was that of total silence
with plantations of figs, vines, and olive- throughout the whole company. Many
trees, not a single spot seemed to be neg. of the party, by an immediate impulse,
lected. The hills, from their bases to took off their hats, as if entering a church,
their upmost summits, were entirely co- without being sensible of so doing. The
vered with gardens: all of these were Greeks and Catholics shed torrents of
free from weeds, and in the highest state tears; and, presently beginning to cross
of agricultural perfection. Even the themselves, with unfeigned devotion,
sides of the most barren mountains had asked if they might be pernitted to take
been rendered fertile, by being divided off the covering from their feet, and pro-
into terraces, like steps rising one above ceed, barefooted, to the Holy Sepulchre.
another, whereon soil bad been accumu- We liad not been prepared for the grais-
lated with astonishing labour.. Among deur of the spectacle which the city
the standing crops we noticed millet, cot- alone exhibited. Instead of a wretched
ton, linseed, and tobacco, and occasion, and ruined town, by some described as
ally small fields of barley. A sight of this the desolated remnant of Jerusalem, we
territory can alone convey any adequate beheld, as it were, a Nourishing and
idea of its surprising produce: it is truly stately 'metropolis; presenting a mag-
the Eden of the East, rejoicing in the nificent assemblage of domes, towers,
abundance of its wealth. The effect of palaces, churches, and monasteries; all
this upon the people was strikingly pour- of which, glittering in the sun's rays,
trayed in every countenance : instead of shone with inconceivable splendor. As
the depressed and gloomy looks of Djeze we drew nearer, our whole attention was
zar Pacha's desolated plains, health, engrossed by its noble and interesting
hilarity, and peace, were visible in the appearance. The lofty hills whereby it
features of the inhabitants. Under a is surrounded, give to the city itself an
wise and beneficent government, the appearance of elevation inferior to that
produce of the Holy Land would exceed which it really possesses.
all calculation. Its perennial harvest; As we approached the city, the con.
the salubrity, of its air; its limpid springs; course of people became very great, the
its rivers, lakes, and matchless plains; walls and the road side being covered
its hills and vales;-all these, added to with spectators. An iminense inultitude,
the serenity of its climate, prove this at the same time, accompanied us on
land to be indeed “a field which the foot ; some of whoin, welcoming the proje,
Lurd bath blessed: God hath given it of cession with compliments and caresses,
1

cried

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once

HOLY SEPULCIIRE.

cried out “ Bon' Inglesi! Viva l'In- ship, exhibiting a series of subterranean gilterra!" others, cursing and reviling, chambers, hewn with marvellous art, called us a set of rascally Christian dogs, each containing one, or many, reposiand filthy infidels. We could never tories for the dead, like cisterns carved learn wherefore so much curiosity had in the rock upon the sides of those been excited; unless it were, that of late, chambers. The doors were so low, that, owing to the turbulent state of public to look into any one of them, it was neaffairs, the resort of strangers to Jeru- cessary to stoop, and, in some instances, salem had become more uncommon; or lo creep upon our hands and knees: that they expected another visit from Sir these doors were also grooved, for the Sidney Smith, who had marched into reception of immense stones, Jerusalem with colours flying and drums squared and fitted to the grooves, by way beating, at the head of a party of En- of closing the entrances. Of such a glish sailors. He protected the Chris. nature were, indisputably, the tombs of tian guardians of the Holy Sepulchre the sons of Heill

, of the kings of Israel, from the tyranny of their Turkish rulers, of Lazarus, and of Christ. by hoisting the British standard upon Some of them, from their magnifi. the walls of their monastery.

cence, and the immense labour necessary to form the numerous repositories they

contain, might lay claim to regal honours ; P.EASONING ON THE SITE OF THE

and there is one which appears to have

been constructed for the purpose of inWe had been to examine the bill huming a single individual." The kawhich now bears the name of Sion : it is raan Jews, of all others the most tena. situated mpon the south side of Jeru- cious in adhering to the customs of their salem, part of it being excluded by the ancestors, have, from tine immemorial, wall of the present city, which passes been in the practice of bringing their dead over the top of the mount. If this be to this place for interment; although this indeed Mount Sion, the prophecy con. fact was not wanted to prove it an ancient cerning it, that the plough should pass Jewish cemetery. The sepulchres themover it, has been fulfilled to the letter ; seives, according to the ancient practice, for such labours were actually going on are stationed in the midst of gardens. when we arrived. Here the 'Turks have From all these circumstances, are we a mosque, over what they call the Tomb not authorized to seek here for the of David. No Christian can gain ad- sepulchre of Joseph of Arimathea, who, mittance; and, as we did not choose to as a pious Jew, necessarily had his buryloiter anong the other legendary sanc. ing-place in the cemetery of his countrylities of the mount, having quitied the men, among the graves of his forefathers? city by what is called “Sion Gate,” we The Jews were remarkable for their rigid descended into a dingle or trencla, called adherence to this custom: they adorned Topliet, or Gehinnon, hy Sandys. As their burial-places with trees and garwe reached the bottom of this narrow dens: and the tomb of this jew is acdale, sloping towards the valley of Jeho. cordingly described as being in a garsaphat, we observed, upon the sides of den; and it was in the place where our the opposite mountain, which appears to Saviour was crucified.” Or' what nature be the same called by Sandys, the “Hill was that place of crucifixion. It is very of Offence,” facing Mount Sion, a num- worthy of observation, that every one ber of excavations in the rock, similar to of the evangelists, (and among these, those already described among the ruins “ be that saw it, and bare record,) affirm, of Telmessus, in the gulph of Glaucus; that it was “the place of a scull;" that and answering to the account published is to say, a public cæmetery, “ called in by Shaw, of the Crypta of Laodicea, the Hebrew, Golgotha;" without the Jebilee, and Tortosa. We rode towards city, and very near to one of its gates. them; their situation being very little St. Luke calls it Calvary, which has the elevated above the bottom of the dingle, same signification. upon its southern side. When we are Upon all the sepulchres at the base rired, we instantly recognised the sort of of this mount, which, as the place of sepulchres which had so much interested a scull," we bave the authority of the us in Asia Minor, and, alighting from our gospel for calling either Calvary or Golhorses, found that we should have ample gotha, whether the place of crucifixion or einployment in their examination. They not, there are inscriptions, in llebrew were all of the same kind of workmane and in Greek. The Hebrew inscriptions

66

are OF TIE HOLY

SION.

ate the most effaced: of these it is diffi, upon the governor, to thank him for the cult to make any lolerable copy. Be- civilities we had received. Upon this sides the injuries they have sustained by occasion we used all the interest we had time, they have been covered by some with him, by means of Djezzar Pacha's carbonaceous substance, either bitumi- ou interpreter, to obtain admission nous or fumid, which rendered the task into the mosque of the temple of So, of transcribing them yet more arduous. lomon, or mosque erected upon the site The Greek inscriptions are brief and of that temple, by the Caliph Omar, in legible, consisting of immense letters the seventh century. lle entreated us deeply carved in the face of the rock, not to urge the request, saying, his own either over the door, or by the side, of life would certainly be required as the the sepulchres. Upon the first we ob price of our adınission : we were thereserved these chiaracters:

fore compelled to rest satisfied with the + THCATIAC

interesting view it afforded from his CIWN

windows, which regarded the area of the temple. The sight was so grand, that

we did not hesitate in pronouncing it the There were others with similar Greek most magnificent piece of architecture in inscriptions, and one which particularly the Turkish empire ; and, considered exattracted our notice, froin iis extraordi. ternally, for superior to the mosque of nary coincidence with all the circum. Saint Sophia in Constantinople. By the stances attaching to the history of our sides of the spacious area in which it Saviour's tomb. The large stone that stands, are certain vaulted remains: once closed its mouth had been, perhaps these plainly clenote the masonry of the for ages, rolled away. Stooping down ancients; and evidence inay be adduced to look into it, we observed, within, a to prove, that they belonged to the founfair sepulchre, containing a repository, dations of Solomon's temple. We obis upon one side only, for a single body; served also, that reticulated stuccn, whereas, in most of the others, there which is commonly considered as an were two, and in many of thein more, evidence of Roman work. Phocas be. than two. It is placed exactly opposite lieved the whole space surrounding this 'to that which is now called Mount Sion. building to be the antient area of the As we viewed this sepulchre, and read temple; and Golius, in his notes upo: upon the spot the description given of the Astronomy of Allerganes, says, the Mary Magdalene and the disciples com. whole foundation of the original edifice ing in the morning, it was impossible to remained. As to the mosque itself, divest our ininds of the probability that there is no buildmg at Jerusalem that here might have been the identical toin can be compared with it, either in of Jesus Christ; and that up the steep beauty or riches. The lofty Saracenic which led to it, atier descending from the pomp so nobly displayed in the style of gate of the city, the disciples strove to. the building; its numerous arcades; iis gether, when “ John did outrun Peter,. capacious dome, with all the stately deand came first to the sepulchre." They corations of the place; its extensive area, are individually described as stooping paved and variegated with the choicest down to look into it; they express their inarbles; the extremne neatness observed doubts as to the possibility of removing in every avenue towards it; and, lastly, 80 huge a stone, that when once fixed the suinptunus costume observable in the and sealed, it might have baffled every dresses of all the Eastern devotees, pasa huiman effort. But upon this, as upon sing to and from the sanctuary, make it the others already mentionedd, insteait of altogether one of the finest sighits the a Hebrew or a Phænician inscription, Mahomecans have to boast. there were the saine Greek characters, destitute only of the Greek cross prefixed in the former instances. The inscription The approaching downfall of the stood thus,

Turkish empire, is an event which of THCAT IAC

course every reflecting mind must conCIWN

teinplate with eager ani icipation; and the letters being very large, and deeply every imeans conducive to this end is carved in the rugged surface of the rock. hailed as an instrument in the land of

God. Whether the armies of France,

or the fleets of England, occasion signs When we regained the city, we waised of ius approximation, the universal church MontuLX Mao. No. 299.

of

POLITICS IN JERUSALEM.

MOSQUE OF OMAR.

TIIE DEAD SEA.

of Syria, howsoever distributed and di- of proving destructive of animal life, vided by gects,— Armenians, Georgians, swarın with myriads of fishes; that, inGreeks, Abyssinians, Copts, Nestorians, stead of falling victims to its exhalations, Catholics, Syrians, Druses, Maronites, certain birds make it their peculiar retogether with all distinctions of Jewish sort; that shells abound upon its shoies; worshippers, Samaritans, Karaites, Rab- that the pretended “fruit, containing binists,--are ready to bestow upon them asbes," is as natural and as admirable a their praises and their blessings. Thus, production of nature, as the rest of the if a Frenchinan arrive in Jerusalem, as vegetable kingdom; that bodies sink or in the recent instance of De Château. float in it, according to the proportion of briand, they talk to him of the victories their gravity to the gravity of the water; of Buonaparté, and the prowess of that its vapours are not more insalubrious Frenchmen in the Holy Land, as if they than those of any other lake ; that inn i were preaching for a new crusade. if merable Arabs people the neighbouring an Englishman, they lavish cominen- district; notwithstanding all these facts dations and benedictions upon the heroes are now well established, even the latest of the British navy; dwelling with en. authors by whom it is mentioned, and thusiasm upon the exploits of Nelson at one among the number, from whose Aboukir; upon those of Sir Sidney Snith writings some of these truths have been at Acre; and upon the glorious fate of derived, continue to fill their descriptions the lamented Abercrombie.

with imaginary horrors and ideal phantoms, whici), Though less substantial than

the “ black perpendicular rocks” around The Dead Sea below, upon our left, it, “cast their lengthened shadows over appeared so near to us, that we thought the waters of the Dead Sea." The an. we could have rode thither in a very tients, as it is observed by the traveller short space of time. Still nearer stood now alluded to, were much better aca mountain upon its western shore, re- quainted with it than are the moderns : sembling, in its form, the cone of Ve- and, it may be added, the time is near suvius, near Naples, and having also a at hand, when it will be more philosocrater upon its top, which was plainly phically, examined. The present age is discernible. The distance, however, is not that in which countries so situated, much greater than it appears to be; the can long continue unexplored. Thie magnitude of the objects beheld in this thirst of knowledge, and the love of fine prospect, causing them to appear travel, have attained to such a pitch, less remote than they really are. The that every portion of the globe will be atmosphere was reinarkably clear and ransacked for their gratification. In. serene; but we saw none of those clouds deed, one of the advantages derived from of smoke, which, by some writers, are the present perturbed state of nations, is said 10 exhale from the surface of Lake that of directing the observation of enAsphaltiles, nor from any neighbouring lightened travellers to regions they pro. mountain. Every thing about it was, in bably would not otherwise have noticed. the highest degree, grand and awful. Its desolate, although majestic, features, are

BETHLEHEM. well suited to the tales related concern- Bethlehem, written Bethlechem by ing it by the inhabitants of the country, Reland, is six miles from Jerusaleni. who all speak of it with terror, seeming This distance, allowed by almost all ko shrink from the narrative of its de authors, exactly corresponds with the ceitfu! allurements and deadly influence. usual computed :neasure, by time, of “ Beautiful fruit,” say they, "grows upon two hours. its shores, which is no sooner touched, The well of Bethlehem still retains its than it becomes dust and bitter ashes."

pristine

renown; and many an expatri. In addition to its physical horrors, the ated Bethlehemite has made it the theme region around is said to be more perilous, of his lorging and regret. As there is owing to the ferocious tribes wandering no other well corresponding in its situupon the shores of the lake, than any ation with the description given by the other part of the Holy Land. A passion sacred historian and by Josephus, -and for the marrellons has thus affixed, for the text of Scripture so decidedly marks ages, false characteristics to the sublimest its locality, at the farthest extremity of associations of natural scenery in the Bethlehem, (with reference to Jeru. whole world; for, although it be now salem,) that is to say, near the gate of known that the waters of this lake, instead the town on the eastern side,--this may

TEREBINTHINE VALE.

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have been David's well. It is well cave of the nativity. A list of fifty
known to travellers who have seen the other things of this nature might be ad.
wells of Greece and of the Holy Land, ded, if either the patience of the author,
that there exists no níonument of antient or of the reader, were equal to the de-
times more permanent than even an tail: and, if to these were added the in-
artificial well; that vases of terra colta, scriptions and observations contained in
of the highest aiitiquity, have been found the bulky volumes of Quaresmius, upon
in cleansing the wells of Athens: and if this subject alone, the “Guide to Bethe
they be natural sources, springing froin lehem,” as a work, concentrating the
cavities in the limestone rocks of a coun. quintessence of mental darkness, would
try where a well is the most important leave us lost in wonder that such a place
possession of the people, (in which num. was once enlightened by the precepts of
ber this well of Bethlehein may be a scholar whom Erasmus so eloquently
classed, there seems no reason to doubt eulogized.
the possibility of its existence in the re-
mote ages whiereto it is now referred.

The tradition respecting the cave of After three miles of as hard a journey, the nativity, seems so weli authenticated, over hills and rocks, as any we had exa as hardly to admit of dispute. Having perienced, we entered the famous Tere. been held in veneration froin a very binthine Vale, renowned, during nineearly period, the oratory established teen centuries, as the field of the victory there by the first Christians, attracted gained by the youngest of the sons of the notice and indignation of the hea- Jesse over the uncircumcised champion thens so early as the time of Adrian, of the Philistines, who had.defied the who ordered it to be demolished, and armies of the living God." The adino. the place to be set apart for the rites of nitus locorum cannot be more forcibly Adonis. The situation of the town upon excited, than by the words of Scripture : the narrow ridge of a long and lofty hill,

“ And Saul and the men of Israel were surrounded on all sides by valleys, is gathered together, and pitched by the particularly described by the Abhot of Valley of Elah, and set the battle in arIona, from the account given to hiin by ray against the Philistines. And the Arculfus: and for a description of the Philistines stood on a mountain on the interior of the monastery, the reader may one side, and Israel stood on a mounbe referred to the very recent description tain on the other side: and there was a given by Mons. De Châteaubriand.* valley between them." Nothing has He considers the church as of high An- ever occurred to alter the appearance of tiquity; being unmindful of the entire the country: as it was theni, so it is now. destruction of the convent by the Mos. The very hrook whence David “ chose lems, towards the end of the thirteenth him five smooth stones” has been nocentury. We felt very little disappoint ticed by many a thirsty pilgrim, jour. ment in not seeing it. The degrading neying from Jaffa to Jerusalem; all of superstitions maintained by all the Monk whom inust pass it in their way. ish establishments in Holy Land, excite pain and disgust. The Turks use the monastery, when they travel this Jaffa appeared to be almost in as fora way, as they would a coinmon caravan- lorn a state, from the plague, as Rama; serai; making the church, or any other the air itself was still infected with the part of the building that suits their cone smell of unburied bodies. We went to venience, both a dormitory and a tavern, the house of the English Consul, whose while they remain. Neither is the sanc- grey hairs had not exempted him from tuary more polluted by the presence of Frencia extortion. He had just ventured these Moslems, than by a set of men

to hoist again the British flag upon thie wbose grovelling understandings have roof of his dwelling; and, he told uis, sunk so low as to vilify the sacred name with tears in his eyes, that it was the of Christianity by the grossest outrages only prout of welcome he could offer io upon buman intellect. In the pavement, us, as the French officers, under Buona. of the church, a hole, formerly used to parte, had stripped him of every thing carry off water, is exhibited as the place. he possessed. However, in the midst where the star fell, and sunk into the of all his complaints against the French, earth, after conducting the Magi to the not a single syllable ever escaped his

lips respecting the enorinities supposed
* See our last Supplemento
to be coinmitted, by means of Buona.

parle's

JAFPA.

1

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