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paite's orders or connivance, in the town ed over many interesting details relative te and neighbourhood of Jaffa. * As there particular minerals.} are so many living witnesses to attest THE AUTHOR'S NEW SYSTEM. the truth of ihis representatinn, and the N an attempt to establish a new no. character of no ordinary individual is so menclature of arrangement, the first. much implicated in its result, the utmost requisite is, that it be conformable to the attention will be here paid to every par- simplicity and harmony of nature; and ticular likely to illustrate the fact; and, that it be free from affectation, as even for this especial reason, because that in the novelty itself is apt to displease. For diriduul is our enemy. At the time we this purpose it is necessary to revert to first were in Jaffa, so soon after the supposed principles, and if possible to establish the transactions are said to have occurred, edifice upon foundations universally adthe indignation of our Consul, and of nitted. Natural history has been well and the inhabitants in general, against the popularly divided into three Kingdoms, the French, was of so deep a nature, that Animal, che Vegetable, and the Mineral. there is nothing they would not have In the two former the kingdom consists said, to vilify Buonaparte, or his offi- of living subjects, who of course may be cers; but this accusation they never

well considered at divided into Classes, even binted.

Orders, Genera, and Species; but in the

Mineral Kingdom the territory alone cone These falsehoods were first circulated stitutes the subject of discussion. It through the pamphlet of a British agent at must therefore be received as a funda. Constantinople, and then copied into Books mental truth or axiom, that the mineral of Travels by the printers and editors to kingdom, being wholly inert, cannot ad, make their works sell, and humour the po- mit distinction which belong to vital pular prejudices against Buonaparte; all which were encouraged by the British ad

energy; and that an identity of appella-' ministration of the day. Vide Asperne,

tions cannot therefore be allowed, either Raworth, Skinner, Morier, Wilson, and in a grammatical or philosophical view. Wittman.-EDITOR.

But the very term Mineral Kingdom may of itself lead to a new and more proper

noinenclature: for, as the kingdom may PETRALOGY.

be regarded as either vivified with ani. A TREATISE ON ROCKS,

inal and vegetable life, or as an inert

tract of country, with certain geographi. BY J. PINKERTON. cal, chorographical, and topographical

divisions; so the latter point of view can alone apply to mineralogy, while the

former belongs to zoology and botany. (In a country abounding in Mineral Wealth, This simple induction will, it is hoped,

the science of Mineralogy has scarcely yet lead of itself to easy and natural, though been naturalized among us. There are in

new,

denominations. For what is inore no country so many practical miners, with so usoal than the division of a kingdom into few speculative mineralogista. We, there provinces, districts, domains, &c. while, fore, have perused this original work of Mr. Pinkerton with great satisfaction, and con

as it would not only be pedantic, but inceive it will vindicate the honor of Eng. adequate to the subject, to carry this land among foreigners in this branch of sci- species of metaploor too far, some lesser ence. The Author has already acquired re

divisions must be borrowed from the nae spect in the republic of letters for his ra.

ture of the objects, as they present them. rioos works on Antiquities, History, Geo- .selves to the observer, graphy, and different subjects of Belles Letires, and in our opinion, to use his own phraseology, he has acquired fresh renown. in the domain of Mineralogy. He has

I would propose, theretoie, in the pres rescued the subject from the pedantry and

sent advanced state of the science, that technological barbarism in which it bas.

the MINERAL KINODOM be considered as been involved by Werner and the Ger. divided into three provinces : 1. Petra. mans; and, through the medium of his lngy, or the knowledge of rocks, or work, the varieties of minerals inay now

stones which occur in large masses. 2. be studied with as much satisfaction as the LITHOLOGY, the knowledge of gems and general history of animated nature by Bufo small stones. 3. METALLOGY, or the fun. We shall only add, that, as var ex-' knowledge of metals. Each of these :

trants have been made chiefly with a view branches is even at present so important, : to explaih bis classifications, we have pass and offers such numerous topics of disqui.

IN TWO VOLUMLS.

Il/S GRAND PROVINCES.

BIS MODES.

sition and research, thint in the course of pronounce which preponderates. 9. The no long perind a professor of each will Anomalous, or those which contradice appear in universities; and each might the conunon order of nature, and pres occupy the sole pursuit of an author who sent unexpecteel and unusual combinais zealous to make discoveries, or to comé tions. Some of these domains, though pose complete and classical works. 'One they afford few objects at present, way, of the chief causes of the slow progress in the progress of the science, be greatly of the science is, that it is too wide for enriched and enlarged; and the utility of one inind; and as zoology has been di- such divisions will be more perceptible vided into ornithology, ichthyology, en- as the study advances towards perfection, fomology, &c. so mineralogy, to be duly the greatest obscurity at present arising studied, should have grand subdivisions froin the wait of necessary subdivi

sions, UIS DOMAINS.

The remaining three domains are ge. These provinces may again be viewed nerally admitted in geological works, as divided into Domains, corresponding namely, 10. The Transilient Rocks, an with the Orders of some writers and the interesting series, in which one substance Genera of others, as the Provinces sup- gradually passes into another, as granite ply what are called Classes. This terin into porphyry, trap into wacken, and the Domain is preferred to District, &c. as like. 11. The Decomposed Rocks, wbich it not only iinplies a subdivision of a pro- gradually decay into sand, clay, or province, but, in another acceptation, a ductive soil. 12. The Volcanic, whichi ruling or preponderating power, strictly require no other description, applicable in mineralogy, where it is of ten the preponderance, and not the universality, which imparts the denumiua. Having thus established the Doinains, tion. Thus in the siliceous, calcareous, or Great Divisions, of Petralogy, the and other doinains, it is only understood smaller distinctions, can be derived only that the denominating portion preponde. from the objects, themselves, as we now rates, as few or no rocks are pure, and arrive at what are by most mincralogic unmixed with other substances.

authors denominated Species, though in Petralogy, a province of mineralogy, their arbitrary and unnatural systems, as may therefore be regarded as divided into Dr. Townson has observed, the Genera Twelve Domains ; of which the first six, and Species are often confounded. “Thus being distinguished by the substances in the improved edition of Linnæus, the themselves, may be called SUBSTANTIAL: characters which constitute the Species in while thie remaining six, being distin- gypsum form Genera in the carbonate of guished by circumstances or accidences lime; for the pulverulent, fibrous, spa: of various kinds, may be called CIRCUM- thous, and compact kinds of gypsum form STANTIAL, or acciDENTAL; but this last but so many Species, whilst the pulvero: division is of little moment.

lent, fibrous, spathous, and compact The first six domains of Pérralogy 'com- kinds of carbonate of lime form so niany prise, 1. The Siderous Rocks, or those in different Genera.” Now these very apo which iron predominates, not in the com- pearances, which constitute the arbitrary parative quantity when analysed, but in Species and Genera of former authors, the quality and essential difference which what would they be, in the eyes of a phiit imparts. 2. Tlie Siliceous, denomi- Josnpher or grainmarian, except different nated as usual from the quantity of Silex. modifications or modalities, of the same 3. The Argillaceous. 4. The Magnesian : substance, and which hy a snorter term these two are again denominated from may be denominated Modes? Hence

predominunce. 5. The Calcarcous. 6. the term Mode, which is universally ap. • The Carbonaceous,

plicable and unobjectionable, to distin. The retaining six domains, derived guish such' ohjects, in mineralogy, is here froin circuinstances or accidences, are, adnitted instead of Species. 7. The Composite, or Aggregated Rocks, To put the propriety of this new apas calcareous spar with schorl, quarız, pellation to the test, examples may be and garnets, selspar and siderite or horn. produced of what are called Species by blende, &c. 'This domain has often heen the most celebrated mineralogic writers. confounded with the granites, however Wallerius, among the species of garnet, atien from that description. 8. The Di. first mentions that of an undetermined amicronic, or rocks in which the subo figure, composed of granular particles ; stances are so completely mingled, that and his next species is of an undetera it is difficult, even upon an analysis, to ained figure, but laminar. What are

these

HIS ASPECTS.

these but different modifications, or arrangement, being thus borrowed from modes, of the same stone? His ripe ase chemistry, which, like a guardian angel, bestus, consisting of fibres which may be should always bover round and direct the separated, forms one species; while ihat labours of inineralogy; the other subdiof which the fibres cannot be separated visions only require a characteristic clear. constitutes another. What are these but ness to assist the memory (ibe chief obo different modifications of the same sub- ject in any system of natural history), stance? In the last edition of Linnæus and an appropriation to the subject, so as, by Guelin the terni modes (modi) has to satisfy the judgment and imagination. been applied to various appearances of From the earliest productions of Linpetrification: but what are sometimes næus to the present time, the word STRUC called Genera, and sometimes Species (as TunE has been applied, with classical already observed from Dr. Townson), propriery, to denote a most striking and are, in strict language, mere modifica. characteristic distinction between mine. tions of matter. If we pass to one of ral substances, whether on a great or on the most exact of the French mineraloe a small scale. Linnæus has observed gists, we shall find the sapphire arranged that there are only three great roads as the tenth species of the siliceous, and which can conduct the curious traveller the topaz as the eleventh; while in fact through the mineral kingdoni; that of phey merely differ in colour. In the mag- Physics, or Natural Philosophy, which nesian division, what are bole, fullers' treats of the obscure generation of stones; earth, &c. but different modifications of that of Natural History, which examines the same mixtures? Mr. Kirwan pre- their evident structures, and that of Che. sents no exact arrangement, but uses mistry, which considers their analyses. Classes, Families, and Branches, in such A term thus strictly appropriated, and, a manner as greatly to perplex the rea- as it were, consecrated to the science, Her : but all his species and families are has therefore been selected for the next mere modifications, and the simple divi- characteristic subdivision. sion into modes would convey a far clearer idea.

The term Mode is therfore here adopt- But as Werner and his disciples not ¢d instead of what are called Genera by only admit the various earths as so many some writers, and Species by others; this Genera; and their Modes, or the modiuncertainty, of itself having demonstrated fications of the mixtures, and even cothat there are neither Genera nor Species lours, as so many species; but also what in mineralogy.

are, with great penury and uncouthness. But as it is now universally allowed by of language, styled Sub-species, with still all mineralogists, however different their smaller divisions of Varieties and Sub-vasystems, that the whole science rests rieties ; so there remains a necessity for upon chemistry alone, and that no cer- more minute discriminations in this new tainty can be found except by chemical arrangement. In his excellent and elaanalysis, the word Mode, as finally ad- borate system of chemistry Dr. Thomson mitted into the present system, must be seems to have bit upon the just and nachiefly understood to refer to the CHEMI• tural term, when he uses the word ase. CAL MODE OF COMBINATION, upon which PECT as a chief characteristic. « The the nature of the substances, as is now particular characters, says he, are the allowed by the greatest chemists, is yet following: 1. Aspect of the surface; 2., more dependent, than even upon the in. Aspect of the fracture; 3. Aspect of the gredients combined. It is the Mode of distinct concretions; 4. General aspect, COMBINATION which distinguishes a dia. &c.” As therefore the most important mond from carbon, and a sapphire from object in the study of minerals is to dis.. argil combined with a little iron : the ese tinguish them by their external charucsence of a mineral consisting not only in ters, and especially by those apparent to the constituent earths, but in the pecue the eye, the aspect becomes of such raliar way in which the mixture is modified; dical importance that it may with the and this modal influence also prevails in greatest propriety be admitted into the many artificial mixtures and compounds. distinctive nomenclature. The verb asIn short, the pretended species of former pecto signifies to view with great attention authors are merely different MODES OF or earnestness, and affords a hint to the COMBINATION.

student that these subdivisions called as..

pects require strict attention and discrie HIS STRUCTURES.

mination. This, the most important part of the Thus while the mode chiefly expresses

the

HIS VARIETIES.

TUE WERNERIAN THEORY.

the difference of chemical composition, impregnating most of the others, and &c. and the Structure the grand charac. often exerting a predominating influence teristic, the Aspect refers to more mi. For as, since the recent discoveries, nute features.

many earths have been known to assume the forın of metals, so there can be no

in propriety in considering this universal The term vuriery is unobjectionable, metal under the form of an earth. as it is equally applicable to objects of When a substance contains more than animated or inert matter; and diversity twenty-five parts in the hundred, or, in may be used to imply a still greater dito other words, one quarter, of iron, it may ference than the variety presents. A he worked as a metallic ore, and arvery faint shade of difference might, if ranged under that denomination. But necessary, be called a lineument.

in a smaller quantity it will fall under the present division, especially when in

timately combined with the other earths. From the sketch imparted by Daubuis. It was by metallogists considered as a son to Brochant, and from Mr. Jame- calx, or latterly called an oxyd. Mr. son's Geognosy, we are enabled to form Kirwan, who has rightly added calces of an idea of Mr. Werner's system concern. iron to his description of the earths, says, ing the formation of such parts of this that they are tormed of that metal, coin planet, as we can hope to observe, little bined with different proportions of pure exceeding the three thousandth part of its air, and frequently of water also and semi-diameter. I warınly subscribe to fixed air. the sentiments of admiration which are “One hundred parts metallic iron are paid to Mr. Werner's superior talents in capable of taking up 66 or 70 of pure many branches of mineralogy, a science air. When 100 parts iron contain but infinitely indebted to his industry and sa- 40 of this air, che compound is stil maggacity. I also acknowledge the truth of netic. His table of the fusibility of clie the apophthegm, Natura fecit omnes ju- simple earthis presents some curious exdices; paucos artifices. But I regret, with periments on the inixture of calcined his most enlightened admirers, that the iron and rust of iron, with other sub. scene of his enquiry has been too con- stance, which show the power of this fined ; and that his view of the mountains metal. Even when it only amounts to of Saxony has not been extended over tour parts in the hundred, it sensibly ixthe globe. After forty years of sedulous fluences the compound. observation among the Alps, Saussure, Sidegea, or siderous earth, is so gene. who began his labours with a view of rally ditfissed, that almost every mineral forming a system, declares that his hopes substance derives its colour from it, from were fiustrated; and that he had met a pale blue to the deepest red. Animal with such unaccountable contusion that substances contain it; and it exists in he could not venture to propose a theory. the vegetable kingdoin, even in plants Yet Saussure, to practical observations on apparently supported merely by air and a far superior scene, added the advan

It would appear that even the tages of learning, and mathematical and atmosphere abounds with atoms of iron, meteorological science, which Mr. Wer whence perhaps the meteoric stones. Der unhappily wanis, and which would have corrected and greatly improved liis

Domain II.-Siliceous. speculatious.

SILEX, SILICA, OR SILICEOUS EARTH.

This earth derives its name from the Domain I.-Siderous,

silex, or flint, in which it abounds. Soine SIDEGEA, SIDEROUS EARTH.

also denominate it quartzose earth, bo. The naine sidegea, as not unusual in cause it is perhaps more abundant in the compounded words, is abbreviated from stone called quartz, which, when trans. iwo Greek terms, signifying iron and parent and crystallized, is styled rock carth. The reasons for the introduction crystal. It so frequently occurs in the of this grand division, adopted in sube form of sand, which covers a great part stance by the most eminent geologists, of the ylobe, either alone or mixed with have already been given. Tron acts so clay, that late chemists iufer that such important and radical a part in the con- sand arises not only from the decompite stitution of our planet, ihat it deserves sition of rocks, but is often a disturlied to be viewed under various aspects, not or hasty crystallization of silica. This only as a metal, but as an earth, strongly is further confirined by the circumstance

water.

that many primitive mountains consist ter the diamond, such as the sapphire, of granular quartz, of an arenaceous ap- ruby, and oriental topaz. It is hence pearance, like agglutinated sand. not only one of the most noble, but one

The stones now called siliceous, were of the most useful of the earths ; loam formerly denominated vetrifiable; be- or fertile soil being a mixture of about cause, with an alkali, they may be melted 30 parts argil with 70 of fine sand; while into glass ; and the finest Venetian glass inould chiefly consists of animal and vewas fabricated from quartz, by the Ita. getable remains. lians called torso. Silica, like the other In the primitive rocks argil is an im. simple earths, is a fine white powder; portant feature, forming about a fifth but the particles have a harsh feel, like part of felspar, and a third of mica. The minute sand. Alone it is scarcely fusi- most ancient slates abound in argil. It ble; but, when newly precipitated, is so- is often so homogeneous that it cannot Juble in 1000 parts of water.

be regarded as the waste of former Joined with iron, argil, and magnesia, mountains, but a pore deposit of primeit constitutes the primitive and most inte val waters, In the primitive schisti portant rocks, rising to the regions of however there is still a great preponderperpetual snow, and thus supplying un- ance of sand; and the glossy appearance Jailing alinent to the great rivers that may sometimes proceed from decomfertilise the earth. When considered in posed mica, these mountains, in sand, and in clay, The argillaceous rocks are mostly of a it may be pronounced the most abun simple and uniforin appearance, and do dant of all the earths; and, if iron form not adınit the numerous modifications of the nucleus, the shell of this planet may some other substances. This earth is be said to consist chiefly of silex. It is chiefly eminent in gemmology, where it suspected that it is coeval and intimately constitutes some of the most beautiful va. connected with iron; as the aerolites or rieties. The argillaceous rocks are never meteoric stones, and the large masses of crystallised, and present but small splen

native iron, discovered in Siberia and dour in their appearance ; hence they South America, contain abundance of are very seldom used in the ornamental silex inixed with some magnesia. arts, and are chießly important in a geo

Siliceous substances generally strike logical point of view, where they often fire with steel; and fint or quartz yields rank among the most important primi. a peculiar odour, supposed by soine to tive substances. Yet even in this ligadie arise from a subtile substance which che. they have not been treated with the at, mistry has not been able to discover. Atention and minute investigation which strong phosphorescence is also produced have been bestowed upon the Siliceous by collision, so that, during Alpine hur. and Calcareous Divisions, ricanes, the torrents, rolling large frag. The essential part of the argillaceous ments of rock, present a singular scene rocks being alum, it seems the niost naof corruscation.

tural progress to begin with those sub

stances which chiefly supply commerce Domain 111.--- Argillaceous. with that earth.

ARGIL.

MAGXESIA.

This earth is obtained in the state of

Domain IV.-Talcous, greatest purily from alum, which is a mixture of argil and sulphuric acid. If This earth seems first to have been it contained oxyd of iron, as is frequently discovered, or at least sold as a reniedy, the case, it emits a particular smell, by an ecclesiastic at Roine about the when breathed upon, well known by the beginning of the eighteenth century. .name of an earthy sınell.

Under the name of magnesiu, albu, it was With heat it loses its water, and dimin proposed as a universal medicine, while nishes in bulk; but a very violent heat con. it could do little more than supply the verts it into a while amel. When combin. place of the Leinnian earth, and other ed with line, it easily caters into fusion. boles. As Theophrastus, however, in

Argil, also called Alumina by recent describing the stone called mugnetes, chemists, is of great ́utility, as forming says it may be turned on a latle, and the basis of many inanufactures, such as has a silvery appearanice, Dr. Kidd agrees brick, porcelain, and eartlienware. It con- with Hill, chat the ancient Greeks called stitutes 98 parts in the 100 of corindon; the load-stone heruclea, but the more under which division are now classed the modern magnetes: and Pliny's descrip. most perfect of the precious stones, af- tion of the stone brought fruen Magnesia,

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