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in Asia, seems to belong to a talcous carbonic acid gas. Ilence line exposed substance.

to the air absorbs the carbonic acid, and Jloffinan, Black, and Bergman, con- may again become a carbonate, or limetributed to establish the difference be stone. tween inaynesia and line. It seems ori. In architecture, mortar is composed of ginally to have been prepared from ni- quick Time and sand; and when mixed tre;

but sea-water contains the sulphate with a proportion of iron, or manganese, of magnesia, a salt composed of this it becomes extremely hard, even under earth and sulphuric acid ; and which is also found in many springs, particularly When combined with sulphuric acid, at Epsum, whence it was called Epsom the calcareous earth forms gypsun, or se.salt.

lenile, which being burnt produces what Magnesian or talcous carth is infusie is called plaister of Paris.' The alabasble in the strongest heat. It does not ter of the moderns commonly belongs to forin phosphorets, like the three other the same combination; while that of the alkaline earths, liine, barytes, and ancients is often a stalagmite, or secrestrontia.

tion of common limestone. With fluoric In talc it sometimes amounts to one acid, calcareous surth becomes tluor os half of the composition; but in the Huate of lime. other substances, such as stearites and The greater proportion of limestone is serpentines, it is only from twenty to produced by the decomposition of inarine foriy; but its power is so great as sensi. shells; but the more ancient, which is bly to alter the appearance and qualities crystallised, and presents no trace of such of the stone. The chrysolite or peridot reinains, is called primitive, being supe of the French, containing about one half posed as ancient as any of the rocks. It magnesia, belongs to this division; and is in general easily distinguished froin the is remarkable as the only magnesian geni. other substances by the nitrous acid, for

The deserts of Siberia are annually co- merly called aqua furiis, which excites vered with efflorescences of Epsom salı, effervescence; but when mixed with may$0 as in the short summer to resemble nesia, or inuch silex, this effect is slowly

The calcous rocks in general procured. Nor do gypsum nor fluor efpresent a discriminating character in fervesce. their unctuous appearance; they have To these observations, which are however, in some cases, been contunded chiefly exçricted from Kirwan, Thomson, with the argillaceous, which occasionally and Patrin, it may be added that, in 1808, assume the softness and silky lustre of Mr. Davy reduced linie to a meral, which che magnesian. The presence of may, had the colour and lustre of silver, and nesia is olien indicated by a green cu- burnt with an intense white light into lour,

quick Lime.

In some works of inineralogy the first Domuin V.-Calcureous.

three Modes of this Domain, and even

the three succeeding, have been arranged This important substance is produced as mere sub-species, or varieties of linemy burning linestone, marble, or chalk; stone. Strici chemical analysis may proand is comiponly known by the name of hably discover a different proportion of lime. The purest is yielded by calcare ingredients, as for examples, inore waQus spar, or soine white inarbies.

icr of crystallisation in marble, and more Iis taste is hot and acrid; and it is in. or less silex or argil; and there is at any capable of lusion, even by the burning- rate a difference in the mode of combi

glass. It may however be fused when nation. But the chief use of any system joined with silex or clay.

being to assist the memory, even the Limestone is compused of lime and strict precision of terms becomes mere carbonic acid. Pleat separates the latter, pedantry, if it be not subservient to this and the lime is left pure. This acid is a inain object. Too large inasses of colour, species of gas, fornierly called fised air, or too small, will render the picture and discovered by Dr. Black in 1756 ; an equally inelegant and obscure. event which formed a revolution in the History of chemistry. Atmospheric air Domain VI:-Carbonaceous. is composed of about seventy-four parts in the hundred of nitrogen, und wenty. The name Carbon is not the most hap. six of oxygen : but the latter varies; and py, as it arises from charcoal, an artifithere is commonly one in the frundred of cial substance, while carbon is now well MONTHLY MAG. No, 229

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know the

CALCAREOUS EARTII.

CARBON.

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known to be an original element, which to the progress, illustration, and utility of
exists in the purest stare in the diamond, the science; each of them being ainply
and enters into the composition of side. suficient for the life and labours of one
rite, perhaps the most ancient of all the man; and, in this case, the subjects on.
pocks. Charcoal is now regarded as a der view could not be allotted to any
mixture of carbon and hydrogen. By other grand division.
combustion it is converted into carbonic
acid gas, formerly called fixed air, or ae- Domain VII.-Composite.
rial acid; n hence some writers have used This division comprehends the rocks
the epithet aerated lime, barytes, &c. which consist of different substances
for what are now called carbonates of blended together, and for which no dis-
Jimne, harytes, and the like. The disco. tinct denoininations have been adopted.
very of this new air by Dr. Black, led to Many of them have been classed under
wonderful improvements and a total re. vague names, particularly that of gra,
pogation of chemistry, which in its

pre.

nite. sent form has been called pneunatic, Under the division of Aggregated from its spiritual foundations. It is iné Rocks, Ginelin, in his edition of Lindeed reinarkable, that the profoundest næus, has arranged granite, gneiss, por. study, and the most patient experiinents, plıyry, amygdalite, bricia, and sand, should conduct us froin matter to spirit; slone; and the reader will be surprised and thence by a natural gradation of to find what various and discordant ob. thought, to that ineffable spirit, the Cre- jects are united under these vague ap: ator of the universe.

pellations. Mr. Kirwan has, in like The carbonic acid gas, more briefly manner, two titles of Aggregated and called carbonic acid, forms a constituent Derivative Stones; the other rocks hea part of the atmosphere, in the propor. ing considered under the simple subtion of about 1, in the 100, while the stances. remainder consists of about 77 of nitro- The latter six great divisions of the gen and 22 of oxygen gas. Combined rocks, being derived, not from the nawith the earths, it forms carbonates; and ture of the substances themselves, but that widely extended substance called froin accidences or circunstances, may limestone, which is often primeval, is a be called ACCIDENTIAL, or circumstani, carbonate of lime.

tial; while the former divisions are su BCarbon itself not only appears in the STANTIAL. The chemical Mode therepurest siate in the diamond; but forms fore, so essential in the substantial ranks, ihę preponderant part, sometimes even here becomes foreign to the object; and So in 100 of the substances now under the terms Structure and Aspect, derived view, and which liave therefore been from the self-apparent nature of the called carbonaceous, They not only en- stones themselves, would become yet ter into the composition of rocks, and more improper, as by far the greater some even of the primitive, but form part of these rocks are even compounded rocks themselves, as coal has been found of various domains, united in one mass. in masses of 80 or 90 feet in thickness. The term Domain bas been retained, The trivial name of sea-coal, arising from not in its former acceptation, which its inportation at London, might there may strictly imply the preponderance or fore well be exchanged for that of rock preduininance of a particular carth or coal, as we say rock-salı. Sone might, substance; but, in a more general sense, perbaps, prefer the German appellation equally applicable to all the twelve divi of bergaris, implying substances of what. sions; that is, merely a continuation of ever kind ishich enter into the composic the metaphoric language of the Mineral iion of mountains; or the Greek geostro- Kingdom, Provinces, and Domains. In mes, proposed by Patrim, to denote the this sense it is ivdeed chiefly used in the strata of the carth. But as the concli- first six divisions; the other implication, tic begs of limestone, sometimes more of predominance or preponderance, he recent than coal itself, though often in ing of a secondary and subsidiary nature, thin strata, universally assume the naine and only a further recommendation of of rocks, any refined discriinination its proprietý. would appear unnecessary. It has al- But the terin Mode implying the che ready been more than once observed that mnical inode of combination, which is the division of mineralogy into three even more essential than the nature and quite distinct and separate provinces, power of the substances combined, as METALLOGY, LITHOLOGY, and PETRALO- appears froin an infinite number of anaGY, would be of the utmost importance lysės, it cannot be adınitted into these

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New

new divisions, derived from accidential, stones he distinguishes from aggregates and not from substantial, differences, as by this, " that the associated ingredients has been just mentioned ; and, the infe- are not visibly distinct, or at least rerior terms being equally objectionable, guire microscopes to render them so. the adoption of a new appellation be He adds, that a derivative stone may be comes indispensable. The word Nome denominated from the species (that is, has been adopted, as short and conveni- the Mode), which still predominates ; ent, and as applied by the Greek wri- but, if it participate equally of boid, it ters to the districts of Egypt, the first may receive its denomination from ei. country where chemistry and mineralogy ther. The siderous, siliceous, and argil. appear to have been studied. It is laceous earths, forin the most frequent therefore not only of classical authority, combinations; while those of calcareous but has an atfinity, so to speak, with earth and magnesia are far more rare. the parent country of the science, and In bis Geological Essays he observes, thus presents scientific recollections. The that stones are either original, as graauthor has the greatest aversion to un. nite, or derivative, as sand-stonė; while, Decessary neology, the chief use of lan. in liis Mineralogy, he lias classed sando Luage being to be understood, and that stone, along with granite, among the ago The thoughis may be accurately per- gregates. ceived, as flowers or fruits in a vase of The appellation and distinction are in crystal; but, when a science has assumeit fact alike fallacious. That a red sandA new aspect, like chemistry, or is stone may be derived from the detritus wholly new, like mineralagy, new words of a red granite, may be justly admitted; become indispensable to express new

but this affords almost the only example ideas.

of a real derivative stone. And the in For the sake of memory, and easy re.

timate combinations of which Mr. Kire ference, the latter divisions follow the wan speaks are so far from being derivageneral succession of substances in the tive, that they often belong to the most former, but this arrangement must not original and primitive substances. But, he understood to inply that any sub- when Mr. Kirwan published his valuable stance is preciominant, as either may system in 1794 (and the last edition is have greater or less importance in differe merely reprinted), the knowledge of ent parts of the same rock. After these rucks was extremely confined, and reconsiderations, the proper arrangement garded only as an appendage to mineraof the Composite Rocks will not be ale bogy, instead of forining a grand and cended with much difficulty.

distinct science, a rank to which its diy.

nity and importance authorise it to asso Domain VIII.- Diumictonic. pire. These rocks, in which the substances The terin Dinmiclonic, derived from may be said to be chemically combined, the Greek, imffies that two or more form the most difficult province of the substances are so thoroughly mingled, wbole science, and mighe deserve a se- or, in the language of chemistry, so ine parale treatise like the Cryptogumia of cimately combined, that the rocks cane the Boianists. Sideruus earth, for ex. not be arranger under either Domain, ample, inay be found so inılmaiely and either from preponderance or predomi. equally combinert with the siliceous, that the rock cannot with propriety le are ranged weder eicher. The celebrated

Domain IX.-Anomalous. glazeut ruck, which Saussure observed Aniidse the infinite variety of nature, near the monastery of St. Bernard, is of there are many rocks whichi, though somethis description; and there is a specimen rimes composed of not unusual inides, are in the author's collection. It has been of so singular a structure, that they deserve called an intimate combination of qlariz to be ranked in a separate domain; more and roche de corne,

especially as the greater part are vicise Most of the Derivative rocks of Kir. Pinguished dignity and beauty. Others wau belong to this Doinain. The vaine are entitled to this distinction from their and idea he is said to have borrowed gemmose nature, being inlaid, su from Bergman. The aggregated scones speak, with precimis substances; such as of Kirwan comprehend granite, gneiss, opaline felspar, lazulite, charysolite, and purpligry, amygdalite, sand-stone, and topnz. other substances, visibly compounded of Those rucks may also be regarded as vasious materials; while his derivative anomalous which are of very rure occur.

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parte's orders or connivance, in the town ed over many interesting details relative to and neighbourhood of Jaffa. * As there particular minerals.] are so many living witnesses to attest TIIE AUTHOR'S NEW SYSTEM. the truth of ihis representatinn, and the N an aticmpt to establish a new' no. character of no ordinary individual is so much implicated in its result, the utmost requisite is, that it be conformable to the attention will be here paid to every par- simplicity and harmony of nature; and ticular likely to illustrate the fact; and, that it be free from affectation, as even for this especial reason, because that in the novelty itself is apt to displease. For dividual is our enemy. At the time we

this purpose it is necessary to revert to first were in Jaffa, so soon after the supposed principles, and if possible to establish the transactions are said to have occurred, edifice upon foundations universally ade the indignation of our Consul, and of milted. Natural history has been well and the inhabitants in general, against the popularly divided into three Kingdoms, the French, was of so deep a nature, that Animal, the Vegetable, and the Mineral. there is nothing they would not have In the two former the kingdom consists said, to vilify Buonaparte, or his offi- of living subjects, who of course may be cers; but this accusation they never

well considered at divided into Classes, eren hinted.

Orders, Genera, and Species; but in the

Mineral Kingdom the territory alone conThese falsehoods were first circulated stitutes the subject of discussion. It through the pamphlet of a British agent at must therefore be received as a funda. Constantinople, and then copied into Books mental truth or axiom, that the mineral of. Travels by the printers and editors to kingdom, being wholly inert, cannot ad, make their works sell, and humour the po. miť distinction which belong to vital pular prejudices against Buonaparte; all which were encouraged by the British ad. energy; and that an identity of appellaministration of the day. Vide Asperne,

tions cannot therefore be allowed, either Raworth, Skinner, Morier, Wilson, and in a grammatical or philosophical view. Wittman,-EDITOR.

But the very terms Mineral Kingdom may of itself lead to a new and more proper

noinenclature: for, as the kingdom may PETRALOGY.,

be regarded as eitlier vivified with ani. A TREATISE ON ROCKS,

mal and vegetable life, or as an inert

tract of country, with certain geographie BY J. PINKERTON. cal, chorographical, and topograplrical

divisions; so the latter point of view can alone apply to mineralogy, while the

former belongs to zoology and botany. [In a country abounding in Mineral Wealth, This simple induction will, it is hoped,

the 'cience of Mineralogy has scarcely yet lead of itself to easy and natural, though been naturalized among us. There are in new, denominations. For what is invre no country so many practical winers, with so usual than the divisiou of a kingdom into few speculative mineralogists. We, therefore, have perused this original work of Mr. provinces, districts, domains, &c. while, Pinkerton with great satisfaction, and con

as it would not only be pedaulic, but inceive it will vindicate the honor of Eng. adequate to the subject, to carry this land among foreigners in this ranch of sci- species of metaphor too far, some lesserence. The Author has already acquired re

divisions must be borrowed from the naspect in the republic of letters for his va- ture of the objects, as they present theme rious works on Antiquities, History, Geo- .selves to the observer. graphy, and different subjects of Belles Lettres, and in our opinion, to use his own phraseology, he has acquired fresh renown in the domain of Mineralogy. He has

I would propose, therefore, in the pre. rescued the subject from the pedantry and

sent advanced state of the science, that technological barbarism in which it has

the MINERAL KINODOM be considered as: been involved by Werner and the Ger. divided into three provinces: 1. Petra mans; and, through the medium of his LOGY, or the knowledge of rocks, or: work, the varieties of minerals inay now

stones which occur in large masses. 2. be studied with as much satisfaction as she LITHOLOOY, the knowledge of gems and general history of animated nature by Buf. small stones. 3. METALLOGY, or the fup. We shall only add, that, as' our ex-' knowledge of luetals. Each of these : traats have been made chiefly with a view branches is even at present so important, to explait bis classifications, we have pass and offers such numerous topics of disqui.

IN TWO VOLUMLS.

11 IS GRAND PROVINCES.

sition and research, that in the course of pronounce which preponderates. 9. The no long period a professor of each will Anomalous, or those which contradict appear in universities; and each might the conumon order of nature, and preoccupy the sole pursuit of an author who sent unexpected and unusual combinzis zealous to make discoveries, or to com. tions. Some of these domains, though pose complete and classical works. One they afford few objects at present, nay, of the chief causes of the slow progress in the progress of the science, be greatly of the science is, that it is too wide for enriched and enlarged; and the utility of one inind; and as zoology bas been di- soch divisions will be more perceptible vided into ornithology, ichthyology, en. as the study advances towards perfection, tomology, &c. so mineralogy, to be duly the greatest obscurity at present arising studied, should bare grand subdivisions. froin the want of necessary subdiri

sions. S DOMAINS.

The remaining three domains are geThese provinces may again be viewed nerally admitted in geological works, as divided into Domains, corresponding namely, 10. The Transilient Rocks, an with the Orders of some writers and the interesting series, in which one substance Genera of others, as the Provinces sup- gradually passes into another, as granite ply what are called Classes. This terin into porphyry, trap into wacker, and the Domain is preferred to District, &c. as like. 11. The Decomposed Rocks, wbich it not only implies a subdivision of a pro- gradually decay into sand, clay, or province, but, in another acceptation, a ductive soil. 12. The Volcanic, which ruling or preponderating power, strictly require no other description. applicable in mineralogy, where it is oiten the preponderance, and not the uni.

HIS MODES. versality, which imparts the denumiua. Having thus established the Domains, tion. Thus in the siliceous, calcareous, or Great Divisions, of Petralogy, the and other doinains, it is only understood smaller distinctions, can be derived only that the denominating portion preponde. from the objects, themselves, as we nust rates, as few or no rocks are pure, and arrive at what are by most mineralogic unmixed with other substances.

authors denominated Species, though in Petralogy, a province of mineralogy, their arbitrary and unnatural systeins, as may therefore be regarded as divided into Dr. Townson has observed, the Genera Twelve Domains; of which the first six, and Species are often confounded. “Thus being distinguished by the substances in the improved edition of Linnæus, the themselves, may be called SUBSTANTIAL: characters wbich constitute the Species in while the remaining six, being distinc gypsum form Genera in the carbonate of guished by circumstances or accidences lime; for the pulverulent, fibrous, spa. of various kinds, may be called CIRCUX- thous, and compact kinds of gypsum formi STANTIAL, or acciDENTAL; but this last but so many Species, whilst the pulverodivision is of little moment.

Jent, fibrous, spathous, and compact The first six domains of Petralogy com- kinds of carbonate of lime form so niany prise, 1. The Siderous Rocks, or those in different Genera.Now these very apa which iron predominates, not in the com- pearances, which constitute the arbitrary paratire quantity when analysed, but in Species and Genera of former authors, the quality and essential difference which what would they be, in the eyes of a phiit imparis. 2. The Siliceous, denomic losnpher or grainmarian, except different nated as usual from the goantity of Silex. modifications or modolities, of the same 3. The Argillaceous. 4. The Magnesian : substance, and which hy a shorter term these two are again den minated from may be denominated Modes? llence predominunce. 5. The Calcarcous. 6. the term MCDE, which is universally ap. The Carbonaceous.

plicable and unobjectionable, to distin. The remaining six domains, derived guish such ohjects, in mineralogy, is here froin circulastances or aecidences, are, admitted instead of Species. 7. The Composite, or Aggregated Rocks, To put the propriety of this new apo as calcareous spar with schorl, quarız, pellation to the test, examples may be and garnets, felspar and siderite or born. produced of what are called Species by blende, &c. This domain has often heen the most celebrated mineralogic writers. confounded with the granites, however Wallerius, among the species of garnet, atien from that description. 8. The Di. first mentions thai of an undetermined amictonic, or rocks in which the sube figure, composed of granulas particles; stances are so completely mingled, that and his next species is of an undetera it is decult, even upon an analysis, to mined figure, but laminar. What are

ter

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