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Scinduntur tunicæ sartæ: modo longa coruscat
Sarraco veniente abies, atque altera pinum
Plaustra vehunt, nutant alte, populoque minantur.
Nam si procubuit, qui saxa Ligustica portat
Axis, et eversum fudit super agmina montein,
Quid superest de corporibus ? quis membra, quis ossa
Invenit ? obtritum vulgi perit omne cadaver
More animæ. Domus interea secura patellas
Jam lavat, et buccâ foculum excitat, et sonat unctis
Strigilibus, pleno et componit lintea gutto.
Hæc inter pueros varie properantur ; at ille


under the provisions, by the current of air which he excited in hastening on with his load. Tliese processions Umbritius seems to reckon among other causes of the street being crowded, and made disagreeable and inconvenient for passengers.

254. Botched coats are torn.] Some refer this to the old botched clothes of these poor slaves--but I should rather imagine, that Um. britius here introduces a new circumstance, which relates to the poor in general, whose garments being old, and only hanging together by being botched and mended, are rent and torn off their backs, in getting through the crowd, by the violence of the press, which is increased by the number of masters and servants, who are hurrying along with the contents of the sportula.

A long fir-tree.] Another inconvenience arises from the passing of timber-carriages among the people in the streets. SENECA, epist. xl. Longo vehiculorum ordine, pinus aut abies deferebatur vicis intrementibus.

Brandishes.] Corusco signifies to brandish or shake; also neut. to be shaken, to wave to and fro--which must be the case of a long stick of timber, of the ends especially, on a carriage. This may be very dangerous if approached too near.

255. The waggon coming.] Moving on its way-sarracum signi. fies a waggon, or wain, for the purpose of carrying timber.

256. They nod on high.] These trees being placed high on the carriages, and lying out beyond them at each end, tremble aloft, and threaten the destruction of the people.

257. But if the axle, &c.] i. 2 If the stone-carriage has overturned, by the breaking of the axle-tree.

Ligustian stones.] Which were hewn, in vast masses, in Liguria, from the quarries of the Apennine mountains.

258. The overturned mountain.] Hyperbole, denoting the immensity of the block of stone.

Upon the crowd.] Agmen denotes a troop or company; also a number of people walking together, as in a crowded street.

259. What remains, &c.] If such an immense mass should, in its fall, light upon any of the people, it must grind them to atoms : no trace of a human body, its limbs, or bones could be found.

261. In the manner of the soul.]' i. e. The particles which com,

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Botched coats are torn. Now a long fir-tree brandishes,
The waggon coming, and a pine other

Carts carry, they nod on high, and threaten the people.
But if the axle, which carries the Ligustian stones,
Hath fallen down, and hath poured forth the overturned moun-

tain upon the crowd, What remains of their bodies ? who finds members—who Bones ? every carcase of the vulgar, ground to powder, perishes

260 In the manner of the soul. Mean while, the family secure now

washes The dishes, and raises up a little fire with the cheek, and makes

a sound with anointed Scrapers, and puts together the napkins with a full cruise. These things among the servants are variously hastened: but he

posed the body could no more be found, than could the soul which is immaterial; both would seem to have vanished away, and disappeared together.

261. Mean while.] Interea-q. d. While the slave is gone to bring home the provisions, and is crushed to pieces, by the fall of a stone-carriage, in his way. See l. 264, 5.

The family.] The servants of the family (Comp. I. 264.) safe at home, and knowing nothing of what had happened, set about preparing for supper.

262. The dishes.] Patella signifies any sort of dish to hold meat. -One washes and prepares the dishes which are to hold the meat when it arrives.

Raises up a little fire, &c.] Another, in order to prepare the fire for warming the water for bathing before supper, blows it with his mouth. Hence it is said—buccâ foculum excitat-alluding to the distension of the cheeks in the act of blowing.

262m-3. With anointed scrapers.] Strigil.—denotes an instrument for scraping the body after bathing-It had some oil put on it, to make it slide with less friction over the skin. Scrapers were made of gold, silver, iron, or the like, which, when gathered up, or thrown down together, made a clattering sound.

263. Puts together the napkins.] Lintea---linen napkins, or towels, made use of to dry the body after bathing: these he folds and lays in order.

A full cruise.] Guttoa sort of oil-cruet, with a long and narrow neck, which poured the oil, drop by drop, on the body after bathing, and then it was rubbed all over it.

264. These things among the servants, &c.] Each servant, in his department, made all the hạste he could, to get things ready against the supper

should arrive.

But he.] Illemi. e. The servulus infelix, (which we read of, 1. 253.) in his way home with his load of provisions, is killed by the fall of a block of stone upon him,



Jam sedet in ripa, tetrumque novitius horret
Porthmea; nec sperat coenosi gurgitis alnum
Infelix, nec habet quem porrigat ore trientem.

Respice nunc alia, ac diversa pericula noctis :
Quod spatium tectis sublimibus, unde cerebrum
Testa ferit, quoties rimosa et curta fenestris
Vasa cadunt, quanto percussum pondere signent,
Et lædant silicem : possis ignavus haberi,
Et subiti casûs improvidus, ad cænam si
Intestatus eas; adeo tot fata, quot illâ
Nocte patent vigiles, te prætereunte, fenestræ.
Ergo optes, votumque feras miserabile tecum,
Ut sint contentæ patulas effundere pelves.

Ebrius, ac petulans, qui nullum forte cecidit,


265. Sits on the bank.] Of the river Styx.By this account of the deceased, it is very clear, that Juvenal was no Epicurean, be. Jieving the soul to perish with the body, which some have wrongly inferred, from what he says, l. 261, more animæ. Comp. sat. ü. l. 149-59.

A novice.] Just newly arrived, and now first beholding such

a scene.

265.-6. The black ferryman,) Porthmea--from Gr. soepevs, a ferryman, one who ferries people over the water. Charon, the fabled ferryman of hell, is here meant.

266. Nor does he hope for the boat, &c.] Alnus properly signi. fies an alder-tree; but as the wood of this tree was used in making boats, it therefore-by met.-- signifies a boat.

As the poor deceased had died a violent death, and such a one as dissipated all the parts of his body, so as that they could not be col. lected for burial, he could not pass over the river Styx, but must remain on its banks an hundred years, which was held to be the case of all unburied bodies. See Virg. Æn. vi. 325-29. 365, 6. and Hor. lib. i. ode xxvii. 35, 6. This situation was reckoned to be very unhappy.

207. Nor hath he a farthing, &c.] The triens was a very small piece of money-the third part of the As, which was about three farthings of our money. It was a custom among the Greeks, to put a piece of money into the mouth of a dead person, which was supposed to be given to Charon, as his fare, for the passage in his boat, over the river Styx. This unhappy man, being killed in the manner he waș, could not have this done for him.

Though Juvenal certainly believed a future state of rewards and punishments, (sce sat. ii. 1. 153.) yet he certainly means here, as he does elsewhere, to ridicule the idle and foolish superstitions, which the Romans iad adopted from the Greeks, upon those subjects, as well as on many others relative to their received mythology.

268. Now consider, &c.] Umbritius still pursues his discourse, and adds fresh reasons for his departure from Rome: which, like Now sits on the bank, and, a novice, dreads the black 265 Ferryman; nor does he hope for the boat of the muddy gulph, Wretch [that he is nor hath be a farthing which he can reach

forth from his mouth. Now consider other, and different dangers of the night : What space from high roofs, from whence the brain A potsherd strikes, as often as from the windows eraeked and broken

270 Vessels fall, with what weight they mark and wound The stricken fint: you may be accounted idle, And improvident of sudden accident, if to supper You go intestate; there are as many fates as, in that Night, there are watchful windows open, while you pass by. 275 Therefore you should desire, and carry with you a miserable

wish, That they may be content to pour forth broad basons.

One drunken and petulant, who haply hath killed nobody,

the former, already giren, arise from the dangers which the inhabitants, the poorer sort especially, are exposed to, in walking the streets by night. These he sets forth with much humour.

268. Other, and different dangers.] Besides those already men. tioned, I. 196.-202.

269. What space from high roofs.] How high the houses are, and, consequently, what a long way any thing has to fall, from the upper windows into the street, upon people's heads that are passing by; and therefore must come with the greater force; insomuch that pieces of broken earthen ware, coming from such a height, make a mark in the flint pavement below, and, of course, must dash out the brains of the unfortunate passenger on whose head they may hapa pen to alight.

272. Idle.] Ignavus_indolent-negligént of your affairs. q. d. A man who goes out to supper, and who has to walk home through the streets at night, may be reckoned very indolent, and careless of his affairs, as well as very imprevident, if he does not make his will before he sets out

274. As mary fates.] As many chances of being knocked on the head, as there are open windows, and people watching to throw down their broken crockery into the street, as you pass along.

276. Therefore you should desiré, &c.] As the best thing which you can expect, that the people at the windows would content them selves with emptying the nastiness which is in their pots upon you, and not throw down the pots themselves.

Pelvis is a large bason, or vessel, wherein they washed their feet, or put to more filthy uses.

278. One drunken, &c.] Umbritius, among the nightly dangers of Rome, recounts that which arises from meeting drunken rakes it

Drunken and petulant.] We may imagine him in his way from

their cups.

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Dat pænas, noctem patitur lugentis amicum
Pelidæ ; cabat in faciem, mox deinde supinus :
Ergo non aliter poterit dormire : QUIBUSDAM
SOMNUM RIXA FACIT: sed quamvis improbus annis,
Atque mero fervens, cavet hunc, quem coccina læna
Vitari jubet, et comitum longissimus ordo;
Multum præterea flammarum, atque ænea lampas.
Me quem Luna solet deducere, vel breve lumen
Candelæ, cujus dispenso et tempero filum,
Contemnit : miseræ cognosce proæmia rixæ,
Si rixa est, ubi tu pulsas ego vapulo tantum.
Stat contra, starique jubet; parere necesse est;
Nam quid agas, cum te furiosus cogat, et idem
Fortior ? unde venis ? exclamat: cujus aceto,
Cujus conche tumes ? quis tecum sectile porrum
Sutor, et elixi vervecis labra comedit ?

· 290

some tavern, very much in liquor, and very saucy and quarrelsome, hoping to pick a quarrel, that he may have the pleasure of beating somebody before he gets home to fail of this, is a punishment to him.

279. The night of Pelides.] The poet humourously compares the uneasiness of one of these young fellows, on missing a quarrel, to the disquiet of Achilles (the son of Peleus) on the loss of his friend Patroclus; and almost translates the description which Homer gives of that hero's restlessness on the occasion. Il. w. l. 10, 11.

Αλλοτ' επι πλευρας κατακείμενος, αλλοτε δ' αυτε
Yπτιος, αλλοτε δε πρηνης.
Nunc lateri incumbens, iterum post paulo supinus

Corpore, nunc pronus. So the poet describes this rakehelly youth, as tossing and tumbling in his bed, first on his face, then on his back (supinus)--thus endeavouring to amuse the restlessness of his mind, under the disappointment of having met with nobody to quarrel with and beat thus wearying himself, as it were, into sleep.

281-2. To some a quarrel, &c.] This reminds one of Prov. iv. 16. . For they (the wicked and evil men, ver. 14.) sleep not, except they have done mischief, and their sleep is taken away unless they cause some to fall.”

282. Wicked from years.] Improbus also signifies lewd, rash, violent, presumptuous.-Though he be all these, owing to his young time of life, and heated also with liquor, yet he takes care whom he assaults.

283. A scarlet cloak.] Instead of attacking, he will avoid any rich man or noble, whom he full well knows from his dress, as well as from the number of lights and attendants which accompany him.

The læná was a sort of cloak usually worn by soldiers : but

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