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Has made, with small tables, and with a wet gem?
A potent matron occurs, who soft Calenian wine
About to reach furth, her husband thirsting, mixes a toad, 70
And, a better Locusta, instructs her rude neighbours,
Through fame and the people, to bring forth their black husbands.
Dare something worthy the narrow Gyaræ, or a prison,

you would be somebody. PROBITY IS PRAISED AND

To crimes they owe gardens, palaces, tabtes,

Old silver, and a goat standing on the outside of cups. [to sleep?
Whom does the corrupter of a covetous daughter-in-law suffer
Whom base spouses, and the noble young adulterer?

72. Black husbands.] Their corpses turned putrid and black,
with the effects of the poison.
73. Dare.] i. e. Attempt-presome-be not afraid to commit.

Something. ] Some atrocious crime, worthy of exile, or im.

The narrow Gyaræ.] Gyaras was an island in the Ægean sea, small, barren, and desolate-to which criminals were banished.

74. If you would be somebody.] i. e. If you would make yourself taken notice of, as a person of consequence, at Rome. A se. vere reflection on certain favourites of the emperor, who, by being informers, and by other scandalous actions, had enriched themselves.

Probity is pruised, &c.] This seems a proverbial saying-and applies to what goes before, as well as to what follows, wherein the poet is shewing, that vice was, in those days, the only way to riches and honours. JIonesty and innocence will be commended, but those who possess them, be left to starve.

75. Gardens.] i. e. Pleasant and beautiful retreats, where they had gardens of great taste and expense.

Palaces. The word prætoria denotes noblemen's seats in the country, as well as the palaces of great men in the city.

Tables.] Made of ivory, marble, and other expensive materials.

76. Old silver.] Ancient plate-very valuable on account of the workmanship.

A goat standing, &c.] The figure of a goat in curious bass. relief-which animal, as sacred to Bacchus, was very usually expressed on drinking cups.

77. Whom.] i. e. Which of the poets, or writers of satire, can
be at rest from writing, or withhold his satiric rage?

-- The corrupter.] i. e. The father, who takes advantage of
the love of money in his son's wife, to debauch her.
78. Base spouses.] Lewd and adulterous wives.

The noble young adulterer.] Prætextatus, se. the youth,
not having laid aside the prætextata, or gown worn by boys, sons of
the nobility, till seventeen years of age-yet, in this early period of
life, initiated into the practice of adultery.

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Si natura negat, facit indignatio versum,

关 Qualemcunque potest : quales ego, vel Cluvienus ti do 80 Ex quo Deucalion, mimbis tollentibus æquorgni 90

i no Navigio montem ascendit, sortesque poposcit, in DA Paulatimque animâ caluerunt mollia saxa,) on se Et maribus nudas, ostendit Pyrrha puellas :;' Quicquid agunt homines, votum, timor, ira, voluptas, 2685 Gaudia, discursus, nostri est farrago hibelli. Et quando uberior vitiorum copia ? quando Major avaritiæ patuit sinus ? alea quando Hos animos? neque enim loculis comitantibus itur Ad casum tabulæ, positâ sed luditur arcâ.


79. Indignation makes verse.] Forces one to write, however na. turally without talents for it.

80. Such as I, or Cluvienus.] i. e. Make or write. The poet names himself with Cluvienus, (some bad poet of his time,) that he might the more freely satirize him, which he at the same time does, the more severely, by the comparison.

81. From the time that Deucalion.] This and the three following lines relate to the history of the deluge, as described by Ovid. See Met. lib. i. 1. 264-315. 82. Ascended the mountain, &c.] Alluding to Ovid :

Mons ibi verticibus petit arduus astra duobus,
Nomine Parnassus
Hic ubi Deucalion (nam cætera texerat æquor)

Cum consorte tori parvâ rate vectus adhæsit. - Asked for lots.] Sortes here means the oracles, or billets, on which the answers of the gods were written. Ovid, (ubi supra,) 1. 367, 8. represents Deucalion, and his wife Pyrrha, resolving to go to the temple of the goddess Themis, to inquire in what manner mankind should be restored.

placuit cæleste precari Numen, et auxilium per sacras quærere sortes. And l. 381. Mota Dea est, sortemque dedit. Again, 1. 389. Verba datæ sortis.

To this Juvenal alludes in this line; wherein sortes may dered-oracular answers.

83. The soft stones, &c.] When Deucalion and Pyrrha, having consulted the oracle how mankind might be repaired, were answered, that this would be done by their casting the bones of their. great mother behind their backs, they picked stones from off the earth, and cast them behind their backs, and they became men and women.

be ren

Jussos lapides sua post vestigia mittunt:
Ponere duritiem cæpêre, suumque rigorer,
Mollirique morâ, mollitaque ducere formam, &c.

Ib. k. 399-402.

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If nature denies, indignation makes verse,
Such as it can: such as I, or Cluvienus.: wyto

From the time that Deucalion (the showers lifting up the sea)
Ascended the mountain with his bark, and asked for lots,
And the soft stones by little and little grew warm with life,
And Pyrrha shewed to males naked damsels, :
Whatever men do-desire, fear, anger, pleasure,

Joys, discourse—is the composition of my little book.
And when was there a more fruitful plenty of vices ? when
Has a greater bosom of avarice lain open? when the die
These spirits !--they do not go, with purses accompanying,
To the chance of the table, but a chest being put down is played


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Hence Juvenal says-mollia saxa.

It is most likely that the whole account of the deluge, given by Ovid, is a corruption of the Mosaical history of that event.– Plutarch mentions the dove sent out of the ark.

86. The composition, &c.] Farrago signifies a mixture, an hodgepodge—as we say, of various things mixed together. The poet means, that the various pursuits, inclinations, actions, and passions of men, and all those human follies and vices, which have existed, and have been increasing, ever since the flood, are the subjects of his satires.

88. Bosom of avarice.] A metaphorical allusion to the sail of a ship when expanded to the wind-the centre whereof is called sinus -the bosom. The larger the sail, and the more open and spread it is, the greater the capacity of the bosom for receiving the wind, and the more powerfully is the ship driven on through the sea.

Thus avarice spreads itself far and wide; it catches the inclina: tions of men, as the sail the wind, and thus it drives them on in a full course-when more than at present ? says

The die.] A chief instrument of gaming-put here for gaming itself. METON.

89. These spirits. Animus signifies spirit or courage; and in this sense we are to understand it here. As if the poet said, when was gaming so encouraged ? or when had games of hazard, which were forbidden by the law, (except only during the Saturnalia,) the courage to appear so open' and frequently as they do now? The sentence is elliptical, and must be supplied with habuit, or some other verb of the kind, to govern-hos animos.

They do not go, with purses, &c.] Gaming has now gotten to such an extravagant height, that gamesters are not content to play for what can be carried in their purses, but stake a whole chest of money at a time this seems to be implied by the word posita. Pono sometimes signifies-laying a wager-putting down as a stake. See an example of this sense, from Plautus, Ainsw. pono, No. 5.


the poet.

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Prælia quanta illic dispensatore videbis
Armigero! simplexne furor sestertia centum
Perdere, et horrenti tunicam non reddere servo ?
Quis totidem erexit villas ? quis fercula septem
Secreto cænavit avus? nunc sportula primo

Limine parva sedet, turbæ rapienda togatæ.
Ille tamen faciem prius inspicit, et trepidat ne
Suppositus venias, ac falso nomine poscas :
Agnitus accipies. Jubet a præcone vocari
Ipsos Trojugena3 : nam vexant limen et ipsi

100 91. How many battles, &c.] i. e. How many attacks on one an. other at play

The steward.] Dispensator signifies a dispenser, a steward, one that lays out money, a manager.

92. Armour-bearer.] The armigeri were servants who followed their masters with their shields, and other arms, when they went to fight. The poet still carries on the metaphor of prælia in the preceding line.-There gaming is compared to fighting ; here he humourously calls the steward the armour-bearer, as supplying his master with money, a necessary weapon at a gaming-table, to stake at play, instead of keeping and dispensing it, or laying it out for the usual and honest expenses of the family.

Simple madness, &c.] All this is a species of madness, but not without mixture of injury and mischief; and therefore may be reckoned something more than mere madness, where such immense sums are thrown away at a gaming-table, as that the servants of the family can't be afforded common decent necessaries. The Romans had their sestertius and sestertium. The latter is here meant, and contains 1000 of the former, which was worth about iid. See 1. 106, n.

93. And not give a coat, &c.] The poet here puts one instance, for

many, of the ruinous consequences of gaming. Juvenal, by this, sevarely censures the gamesters, who had rather lose a large sum at the dice, than lay it out for the comfort, happiness, and decent maintenance of their families.

94. So many villas.] Houses of pleasure for the summer-season. These were usually built and furnished at a vast expense. The poet having inveighed against their squandering at the gaming-table, now attacks their luxury, and prodigality in other respects; and then, the excessive meanness into which they were sunk.

95. Supped in secret, &c.] The ancient Roman nobility, in order to shew their munificence and hospitality, used, at certain times, to make an handsome and splendid entertainment, to which they invited their clients and dependents. Now they shut out these, and provided a sumptuous entertainment for themselves only, which they sat down to in private. Which of our ancestors, says the poet, did this?

Now a little basket, &c.] Sportula-a little basket or pan



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How many battles will you see there, the steward"
Armour-bearer! is it simple madness an hundred sestertia
To lose, and not give a coat to a ragged servant ?'
Who has erected so many villas ? What ancestor on seven dishes
Has supped in secret! Now a little basket at the first -.1 95
Threshold is set, to be snatched by the gowned crowd.
But he first inspects the face, and trembles, lest
Put in the place of another you come, and ask in a false name.
Acknowledged you will receive. He commands to be called

by the crier The very descendents of the Trojans : for even they molest the threshold


p. 375.

nier, made of a kind of broom called sportum. KenNET, Antiq.

In this were put victuals, and some small sums of money, to be distributed to the poor clients and dependents at the outward door of the house, who where no longer invited, as formerly, to the entertainment within.

96. To be snatched, &c.] i, e. Eagerly received by the hungry poor clients, who crowded about the door.

- The gowned crowd.] The common sort of people were called turba togata, from the gowns they wore, by which they were distinguished from the higher sort. See note before on I. 3. 97. But he.] i. e. The person who distributes the dole.

-First inspects the face.] That he may be certain of the person he gives to.

-And trembles.] At the apprehension of being severely reproved by his master, the great man, if he should make a mistake, by giving people who assume a false name, and pretend themselves to be clients when they are not.

99. Acknowledged, &c.] Agnitus—owned-acknowledged, as one for whom the dole is provided.

Perhaps, in better days, when the clients and dependents of great men were invited to partake of an entertainment within doors, there was a sportula, or dole-basket, which was distributed, at large, to the poor, at the doors of great men's houses. Now times were altered ; no invitation of clients to feast within doors, and no distribution of doles, to the poor at large, without--none now got any thing here, but the excluded clients, and what they got was distributed with the utmost caution, l. 97, 8.

-He commands to be called.] i. e. Summoned-called together. The poet is now about to inveigh against the meanness of many of the nobles and magistrates of Rome, who could suffer themselves to be summoned, by the common crier, in order to share in the distribution of the dole-baskets.

100. The very descendents of the Trojans.] Ipsos Trojugenasfrom 'Troja-or Trojanus-and gigno.-The very people, says he, who boast of their descent from Æneas, and the ancient Trojans, who first came to settle in Italy; even these are so degenerate, as to

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