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Here is no modesty in their discourse, or reverence of the table:

} 10 Here, of filthy Cybele, and of speaking with broken voice, The liberty; and an old fanatic, with white hair, - 16 Chief priest of sacred things, a rare and memorable example, Of an ample throat, and a inaster to be hired. But what do they wait for, for whom it is now high time, in the Phrygian

115 Manner, to cut away with knives their superfluous flesh? Gracchus gave 400 sestertia, a dower To a horn-blower, or perhaps he had sounded with strait brass, The writings were signed: “Happily”—said :-a vast

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113. Chief priest of sacred things.] of their abominable, rites and ceremonies, which they performed, in imitation of the women, to the Bona Dea.

114. An ample throat.] A most capacious swallow--he set an example of most uncommon gluttony.

A master to be hired.] If any one would be taught the science of gluttony, and of the most beastly sensuality, let him hire such an old fellow as this for a master to instruct him.

TER. And. act I. sc. ii. l. 19. has a thought of this kind. Simo says to Davus:

Tum si magistrum cepit ad eam rem improbum. 115. What do they wait for, &c.] As they wish to be like the priests of Cybele, and are so fond of imitating them, why do they delay that operation which would bring them to a perfect resemblance?

117. Gracchus.] It should seem, that by this name Juvenal does not mean one particular person only, but divers of the nobles of Rome, who had shamefully practised what he mentions here, and afterwards, i. 143. gave a dower--dotem dedit—as a wife brings a dower to her husband, so did Gracchus to the horn-blower.

400 sestertia.] See note, sat. i. 1. 106. about 31251. 118. A horn-blower, &c.] A fellow who had been either this, or a trumpeter, in the Roman army, in which the Romans only used wind-instruments : the two principal ones were the cornua, or horns, and the tub-trumpets: they both were made of brass : the horns were made crooked, like the horns of animals, which were used by the rude ancients in battle. The trumpets were strait, like ours, therefore Juvenal supposing the person might have been a trumpeter, says-recto cantaverat ære. That these two instruments were made of brass, and shaped as above mentioned, appears from Orid, Met. lib. i. 1. 98. Non tuba directi, non æris cornua flexi. See an account of the Roman martial musical instruments, KENNETT, Antiq. part II. book iv. Ć. 11.

119. The writings.] The marriage-writings. See note on 1, 58. - Happilyamsaid.} They were wished joy, the form of


Coena sedet: gremio jacuit nova nupta mariti.
O Proceres, censore opus est, an haruspice nobis ?
Scilicet horreres, majoraque monstra putares,
Si mulier vitulum, vel si bos ederet agnum?
Segmenta, et longos habitus, et flammea sumit,
Arcano qui sacra ferens nutantia loro
Sudavit clypeis ancilibus. O pater urbis !


which was by pronouncing the word" feliciter”-I wish you joy, as we say: this was particularly used on nuptial occasions, as among us.

119–20. A vast supper is set.] A sumptuous entertainment, on the occasion, set upon the table. Or, ingens cæna may here be used metonymically, to denote the guests who were invited in great numbers to the marriage supper : the word sedet is supposed equivalent with accumbit. This last is the interpretation of J. Britannicus, and C. S. Curio: but Holyday is for the first: and I rather think with him, as the word sedet is used in a like sense, where our poet speaks (sat. i. 1. 95, 6.) of setting the dole-basket on the threshold of the door :

Nunc sportula primo

Limine parva sedet.
So here for setting the supper on the table.

120. The new-married, &c.] As Sporus was given in marriage to Nero, so Gracchus to this trumpeter : hence Juvenal humourously calls Gracchus nova nupta, in the feminine gender. Nubere is applicable to the woman, and ducere to the man.

In the husband's bosom.] i. e. Of the trumpeter, who now was become husband to Gracchus.

121. O ye nobles.] 0 proceres ! ye patricians, nobles, sena. tors, magistrates of Rome, to whom the government and magistracy, as well as the welfare of the city is committed! Many of these were guilty of these abominations, therefore Juvenal here sarcastically invokes them on the occasion. A censor.

.) An officer whose business it was to inspect and reform the manners of the people. There were two of them, who had power even to degrade knights, and to exclude senators, when guilty of great misdemeanours. Formerly they maintained such a severity of manders, that they stood in awe of each other.

----Soothsayer.] Aruspex or haruspex, from haruga- sacri. fice (which from Heb. , to kill or slaughter) and specio--to view. A diviner who divined by viewing the entrails of the sacrifices. A soothsayer. When any thing portentous or prodigious happened, or appeared in the entrails of the beasts, it was the office of the haruspex to offer an expiation, to avert the supposed anger of the gods.

q. d. Do we, in the midst of all the prodigies of wickedness, want most a censor for correction, or an haruspex for expiation ? For, as the next two lines intimate, we ought not, in all reason, to

Supper is set: the new-married lay in the husband's bosom.- 120
O ye nobles ! have we occasion for a censor, or for a soothsayer ?
What! would you dread, and think them greater prodigies,
If a woman should produce a calf, or a cow a lanıb?
Collars, and long habits, and wedding veils he takes,
Who carrying sacred things nodding with a secret rein, 125
Sweated with Mars's shields. O father of the city!

be more shocked or amazed at the most monstrous or unnatural births, than at these monstrous and unnatural productions of vice.

124. Collars.) Segmenta-collars, ouches, pearl-necklaces worn by women. Ainsw. from seco, to cut--segmen, a piece cut off from something : perhaps segmina may mcan pieces of ribbon, or the like, worn as collars, as they often are by women among us.

Long habits.] The stola, or matron's gown, which reached down to the feet.

Wedding veils.] Flameum or flammeum, from flamma, a fiame, because it was of a yellowish or flame-colour. A'kind of veil or scarf, put over the bride's face for modesty's sake.

He takes.] Gracchus puts on, who once had been one of the Salii.

125. Who carrying sacred things.] This alludes to the sacred images carried in the processions of the Salii, which waved or nodded with the motion of those who carried them, or, perhaps, so con. trived, as to be made to nod, as they were carried along, like the image of Venus when carried in pomp at the Circensian games, mentioned by Ov. Amor. Eleg. lib. iii. eleg. ii.

Annuit et motu signa secunda dedit. A secret rein.] A thong, or leather strap, secretly contrived, so as by pulling it to make the image nod its head: to the no small comfort of the vulgar, who thought this a propitious sign, as giving assent to their petitions. See the last note.

126. Sweated with Mars's shields.] The ancilia were so called from ancisus, cut or pared round.

In the days of Numa Pompilius, the successor of Romulus, a round shield was said to fal rom heaven : this was called ancile, from its round form; and, at the same time, a voice said that the “ city would be of all the most powerful, while that ancile was pre“ served in it.” Numa, therefore, to prevent its being stolen, caused eleven shields to be made so like it, as for it not to be discerned which was the true one. He then instituted the twelve Salii, or priests of Mars, who were to carry these twelve shields through the city, with the images and other insignia of Mars, (the supposed fa. ther of Romulus the founder of Rome,) and while these priests went in procession, they sang and danced till they were all over in a sweat. Hence these priests of Mars were called Salii, a saliendo.

The poet gives us to understand, that Gracchus had been one of these Salii, but had left them, and had sunk into the effeminacios and debaucheries above mentioned.


Unde nefas tantum Latiis pastoribus? unde
Hæc tetigit, Gradive, tuos urtica nepotes ?.
Traditur ecce viro clarus genere, atque opibus vir :
Nec galeam qitassas, nec terram cuspide pulsas,
Nec quereris patri |--Vade ergo, et cede severi
Jugeribus campi, quem negligis. Ofticiuin cras
Primo sole mihi peragendum in valle Quirini.
Quæ causa officii? quid quæris ? nubit amicus,
Nec multos adhibet. Liceat modo vivere ; fient,

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126. O father of the city!] Mars, the supposed father of Romu. lus, the founder of Rome, and therefore called pater urbis. See Hor. lib. i. od. ij. l. 35-10.

127. Lutian shepherds?] Italy was called Latium, from lateo, to lie hid : Saturn being said to have hidden himself there, when he tted from his son Jupiter. See Virg. Æn. viii. 319-23. Romu. lus was supposed to have been a shepherd, as well as the first and most ancient ancestors of the Romans ; hence Juvenal calls them Latii pastores. So sat. viii. 1. 274, 5.

Majorum primus quisquis fuit ille tuorum,

Aut pastor fuit, &c. Whence could such monstrous, such abominable wickedness, be de. rived to a people, who once were simple shepherds !

128. This nettle.] Urtica-a nettle literally, but, by Met. the stinging'or tickling of lewdness. So we call being angry, being net. tled ; and it stands with us to denote an excitation of the passions.

Gradivus.] A name of Mars, from Gr. Kpadaiw, to brandish a spear. Some derive it from gradior, because he was supposed to go or march in battle. Homer has both these ideas Ηιε μακρα βιβας κραδαων δολιχοσκιον εγκος.

. See Virg. Æn. iii. 31. Gradivumque patrem, &c.

129. Is given.] Traditur—is delivered up in marriage, as a thing purchased is delivered to the buyer, so man to man, on payment of dowry, as for a wife.

130. You neither shake, &c.] In token of anger and resentment of such abomination.

131. Nor complain, &c.] To Jupiter, the father of all the gods, or perhaps Juvenal means your father,” as supposing with Hesiod that Mars was the son of Jupiter and Juno. So Homer, II. s. though some, as Ovid, make him the son of Juno without a father. Or. Fast. v. 229, &c.

Go therefore.] Since you are so unconcerned at these things, as to shew no signs of displeasure at them, you may aş well depart from us entirely.

Depart.] Cede for discede, the simple for the composite. So Virg. Æn. vi. 460. Invitus, regina, tuo de litore cessi,

132. The harsh field.] The Campus. Martius, a large field near Rome, between the city and the Tiber, where all manner of robust and martial exercises were performed, over which Mars was

Whence so great wickedness to Latian shepherds ? whence
Hath this nettle, O Gradivus, touched your descendents ?
Behold a man, illustrious by family, and rich, is given to a man;
You neither shake your helmet, nor with your spear smite the

130 Nor complain to the father !--Go therefore, and depart from

the acres Of the harsh field, which you neglect.-A bus'ness, to-morrow Early, is to be dispatched by me in the vale of Quirinus. What is the cause of the bus'ness ? why do you

ask? a friend marries :

[done, 135 Nor does he admit many. Only let us live, these things will be

supposed to preside. By the poet's using the epithet harsh, or severe,


may be supposed to allude to the harsh and severe conflicts there exhibited; or to Mars himself, to whom this is given by. Martial, ep. xxx. 1. 10.

Cum severi fugit oppidum Martis. 132. Which you neglect.] By not vindicating its honour, and not punishing those, who have exchanged the manly exercises of the Campus Martius for the most abandoned effeminacy.

A bus'ness, to-morrow.] In order to expose the more, and satirize the more severely, these male-marriages, the poet here intro. duces a conversation between two persons on the subject.

The word officium is peculiarly relative to marriage, nuptiale or nuptiarum being understood. Suet. in Claud. c. 26. Cujus officiuin nuptiarum, et ipse cum Agrippina celebravit. So Petron. Consurrexi ad officium nuptiale.

Such is the meaning of officium in this place, as relative to what follows. He was to attend the ceremony at sun-rise, at the temple of Romulus, which was a place where marriage-contracts were often made.

131. A friend marries.] The word 'nubo (as has been observed) properly belonging to the woman, as duco to the man. Nubit here is used to mark out the abominable transaction.

135. Nor does he admit many.] He does not invite many people to the ceremony, wishing to keep it rather private. He had not, perhaps, shaken off all fear of the Scantinian law.-_See before, 1. 43, note.

Only let us live, &c.] These seem to be Juvenal's words. Only let us have patience, and if we live a little longer, we shall not only see such things done, but donc openly; and not only this, but we shall see the parties concerned wish to have them recorded in the public registers.

Juvenal saw the increase of all this mischief, and might from this venture to foretelt what actually came to pass : for Salvian, who wrote in the fifth century, speaking of this dedecoris scelerisque consortium, as he calls it, says, that "it spread all over the city, and

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