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A. It is, for Christ himself was born st a virgin, and counselled virginity, though he commanded it not.

Q. How prove you that ?

A. Out of St. Matt. xix. 12. There be Eunuchs (said he) which have made themselves so for the kingdom of Heaven; he that can take let him take.

Q. How prove you that virginity is a more perfect state than marriage, or that it is lawful to vow virginity ?

A. Out of 1 Cor. vii. 37, 38. He that haih determined in his beart being settled, not having any necessity, but having power of his own will to keep his virgin, doth well; therefore he that joineth his virgin in marriage doth well, but he that joineth her not, doth better.

Q. What other proof have you ?

A. Out of 1 Tim. v. 5. But she that is a widow indeed, (that is, a vowed widow) and desolate, let her hope in God, and continue in prayer and observations day and night. And xi. 12. But the younger widows avoid, for they, when they shall be wanton in Christ, will marry, having damnation, because they have made void their first faith, that is, their vow of chastity, according to the fourth council of Carthage, Canon 104, and all the Fathers.

Q. Who was the first that taught marriage to be better than virginity, and persuaded priests and nuns to marry ?

A. Jovinian, an old condemned Heretic, according to St. Augustin, in his book of Heresies, Her. 82; and in his 2d book of Retractions, he calls him a monster for it, and saith the church stoutly resisted him, chap. 22.

The Third Counsel.

Q. WHAT is the third counsel?

A. Obedience, which is a voluntary submission to another's wul, and in all that is not sin.

Q. What warrant have you for that?

A. First, the example of Christ himself, who was obedient to our Lady and St. Joseph, “ And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth, and was subject to them." St. Luke ii. 51.

Secondly, Heb. xiii. 17. Obey your prelates, and be subiect to them; for they watch, heing to render an account for your souls.


of the Sacraments in-general.
Q. HOW many Sacraments are there?
A. Seven.
Q. How call you them?

A. Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Holy Order, and Matrimony. See 'the Council of Trent, Sess. 7. Can. 1.,

Q. Is there any cause why the number of Sacraments should be seven?

A. Yes; a probable cause is the Proportion which is between spiritual and corporal life.

Q. In what consists this proportion ?

A. In this; that as in corporal and natural life there be seven principal or chief necessities, so are there likewise seven spiritual, to which the seven Sacraments correspond.

Q. What is our first corporal necessity?

A. To be born into this world : to this Baptism corresponds, oy which we are regenerated onto God, and born the heirs of God and coheirs of Christ.

Q. What is the second corporal necessity?

A, To be confirmed in our strength and growth, without which we can never be made 'men; to this answers Confirmation, by which we are 'made strong and perfect Christians, able to profess our faith before our enemies.

Q. What is our third corporal necessity ?

A. That (being now made men) we have a competence of daily food and sustenance ; to which the blessed Eucharist corresponds, by which aur souls are fed with divine grace as often as we worthily receive it, or offer it with the Priest on the altar.

Q. What is the fourth necessity of the body?

A. That we have physic when we are sick and wonnded : to this the sacrament of penance answers; by which our inaladies and spres of sin are healed.

Q. What is our fifth necessity of the body?

A. That we have the necessary helps against the agonizing pangs of death; to this corresponds Extreme Unction, by which our soul is strengthened in her last agony, against the · violent assaults of the devil.

Q. What is the sixth corporal necessity ?

A. That we be governed by laws and magistrates, so as to avoid injustice and confusion; to this Iloly Order corresponds, by which we are provided of spiritual magistrates to guide and govern us.

Q. What is the seventh corporal necessity ?

A. That we be multiplied in a lawful manner; and to this Matrimony corresponds, by which we are not only multiplied in a natural, but in a holy and sacramental way.

Q. What is a Sacrament in general ?

A. It is a visible sign of invisible grace, divinely instituted by Christ for our sanctification.

Q. How prove you that Christ ordained them all ?

A. Because it is not in the power of any pure creature to give infallible virtue, causing grace to sensible and material things, such as the Sacraments are; according to the Council of Trent, Sess. 7. Can. 1.

Q. From what have the Sacraments their force and efficacy?

A. From the blood and passion of Christ, which they app!y to our souls.

Q. How prove you that?

A. Rom. vi. 3. Are you ignorant (saith St. Paul) that we, wbo are baptized in Christ Jesus, in his death are baptized ? And Rom. v. 9. Much more therefore, now being justified in his blood, shall we be saved from wrath by him.

Q. For what end did Christ ordain the Sacraments ?

A. To be external and visible marks and professions of his huly faith, by which the faithful might be known; and also to be effectual means of our salvation, and certain remedies against sin,

Q. What things are essential to a Sacrament?
A. Matter and form.
Q. Do all the seved Sacraments give grace ?
A. They do, most certainly.
Q. What is grace?

A. It is a supernatural quality produced in our souls and inherent in them, by which we are made the adopted children of God, special partakers of the divine nature, and like to God, in some degree; as iron is made like to fire by heat.

Q. How many of these Sacraments give a character? *A: "Three; Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Order.

Q. What is a sacramental character?

A. It is a supernatural mark in the soul, whereby we are marked for God's servants, which can never be blotted out.

Q. In what manner do the Sacraments give and cause grace ?

A. As means or instruments only; for God is always the principal cause thereof.

Q. Who is the ordinary minister of a Sacrament?

A. A priest; excepting holy orders and confirmation, which are conferred by bishops ouly.

Q. Why did Christ confine the administration of the Sacraments to the hierarchy, and to priests only?

A. Because when he instituted his church after the manner of a city or kingdom, it was fitting to appoint a clergy or select portion of its members to regulate its concerns and administer bis ordinances. Hence St. Paul, speaking of them, says, 1 Cor. iv. I. So let men consider us as the ministers of Christ and the dispensers of the mysteries of God. And 2 Cor. v. 20. We are therefore ambassadors of Christ; God as it were exhorting by us,

Baptism Expounded.
Q. WHY is Baptism the first Sacrament?

A. Because by it we are born again, or created anew in Christ Jesus, and therefore before it we are not capable of receiving any other. : Q. What is Baptism?

A. It is an exterior washing of the body, under a set form of words,

Q. What is the necessary matter of Baptism?
A. Natural water only; for artificial water will not suffice.
Q. What is the form of it?

A. I baptize thee. in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.

What if a man' leave out the word (I baptize) or any of the three persons ?

A. Then the Baptism is invalid.

Q. Where did Christ express the form of baptism, and give us a command to baptize?

A. In St. Matt. xxviii. 29. Go therefore (saith he) leach ye all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. • Q. Cap a inan be saved witbove Baptism?

A. He cannot, unless he receive it really or in desire with contrition; or be baptized in his blood as the holy Innocents were, which suffered for Christ.

Q. How prove you that?

A. Out of St. John iii. 5. Unless a man be born again of water, and the Holy Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.

Q. Can no man but a priest baptize? : A. Yes ; in case of necessity any lay man or woman may do it, and not otherwise,

Q. What is a chief necessity ?

A. When a child is in danger of death, and a priest cannot be had.

Q. What are the effects of Baptism?

A. It makes us the children of God, and remits both original and actual sin, if he that is baptized be guilty of it."

Secondly, it infuseth justifying grace into the soul, with habits of faith, hope, and charity, and all supernatural gifts and virtues.

Q. How prove you that ?

A. Out of Gal. iii. 27. As many of you as are baptized in Christ, have put on Christ.

Secondly, out of 1 Cor. vi. 10, 11. Where speaking of fornicators, idolaters, thieves, adulterers, and liars : These things (saith St. Paul) ye were, but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and in the spirit of God. .

Thirdly, out of Tit. v. 6, 7. He hath saved us by the laver of regeneration and renovation of the Holy Ghost, whom ve hath abundantly poured out upon us, by Jesus Christ (or

Saviour, that being justified by his grace we may be neirs, · according to the hope of life everlasting. .

Q. What other effect hath Baptism?

A. It makes a spiritual mark or character in the soul, which shall remain for ever, either to our great joy in Heaven, or our confusion in Hell.

Q. What sin is it to baptize a man twice ?
A. A mortal sin of sacrilege.
R. How prove you that?

A. Out of Heb. vi. 4, 5, 6. It is impossible for those that have been illuminated, and made partakers of the Holy Ghost, (to wit, by Baptism) and are fallen, &c. to be renewed again unto penance, &c, viz. by a second Baptism.

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