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this is my body which shall be delivered up for you ; this chalice is the New Testament in my blood."
Q. By what means is the body and blood of Christ made present under the outward forms of bread and wine ?
A. By a real conversion or change of the whole substance of the bread and wine into the whole substance of the body and blood of Christ; which conversion is wrought by the power of God when the most holy words of consecration, instituted by Christ, are spoken by the priest; and is fitly called Transubstantiation, by the councils of Lateran and Trent, which signifies a passage or conversion of one substance into another.
Q. Is there any scripture for Transubstantiation ?
A. The word Transubstantiation is not found in scripture, but for the thing signified by it, there are those places in scripture which prove a real presence; because those words, This is my body, spoken by Christ, after he had taken bread into his hands, and signifying that to be his body, which before was bread, cannot be true, without the change of bread into his body; which change is (as I have said aiready) the thing signified or meant by Transubstantiation. Nor may the words be lawfully rejected for not being found in scripture, more than other words used by the church, to explain mysteries of faith: as the word, Trinity, or Consubstantiality of God the Son with God the Father, which are not found in scripture.
Q. What mean you by these species or accidents which remain after the substance of the bread is changed ?
A. The colour, taste, and quality of bread.
Q. Is the body of Christ divided or broken, when we divide or break the sacrament?
A. It is not, for he is now immortal and impassible; he cannot die nor suffer any more, Rom. vi. 9. his body has now some qualities of a spirit.
Q. What other reason have you ?
A. Because Christ is whole in the whole host, and whole in every particle thercof, if you divide or break it; seeing that wherever there would have been bread before consecration, there must needs be the whole body and blood of Christ after consecration.
Q. What example have you for that?
A. The Soul of Man, which is whole in the whole body, and whole in every part of the body, as learned protestants neither do nor can deny.
Q. How can the same thing be in many several places at once ?
A. By the omnipotent power of God, by which he himself is in all, and every one of his creatures at the same instant.
Q. What other proof have you?
A. Out of Acts ix. 4, 5, where we read, that Christ, who is always sitting at the right hand of the Father in Heaven, appeared notwithstanding, and discoursed with St. Paul on earth, saying, Saul, Saul, why dost thou persecute me? And when St. Paul replied, Who art thou, Lord ? He answered, I am Jesus whom thou dost persecute.
Q. What is the necessary matter of the Eucharist ?
Q. Why is a little waler mingled with the wine in the chalice?"
A. Tɔ signify the blood and water flowing from the side of Christ; as also, the union of the faithful with Christ, by virtue of this Sacrament.
Q. What dispositions are required in him that receives the Eucharist?
A. That he hath first confessed his sins, and be in the state of grace.
Q. How prove you that?
A. Out of 1 Cor. xi. 28. Let a man prove himself, and so let him eat of this bread and drink of this cup. For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh judgment to himself, not discerning the body of our Lord.
Q. What are the effects of the Eucharist?
A. It replenisheth the soul with grace, and nourisheth it in spiritual life : He that eateth of this bread shall live for ever. St. John vi. 58.
Q. What other benefit have we by it?
A. It is a most moving and effectual commemora'ion of the incarnation, nativity, resurrection, and ascension of Christ, but chiefly of his passion and death.
Q. How do you prove it lawful for the laity to communicate under one kind only?.
A. First, because there is no command in scripture for the Jaity to do it under both, though there be for priests in those words, “ Drink ye all of this," St, Matt. xxvi. 27, which was spoken to the apostles only and by them fulfilled; for it
follows in Mark xiv. 23, « And they all drank.” 2. Out of St. John vi. 58,“ He that eateth of this bread shall live for ever.” Therefore, one kind sufficeth. 3. Out of Acts xx. 7, where we read, That the faithful were assembled on the first of the sabbath to break bread, without any mention of the cup. And St. Paul, 1 Cor. xi. 17, saith,“ Therefore, whoever shall eat this bread or drink the chalice of our Lord unworthily, he shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord.”
Q. Is the most holy Eucharist or mass a sacrifice ?
A. It is the unbloody sacrifice of the body and blood of Jesus Christ, which he himself instituted at his last supper.
Q. What is an exterior visible sacrifice ?
A. It is a most necessary, act of religion whereby some sensible thing is offered to God by a priest, in order to acknowledge his supreme dominion over us, and our entire dependence on him. It is offered to God as an act of pure adoration, or to render him thanks for his benefits received, or to turn away his anger, or to obtain from him some new blessing, or for all those purposes together.
Q. Is the blessed Eucharist a sacrifice ?
A. It is that most excellent sacrifice which the Prophet Malachy, i. 11, foretold would be offered in the church of the Gentiles, from the rising of the sun to the going down. thereof; a sacrifice which Christ himself first offered, being constituted, by God the Father, a Priest for ever according to the order of Melchisedech.
The Priesthood of Melchisedech, who offered bread and wine in sacrifice, and then distributed it to the wearied soldiers of Abraham, was a most lively figure of that of Christ offering himself to God for us under the appearances of bread and wine, and then distributing with his own hands the victim to bis own soldiers the Apostles. Gen. xiv. 18.
Q. Why are the priests obliged to receive uader both kinds ?
A, Becanise they offer sacrifice, and represent the bloody sacrifice made upon the cross, where the blood was actually divided from the body, and being offerers of the sacrifice, are bound to receive also the cup, by Christ's command expressed, Matt, xxvi. 27. Drink ye all of this. 'Q. Did the laity ever communicate under both kinds?
A. They did sometimes in the primitive church, and may again, if holy church shall so appoint; but now it is probibited by the church, to prevent the great danger of shede
ding the cup, neither are the laity in this defrauded of any thing; for they receive whole Christ under one kind, which is incomparably more than the pretended reformers have under boin, who receive only a bit of baker's bread, with a cup of common vintner's wine. See “ Holy Order expounded." See also, “ 'The Mass expounded,” ch. 22.
. THE ORDINARY OF THE MASS. The Priest at the Foot of the Altar, beginning,
IN the Name of the Father, and of the Son, &c. Amca.
Psalm xlii. JUDGE me, O God, and distinguish my cause from the riation that is not holy; from the unjust and deceitful man deliver me. · R. Since thoni, O God, art my strength, why hast thou rejected me ; and why do I go sorrowful whilst the enemy afficteth me?
P. Send forth thy Light and thy Truth ; they have conducted and brought me unto thy holy Mount, and into thy Tabernacle.
R. And I will go unto the altar of God: to God who rejoiceth my youth.
P. I will praise thee on the harp, O God, my God: why art thou sorrowful, O my soul? and why dost thou disturb me ?
R. Hope in God, for him will I still praise: he is my God, and the Saviour I look for.
P. Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, &c.
R. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be world without end. Amen.
P. I will go unto the altar of God.
P. I confess to Almighty God, &c.
R. May Almighty God be merciful to thee, and, forgiving thee thy sins, bring thee to everlasting life.
R. I confess to Almighty God, to the blessed Mary, ever Virgin, blessed Michael the Archangel, blessed John the Baptist, the holy Apostles Peter and Paul, to all the saints, and to you, Father, that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word, and deed, through my faut, through my fault, through my most grierous fault. Therefore, I beseech the blessed Mary, ever Virgin, blessed Michael the Archangel, blessed John the Baptist, the holy Apostles Peter and Paul, and all the saints, and you, O Father, to pray to the Lord our God for me.
P. May Almighty God be merciful unto you, and forgiving you your sins, bring you to life everlasting.
P. May the Almighty and merciful Lord grant us pardon, absolution, and remission of our sins.
The Priest, going to the Altar, says: Take away from us our iniquities, we beseech thee, O Lord, that we may be worthy to enter with pure minds into the Holy of Holies ; through Christ, &c. Amen. When come up to the Altar, bowing down, he says:
We beseech thee, O Lord, hy the merits of thy saints, whose relics are here, and of all the saints, that thou wouldst vouchsafe to forgive me all my sins. Ainen.
Whilst he reads the Introit, say: Let the name of the Lord be blessed both now and for ever. From the rising to the setting of the sun all praise is due to