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to the death, gave up the cup of water to a dying soldier. We find his whole spirit in the story of the Arcadia, in the first two books and a part of the third, which alone were written by him. It is a romance mixed up with pastoral stories after the fashion of the Spanish romances. The characters are real, but the story is confused by endless digressions. The sentiment is too fine and delicate for the world. The descriptions are picturesque, and the sentences are made as perfect as possible. A quaint or poetic thought or an epigram appears in every line. There is no real art in it or in its prose. But it is so full of poetical thought that it became a mine into which poets dug for subjects.

Criticism began with Sidney's Defence of Poetrie. Its style shows us that he felt how faulty the prose of the Arcadia

The book made a new step in the creation of a dignified English prose. It is still too flowery, but in it the fantastic prose of his own Arcadia and of the Euphues dies. As criticism it is chiefly concerned with poetry. It defends, against STEPHEN Gosson's School of Abuse, in which poetry and plays were attacked from the Puritan point of view, the nobler uses of poetry. Sackville, Surrey, and Spenser are praised, and the other poets made little of in its pages. It was followed by WEBBE's Discourse of English Poetrie, written 'to stirre up some other of meet abilitie to bestow travell on the matter. Already the other was travailing, and the Arte of English Poesie, supposed to be written by GEORGE PUTTENHAM, was published in 1589. It is the most elaborate book on the whole subject in Elizabeth's reign, and it marks the strong interest now taken in poetry in the highest society that the author says he writes it 'to help the courtiers and the gentlewomen of the court to write good poetry, that the art may become vulgar for all Englishmen's use.'

LATER THEOLOGICAL LITERATURE.—Before we come to the Poetry we will give an account of the Prose into which the tendencies of the earlier years of Elizabeth grew. The first is that of theology. For a long time it remained only a literature of pamphlets. Puritanism, in its attack on the stage and in the Martin Marprelate controversy upon episcopal government in the Church, flooded England with small books. Lord Bacon even joined in the latter controversy, and Nash, the dramatist, made himself famous in the war by the vigor and fierceness of his wit. Over this troubled sea rose at last the stately work of RICHARD HOOKER. It was in 1594 that the first four books of The Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity, a defence of the Church against the Puritans, were given to the world. Before his death he finished the other four. The book has remained ever since a standard work. It is as much moral and political as theological. Its style is grave, clear, and often musical. He adorned it with the figures of poetry, but he used them with temperance, and the grand and rolling rhetoric with which he often concludes an argument is kept for its right place. On the whole it is the first monument of splendid literary prose that we possess.”

"Hooker affords our first example of an elaborate, high-sounding, ' periodic style.' His sentences, in their general character, are long and involved. With all their excellencies, they are not good models for English periods. In writing our first elaborate theological treatise, his fine ear was irresistibly caught by the rhythm of Latin models ; and, while he learned from them a more even proportion of sentence, le learned also to build an elaborate rhythm at the expense of native idiom. Attention to clearness and simplicity in the structure of paragraphis was a thing unknown in the age of Elizabeth, and Hooker was, in this respect, neither better nor worse than the good writers of his time.”William Minto.

THE ESSAY.—“ We may place alongside of it, as the other great prose work of Elizabeth's later time, the development of the Essay in LORD Bacon's Essays, 1597. Their highest literary merit is their combination of charm and even of poetic prose with conciseness of expression and fulness of thought. The rest of Bacon's work belongs to the following reign. The splendor of the form, and of the English prose of the Advance



ment of Learning, afterwards written in the Latin language, and intended to be worked up by the addition of the Novum Organum and the Sylva Sylvarum into the treatise of the Instauratio Magna, which Bacon meant to be a philosophy of human knowledge, raises it into the realm of pure literature.”

“ The works of Bacon afford very little food for ordinary human feelings. All the pleasure we gain from them is founded upon their intellectual excellencies. Even the similitudes are intellectual rather than emotional, ingenious rather than touching or poetical. To adapt an image of Ben Jonson's, the wine of Bacon's writings is a dry wine. As we read, we experience the pleasure of surmounting obstacles; we are electrified by unexpected analogies, and the sudden revelations of new aspects in familiar things; and we sympathise more or less with the boundless exhilaration of a mind that pierces with ease and swiftness through barriers that reduce other minds to torpor and stagnancy. The opinions contained in his Essays, observations and precepts on man and society, are perhaps the most permanent evidence of his sagacity. In this field he was thoroughly at home; the study of mankind occupied the largest part of his time.”— William Minto.

“JOHN FLORIO's translation of the Essays of Montaigne, 1603, is also worth mentioning, because Shakespeare used the book and because we trace Montaigne's influence on English literature even before his retranslation by Charles Cotton.

History, except in the publication of the earlier Chronicles by Archbishop Parker, does not appear again in Elizabeth's reign; but in the next reign Camden, Spelman, and John Speed continued the antiquarian researches of Stow and Grafton. Bacon published a history of Henry VII., and SAMUEL DANIEL, the poet, in his History of England to the Time of Edward III., 1613, 18, was one of the first to throw history into such a literary form as to make it popular. KNOLLES' History of the Turks and SIR WALTER RALEIGH'S vast sketch of the History of the World show how, for the first time, history spread itself beyond English interests. Raleigh's book, written in the peaceful evening of a stormy life, and in the quiet of his prison, is literary not only from the ease and vigor of its style but from its still spirit of melancholy thought.

The Literature of Travel was carried on by the publication in 1589 of HAKLUYT'S Navigation, Voyages, and Discoveries of the English Nation, enlarged afterwards in 1625 by SAMUEL PURCHAS, who had himself written a book called Purchas, his Pilgrimage; or The Relations and Religions of the World. The influence of a compilation of this kind, containing the great deeds of the English on the seas, has been felt ever since in the literature of fiction and poetry.

In the Tales, which poured out like a flood from the dramatists, from such men as Peele and Lodge and Greene, we find the origin of English fiction and the subjects of many of our plays; while the fantastic attempt to revive the practices of chivalry, which we have seen in the Arcadia, found food in the translation of a new school of romances, such as Amadis of Gaul, Palmerin of England, and the Seven Champions of Christendom.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. SIDNEY AND HOOKER.-Disraeli's Amen. of Lit.; R. Southey's Fragment of Life of; Marsh's Orig. and Hist. Eng. Lit.; E. P. Whipple's Lit. of the Age of Eliz.; Minto's Mon. of Eng. Prose Lit.; Littell, v. 3, 1863; N. A. Rev., v. 88, 1859; Ecl. Mag., Apr., 1847; and Dec., 1855; N. Br. Rev., v. 26, 1856–7.

BACON.- Essays with Annotations by Whately; Works with Life by B. Montagu; Minto's Man. of Eng. Prose Lit.; Boyd's Autumn Holidays ; Littell, 1863, v. 3; Nat. Quar. Rev., v. 6, 1863; Fraser's Mag., v. 55, 1857; N. Br. Rev., v. 27, 1857; Ecl. Mag., Oct., 1849; Feb., 1855; and Feb., 1857.


From Sidney's Defence of Poetrie. Nowe therein of all Sciences is our Poet the Monarch. For he dooth not only show the way but giveth so sweete a prospect into the way as will intice any man to enter into it. Nay, he dooth, as if your jour. ney should lie through a faire Vineyard, at the first give you a cluster of Grapes, that, full of that taste, you may long to passe further. 'He beginneth not with obscure definitions, which must blur the margent? with interpretations, and load the memory with doubtfulnesse; but hee

1 Margin.

cometh to you with words set in delightfull proportion, either accompanied with, or prepared for, the well enchaunting skill of Musicke; and with a tale, forsooth, he cometh unto you—with a tale which holdeth children from play, and old men from the chimney corner. And, pretending no more, doth intende the winning of the mind from wickednesse to vertue; even as the childe is often brought to take most wholsom things, by hiding them in such other as have a pleasant tast; which, if one should beginne to tell them the nature of Aloes or Rubarb they shoulde receive, woulde sooner take their Phisicke at their eares then.at their mouth. So is it in men, (most of which are childish in the best things till they bee cradled in their graves) glad they will be to heare the tales of Hercules, Achilles, Cyrus, and Aeneas: and hearing them, must needs heare the right description of wisdom, valure, and justice; which, if they had been barely, that is to say, philosophically set out, they would sweare they bee brought to schoole againe.

Sith, then, Poetrie is of all humanet learning the most auncient, and of most fatherly antiquitie, as from whence other learnings have taken their beginnings; sith it is so universall, that no learned Nation dooth despise it, nor no barbarous Nation is without it; sith both Roman and Greek gave divine names unto it, the one of prophecying, the other of making; and that indeede that name of making is fit for him, considering that, where as other Arts retaine themselves within their subject and receive, as it were, their beeing from it, the Poet onely, bringeth his owne stuffe, and dooth not learne a conceites out of a matter, but maketh matter for a conceite; sith neither his description nor his ende containeth any evill, the thing described cannot be evill; sith his effects be so good as to teach goodnes and to delight the learners; sith therein (namely in morrall doctrine, the chiefe of all knowledges,) hee dooth not onely farre passe the Historian, but for instructing is well nigh comparable to the Philosopher, and for moving leaves him behind him; sith the holy scripture (wherein there is no uncleannes) hath whole parts in it poeticall, and that even our Saviour Christ vouchsafed to use the flowers of it; sith all hiso kindes are not onlie in their united formes but in their severed dissections fully commendable, I think (and think I thinke rightly) the Lawrell crowne appointed for triumphing Captaines, doth worthilie (of al other learnings) hon the Poets tryumph.

So that sith the ever-praiseworthy Poesie is full of vertue-breeding delightfulnes, and voyde of no gyfte that ought to be in the noble name of learning; sith the blames laid against it are either false or feeble; sith the

1 Than. 2 Valor. 3 Since. Human. 6 Conception. 6 Its not yet in the language.

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