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to the queen, 1590; an unsuccessful
candidate for the office of solicitor-
general, 1591; received from his friend,
the Earl of Essex, an estate worth in
our money, to-day, $40,000; obliged by
his position to appear against Essex
in his trial for treason; knighted, 1603;
solicitor-general, 1607; attorney-gen-
eral, 1613; keeper of the great seal,
1617; lord high chancellor, 1618; Baron
Verulam, 1618; Viscount Saint Albans,
1619; Novum Organum, a part of the
Instauratio Magna, or Great Resto-
ration, 1620; accused of taking bribes,
by one Waynham, against whom he
had decided a suit in chancery; sen-
tenced, 1621, to pay £40,000 and to im-
prisonment; fine remitted and he set
at liberty by the king; d. 1626.

98, 99, 104-107
Bæda, b. in the county of Durham,

672; placed at the age of seven under
Benedict Biscop, in the monastery of
Wearmouth; deacon at nineteen and
priest at thirty; lived at Jarrow
(Yarrow); d. 735.


Ballads, Chevy Chase.

Barbour, John, b. 1316, at Aberdeen;

became archdeacon of Aberdeen; vis-
ited Oxford to complete his studies;
d. 1396....

Barrow, Isaac, b. in London, 1630;

M.A. at Cambridge in 1652; ordained,
and made professor of Greek at Cam-
bridge, 1660; professor of mathemat-
ics, 1663; resigned in favor of his
pupil, Isaac Newton, 1669; master of
Trinity College in 1672; d. 1677... ... 201
Baxter, Richard, b. in Shropshire,

1615; ordained, 1638; vicar of Kidder-
minster, 1640; chaplain to one of Crom-
well's regiments, 1645; Saint's Ever-
lasting Rest, 1649; chaplai to Charles
II., 1660; refused the offer of a bish-
opric; ejected from the Anglican
Church by Act of Uniformity, 1662;
fined 500 marks by Jeffries on charge
of sedition, 1685; imprisoned 18 months
for non-payment; his works are 168
in all; d. 1691...


Beattie, James.

..244, 247
Beaumont & Fletcher, the one b.

1586 in Leicestershire; educated at Ox-
ford; studied law; d. 1616. The other
b. in Northamptonshire 1576; edu-
cated at Cambridge: and d. 1625; as-
sociated in authorship, producing a
great number of plays. F. wrote after
the death of B....

.146, 147
Bentham, Jeremy, b. in London, 1748;

graduated at Oxford, 1766; admitted
to the bar, 1772; Fragment on Govern-
ment, 1776; Introduction to the Prin-
ciples of Morals and Legislation, 1789;
he made utility the test and measure
of virtue, and held that laws should
promote the greatest happiness of the
greatest number; published other
works; Macaulay says he found juris-
prudence a gibberish and left it a
science; d. 1832...


Berkeley, Bishop, b. at Kilcrin, Ire-

land, 1684; New Theory of Vision,
1709, and Principles of Human Knowl-
edge, 1710; Dean of Derry, 1724; came
to this country,1728, to found a college;

two years in Newport;
abandoned the project of a college
and returned; Minute Philosopher,

1732; bishop of Cloyne, 1734; d. 1753..219.
Berners, Lord, educated at Oxford;

travelled abroad; governor of Calais
under Henry VIII. ; chancellor of the
exchequer; translated Froissart and
other works; d. 1532..

Blackstone, Sir Wm.

Blair, Robert.

Blake, Wm.

.249, 250

Blind Harry.

Bloomfield, Robt..


Boyle, Robt.

Bronte, Charlotte (Currer Bell), b

at Thornton, 1816; taught school; went
to Brussels; she and her sisters pub-
lished a volume of poems, 1846; her
Jane Eyre, 1847; Shirley, 1849; Villette,
1852; The Professor, 1856; married
Rev. A. B. Nichols, 1854; d. 1855 ... 277

a speech on American taxation in 1774;
M. P. for Bristol, 1774; another great
speech on the American question,
1775; paymaster of the forces, 1782;
spoke on the East India Bill, 1783; on
the debts of the nabob of Arcot, 1785;
was leading manager in the impeach-
ment of Hastings begun 1787; made
his memorable speech in 1788; Reflec-
tions on the Revolution in France,
1790; d. 1797.

.239, 240, 242, 308.
Burnet, Bishop..

201, 204
Burney, Miss, b. at Lynn-Regis, 1752;

daughter of Dr. Charles Burney, an
eminent musician; moved to London,
1760; father intimate with Johnson,
Burke, etc.; she produced Evelina,
1778; Cecilia, 1782; she was made
second keeper of the robes of Queen
Charlotte, 1786; married to Count
D'Arblay, 1793; d. at Bath in 1840.

Burns, Robert, b. near Ayr, Scotland,

1759; moved with his father to Mount
Oliphant and to Lochlea; educated
mostly at home; after his father's
death, he moved, 1784, to Mossgiel;
wrote many of his best poems, 1784-6;
published a volume of them in 1786;
resolved to migrate to the West In-
dies, but the success of his book led
him to abandon his resolution; was
lionized in Edinburgh during the
winter of '86 and '87; second edition of
his poems, published in Edinburgh,
brought him £500; made several tours
in Scotland during 1787; spent the next
winter in Edinburgh; took the farm of
Ellisland near Dumfries; became an
exciseman to eke out his fortune, and
afterwards removed to Dumfries,

where he died, 1796....... 258-67
Burton, Robert, b. at Lindley, 1576;

educated Oxford; vicar of St.
Thomas, Oxford, 1616; Anatomy of
Melancholy, 1621; an “amusing and in-
structive medley of quotations and
classical anecdotes," says Byron, com-
posed to cure himself of melancholy;


Brooke, Henry

Browne, Sir Thomas, b. in London,

1605; M.D. in Norwich many years;
Religio Medici, 1643; Hydrotaphia,
1658; knighted, 1671; d. on his 77th

. 152, 159-161
Browne, William..

Browning, Mrs. Elizabeth Barrett,

b. near Ledbury, 1809; Prometheus
Bound, 1833; Romaunt of the Page,
1839; two volumes of poems, 1844; mar-
ried Robert Browning, 1846; Casa
Guidi Windows, 1851; Aurora Leigh,

1856; d. 1861...
Browning, Robert, b. at Camberwell,

1812; educated at the University of
London; Paracelsus, 1835; two volumes
of poems, 1849; Men and Women,

1855; Ring and the Book, 1868..382, 383.
Bryant, William Cullen, biography
and works, see text...

Buckingham, Duke of.. ......194
Bulwer, Baron Lytton, b. in Norfolk,

1805; graduated at Cambridge, 1826;
visited France, and on his return pub-
lished Falkland, 1827; Pelham, 1829;
M. P. for St. Ives, 1831, and repre-
sented the city of Lincoln, 1832–41;
Last Days of Pompeii, 1834; Rienzi
and many other novels and dramas, as
Richelieu and Lady of Lyons, followed;
knighted, 1838; Lord Rector of Glas-
gow, 1856; became a peer, 1866; d.

Bunyan, John, b. at Elstow, 1628;

learned the trade of a tinker; served
in the Parliamentary army, 1645;
a Baptist preacher, 1655; sentenced
to transportation as a promoter of
seditious assemblies, sentence not
executed; imprisoned in Bedford jail,
1660–1672; Pilgrim's Progress, 1678-
84; Holy War, 1684; author of sixty
volumes, great and small; d. 1688.

172, 173, 176-9
Burke, Edmund, b. in Dublin, 1729; en-

tered Trinity College, Dublin; studied
law in England; Vindication of Na-
tional Society, 1756; essay on the Sub-
lime and Beautiful, 1757; M. P. for
Wendower, 1765, re-elected, 1768; made

rector of Segrave, 1628; d. 1639. . . . . 152
Butler, Bishop, b. at Wantage, 1692,


entered Oxford in 1714; preacher at
the Rolls Chapel, 1718; obtained the
rich living of Stanhope, 1725; chaplain
to Lord Chancellor Talbot, 1733;
bishop of Bristol, 1738, and of Dur-
ham, 1750; d. 1752. His Analogy,
1736, Lord Brougham says, is “the
most argumentative and philosophical
defence of Christianity ever submit-
ted to the world."..

Butler, Samuel, b. in Worcestershire,

about 1600; entered the service of Sir
Sam. Luke, an officer under Cromwell,
supposed to be the original of Hudi-
bras in the poem; parts of Hudibras,
1663, 1664, 1678; hostile to the Puri-
tans; d. 1680.

.191, 192
Byron, George Gordon, b. in Lon-

don, 1788; became Lord Byron by the
death of a grand uncle, 1798; went to
Trinity College, Cambridge, 1805,
where he remained two years; Hours
of Idleness, 1807; attacked in the Ed.
Rev., and he replied in the English
Bards and Scotch Reviewers, 1807";
took a two years' tour through Portu-
gal, Spain, Turkey, and Greece;
cantos I. and II. of Childe Harold,
1812, and awoke one morning to find
himself famous; in the House of
Lords; published many of his poems;
married Miss Millbanke, 1815; she left
him with their little daughter, and
Byron never saw either again; left for
the continent, 1816; wrote canto III.
of Childe Harold at Geneva; lived
awhile in Venice, and then at Ra-
venna, Pisa, Genoa; wrote canto IV.
of Childe Harold, and other poems,
while in Italy; left Italy for Greece in

1823; d. at Missolonghi, 1821.....361-71.
Cædmon, a native of Northumbria;

originally a cow-herd; entered the
monastery at Whitby; wrote a Para-
phrase of portions of the Bible; d.
about 680.

Campbell, Thos., b. at Glasgow, 1777;

educated at the Grammar-School and
the University; Pleasures of Hope,
1799; secured a pension of £200 ;
Poems, 1803; Rector of the University,

1827; re-elected, 1828 and 29; other
poems and miscellaneous writings;
moved to London, 1840; at Boulogne

from 1842 till his death, 1844.....357-60.
Capgrave, John..

Carew, Thomas..


Carlyle, Thomas, b. at Ecclefechan,

Scotland, 1795; entered the University
of Edinburgh, 1809 or 1810, where he
remained seven years; married Miss
Welch, 1825, and settled on a farm in
his native county; Life of Schiller,
1824, and a translation of Goethe's
William Meister; Sartor Resartus,
1834; removed to London that year;
History of the French Revolution, 1837;
delivered lectures on Heroes and Hero-
worship, in London, 1840; five volumes
of Essays entitled Miscellanies, 1839
or '40; Life of Sterling, 1851; and Life
of Frederick the Great, 1858-61; d.

..279, 308-15
Caxton, b. about 1412; a London mer-

chant; lived 30 years from 1441 in the
Low Countries; learned the art of
printing there; first book printed by
him was a translation from the French
- The Game and Play of the Chess;
translated, wrote, and printed indus-
triously; in all he published 64 vol-

umes; d. 1491..

Chapman, George, b. 1557; enjoyed

the society and friendship of Spenser
and Shakespeare; published transla-
tions of the Iliad, 1598, and of the
Odyssey, 1614; wrote many comedies

and tragedies; and d. 1634.... 120, 148-9
Chatterton, Thos

Chaucer, b. in London, it is now

thought, 1340; was page to Lionel, 3d
son of Ed. III.; in the English army in
France in 1359; valet of the king's
chamber in 1367; employed on royal
missions to Italy, France, and Flan-
ders, 1370-80; held offices in the cus-
toms for some years, from 1374; M.P.
for Kent, 1386; dismissed from his
place in the customs, 1386; received
other appointments, 1389; lost them

71, 72

and became poor; restored to royal
favor in 1399; d. 1400.



Clarendon, Earl of (Edward Hyde),

born at Dinton, 1608; educated at Ox-
ford; member of the Long Parliament;
of the popular party at first, after-
ward a royalist; chancellor of the
exchequer, and privy councillor, 1643;
with Charles in his long exile in
France and Holland; prime minister
and lord chancellor, 1660; Earl of
Clarendon, 1661; impeached and ban-
ished, 1667; d. at Rouen, 1674. Anne,
his daughter, was married to the Duke

of York, afterwards James II.......204
Clough, Arthur Hugh, b. at Liver-

pool, 1819; some years of his childhood
spent in this country, educated at
Rugby and Oxford; Principal of Uni-
versity Hill, London; visited U. S.
again, 1852; held a post in the Educa-
tion Office; Poems appeared, 1840–50;
d. at Florence, 1861....

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, b.at Ottery

Saint Mary, 1772; entered Jesus Col-
lege, Cambridge, 1790, but left with-
out a degree; resolved to migrate
with Southey to America and found a
republic, or pantisocracy, but did not
do it; lectured on moral and political
subjects at Bristol, 1795; preached a
little for the Unitarians; visited Ger-
many with Wordsworth, 1798; in 1800
removed to the Lake district, where
Southey and Wordsworth were; in
1805 renounced Unitarianism for Epis-
copacy; lectured on Shakespeare and
the fine arts at the Royal Institution,
1808; in 1810 left his wife and daughter
for Southey to support; began tak-
ing opium to excess; d. 1834.

279, 339-41


Coverdale, Miles, b. in Yorkshire,

1485; took holy orders in 1514; em-
braced the Reformed religion; pub-
lished the entire Bible, 1535; edited
the Cranmer Bible, 1539; bishop of

Exeter, 1551; imprisoned and exiled;

returned about 1558; d. 1565..... 74
Cowley, Abraham, b. in London, 1618;

a volume of poems, 1633; entered
Cambridge, 1636; ejected as a royalist,
1643; went with the queen to Paris
1646; the agent of the cipher-corre-
spondence between her and Charles
I.; failed of the expected reward at
the Restoration; numerous poems
and writings in prose; settled at
Chertsey as a farmer, 1665; d. 1667.

164, 191
Cowper, William, b. at Great Berk-

hamstead, 1731; educated at a private
school and at Westminster; articled to
a solicitor, a Mr. Chapman; excite-
ment produced by his appointment to
two clerkships in the House of Lords,
and his disappointment because Ashly
Cowper refused him his daughter in
marriage prepared the way for an
attack of insanity, 1763; became ac-
quainted with the Unwins at Hunting-
don; after Mr. Unwin's death in 1767,
he removed with the family to Olney;
wrote the Olney Hymns there; Table
Talk and other poems, 1782; The Task
and other poems, 1785; his Translation

of Homer, 1791; d. 1800.. 250-58
Crabbe, George, b. at Aldborough,

1754; went to London; assisted by
Edmund Burke; The Library. 1781;
ordained, 1782; The Village, 1783; Par.
ish Register, 1807; The Borough, 1810;
Tales in Verse, 1812; Tales of the Hall,
1819; d. 1832

Cranmer, Thomas, born at Aslacton,

Nottinghamshire, 1489; a fellow of
Jesus College, Cambridge: chaplain
to Henry VIII. ; went to Rome to se-
cure the pope's assent to Henry's
divorce from Catharine; Archbishop
of Canterbury.1533; excommunicated,
1555; recanted, but was burnt at the
stake, 1556.


Crowne, John..

Cynewulf, a monk at Winchester; ab-

bot of Peterborough about 992; d. 1008.


..84, 85

Authorities concerning him disagree.

Daniel, Samuel, b. at Taunton, 1562;

educated at Oxford; lived in London;
associated with Shakespeare; tutor to
Anne Clifford, Countess of Pembroke;
master of the queen's revels, 1603;
said to have succeeded Spenser as

poet-laureate; d. 1619............99, 118
Davenant, b. at Oxford, 1605; poet-

laureate, 1637; a royalist in the civil
war, and knighted by Charles I., 1643;
confined in the Tower, and owed his

safety to Milton; d. 1688....... ..149, 191
Davies, Sir John, b in Wiltshire,

1570; graduated at Oxford; Nosce Teip-
sum, 1599; solicitor-general of Ireland,

attorney-general soon after;
knighted, 1607; a work on the political
state of Ireland, 1612; M. P., 1621; lord

chief-justice, 1626; d. 1626. . .119
Defoe, Daniel, b. in London, 1663;

joined the rebels under Monmouth,
1685; became a tradesman; wrote
countless pamphlets; Robinson Cru-
soe, 1719; for his ironical Shortest Way
with Dissenters, fined, pilloried, and
imprisoned; helped to promote the
union of Scotland with England; d.

Denham, Sir John..

De Quincey, Thos., b. at Manchester,

1785 ; so mastered Greek at Bath that
his teacher said he could harangue an
Athenian mob; ran away in 1802 from
the grammar-school of Manchester;
lived in obscurity and great poverty
in London; entered Oxford, 1803,
where he remained five years; con-
tracted there the habit of taking
opium; lived twenty years at Gras-
mere; married, 1816; gave himself to
literary pursuits, writing mostly essays
for the magazines on philosophical,
biographical, and other topics; lived
also in Glasgow and Edinburgh; d.

.308, 315-19
Dickens, Charles, b. at Landport,

Portsmouth, 1812; studied in a college
near Rochester; in an attorney's of-
fice; became a reporter for the Morn-

ing Chronicle; Sketches by Boz, 1836;
Pickwick Papers, 1837; Oliver Twist,
1838; Nicholas Nickleby, 1839; visited
the United States 1841; and American
Notes and Martin Chuzzlewit, describ-
ing life and character here, followed;
his other novels appeared between
1840 and 1865; chief editor for a while
of 'Daily News, 1845; started House-
hold Words, a weekly periodical, 1850;
All the Year Round, 1859; made a sec-
ond visit to the United States, 1867,
and read from his works in all the
principal cities; d. 1870, leaving Edwin
Drood unfinished...

.278, 301-7
Distribution of the Language and

Donne, John, 162.
Douglas, Gawin, b. 1474; finished his

education at the University of Paris
and entered the Church: became bish-

op of Dunkeld, 1515; d. 1522...


Dryden, John, b. at Aldwinkle, 1631;

a pupil of Dr. Busby; entered Cam-
bridge 1650; M.A. 1657; married Lady
Howard, daughter of Earl of Berk-
shire, 1663; wrote poems from 1680 on;
Poet-laureate, 1688, salary £200 a year;
d. 17:00, and was buried in Westminster

.192-4, 196-200
Dunbar, b. at Salton, Scotland, about

1465; a Franciscan friar and preacher;
employed by James IV. as secretary
of embassy; received a small pension;
The Thistle and the Rose, 1503; d. 1530.

Dyer, John.

Early War Poetry...
Edgeworth, Miss

Edwards, Richard

Elements of Scottish Poetry. 80–82
Eliot, George (Mrs. Lewes), b. in War-

wickshire, about 1820; carefully edu-
cated; a pupil of Herbert Spencer;
translated Strauss's Life of Christ,
1846; associate editor of West. Rev.,
Scenes of Clerical Life appeared, 1858;
Adam Bede, 1859; Mill on the Floss,
1860; Silas Marner, 1861; Romola,

29, 30

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