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διδοι ποιμένι τρέφειν ες τα ποίμνια τροφήν τινα τοιήνδε, εντειλάμενος μηδένα αντίον αυτών μηδεμίαν φωνήν ιέναι εν στέγη δε ερήμη επ' έωυτών κέεσθαι αυτά, και την ώρην επαγινέειν σφι αίγας, πλήσαντα δε του γάλακτος τάλλα διαπρήσσεσθαι ταύτα δ' έποίεέ τε και ενετέλλετο ο Ψαμμίτιχος, θέλων ακούσαι των παιδίων, απαλλαχθέντων των ασήμων κνυζημάτων', ήντινα φωνήν ρήξoυσι πρώτην τάπερ ών και εγένετο ως γάρ διέτης χρόνος έγεγόνεε ταύτα το ποιμένι πρήσσοντι, ανοίγοντι την θύρης και εσιόντι τα παιδία αμφότερα προσπίπτοντα βεκόςέφώνεoν, ορέγοντα τας χείρας: τα μεν δή πρώτα ακούσας ήσυχος ην ο ποιμήν, ως δε πολλάκι φοιτέοντι και επιμελομένω πολλών ήν τούτο το έπος, ούτω δή σημήνας το δεσπότη ήγαγε τα παιδία κελεύσαντος ές όψιν την εκείνου: ακούσας δε και αυτός ο Ψαμμίτιχος, επυνθάνετο οίτινες ανθρώπων βεκός τί καλέoυσι πυνθανόμενος δε εύρισκε Φρύγας καλέοντας τον άρτον ούτω συνεχώρησαν Αιγύ

πτιοι, και τοιούτω σταθμησάμενοι πρήγματι, τους Φρύγας πρεσβυ3 τέρους είναι έωυτών. "Ωδε μέν γενέσθαι των ορέων του Ηφαίστου

έν Μέμφι ήκουον. "Ελληνες δε λέγουσι άλλα τε μάταια πολλά, stories from και ως γυναικών τας γλώσσας ο Ψαμμίτικος εκταμών την δίαιταν of Memphis, ούτως εποιήσατο των παίδων παρά ταύτησι τησι γυναιξί. κατά Heliopolis, μεν δή την τροφήν των παίδων τοσαύτα έλεγον ήκουσα δε και divine and άλλα εν Μέμφι ελθών ες λόγους τοϊσι τρεύσι του Ηφαίστου. και

The author heard many

human matters. .

6 διδοί ποιμένι τρέφειν ες τα ποίμνια, 9 βεκός. It seems likely that this is a

gives them to a shepherd to take to his dialectal variety of pards (see note on flocks and bring up."

vii. 73, εκαλέoντo Βρίγες), which is no 1 απαλλαχθέντων των ασήμων κνυζη- doubt etymologically connected with φάγω, μάτων, “ after the unmeaning whimper- and, possibly, meant originally food, alings [of infancy] had past away.” The though in subsequent times it was conexact meaning of κνυζήματα appears best fined to that species of aliment most from the beautiful expression of Theo. accessible to the common people. HipCRITUS :

PONAX used the word in a trochaic teουδέ τι φωνάσαι δυνάμαν, ουδ' όσσον εν ύπνο trameter (preserved by Strabo, vii. c. 3, κνυζώνται φωνεύντα φίλαν ποτέ ματέρα Ρ. 150), Κυπρίων βεκός φαγoύσι κάματέκνα. (ii. 108.)

θουσίων πυρόν, from which it would seem

to have been a provincial term in some 8 διέτης χρόνος. SUIDAS (suo . βεκ- part of Cyprus. The Semitic root ok is κεσέληνος) appears to have read τριέτης said to have the meaning of food, and the χρόνος. And PoLLUX (ν. 88) seems to form βεκός probably was brought to Cyhave had a MS varying in some respects prus from Phoenicia, and there remained, from any existing one; for he says, with Some of the MSS have βεκκός, a form reference to this passage : ως Ηρόδοτος which appears in the word βεκκεσέληνος έσφαλται επί των βρεφών των φρυγίων used by ARISTOPHANES (Nub. 398). λόγω, βληχάσθαι τάς αίγας οίόμενος.

δη και ές Θήβας10 τε και ές Ηλιούπολιν αυτών τούτων είνεκεν
έτραπόμην, εθέλων ειδέναι ει συμβήσονται τοϊσι λόγοισι τοισι εν
Μέμφι οι γάρ Ηλιουπολίται λέγονται Αίγυπτίων είναι λογιώτα-
τοι''. τα μέν νυν θεία των απηγημάτων ολα ήκουον ουκ ειμι πρό-
θυμος εξηγέεσθαι, έξω ή τα ονόματα αυτών μούνον, νομίζων
πάντας ανθρώπους ίσον περί αυτών επίστασθαι: τα δ' αν επι-
μνησθώ αυτών, υπό του λόγου εξαναγκαζόμενος επιμνησθήσομαι.
"Οσα δε άνθρωπήϊα πράγματα ώδε έλεγον όμoλoγέοντες σφίσι 4

The Egyptπρώτους Αιγυπτίους ανθρώπων απάντων εξευρέειν τον ενιαυτόν, ας και δυώδεκα μέρεα δασαμένους των ωρέων 12 ες αυτόν ταύτα δε fret dis

coverers of εξευρέειν εκ των άστρων έλεγον 13. άγουσι δε τoσώδε σοφώτερον

the solar π. Βal

cycle. 10 και δη και ες Θήβας. It would seem 13 ταύτα δε εξευρέειν εκ των άστρων a fair inference from these words (which έλεγoν. The mode in which the length exist in all the MSS), that Herodotus of the year is fixed, is by observing the made a special expedition to Thebes, and number of days which elapse between two there remained. The way in which he consecutive first risings, or last settings of quotes the Theban priests, too, in i. 182, any conspicuous star; phenomena which, is quite in accordance with such a notion. in a country where the sky is habitually But see note on $ 16, below. Is it pos. clear and the horizon uninterrupted, and sible that he only went as far as Coptus where the habits of the people keep them on the river (see note on § 17), or to the much in the open air, are quite as striking place which served the same purpose that as the changes of the moon in our own Coptus did in the time of the Ptolemies, latitude. In Egypt, the star which first and made a mere excursion to one temple attracted observation for this purpose was, at Thebes ?

probably, Sirius, which the Egyptians 1" λογιώτατοι, “the richest in legendary called Thoth (or Soth = Σωθις), a name lore.” See note 5 on i. 1. Several of the which they also gave to the first month of MSS, however, have λογιμώτατοι, which their year. If the sun happens to be in a may be defended, although the reading of part of the heavens a little to the west of the rest appears preferable.

this star, it cannot fail to strike the eye of 12 των ωρέων. The use of this word is a spectator who watches the setting of the not to be overlooked. The duodenary di- former, as it will come out on the western vision, which the Egyptians made, was not horizon apparently alone (like a spark of a division of seasons, but of space propor. fire struck out from the larger body), in tional (or nearly so) to a division of time. the midst of the growing darkness, and It was a division of the zodiac into twelve this the more conspicuously as the twiparts, rudely defined to the eye by certain light is briefer. The next day he will combinations of constellations, through again look for it and see it, but it will which the path of the sun lay. But follow the setting sun more closely, and Herodotus was obviously not an astro. the last time he observes it it will be nomer. “The year" was to him the suc- scarcely perceptible, from its proximity to cession of certain seasons, and he uses the the greater luminary. This is the techterm which was familiar to himself. The nical dúois of the early Hellenic astroconfusion of thought which gives rise to nomy, to which Æschylus gives the apthe expression is also observable in 8 26, propriate epithet of δύσκριτος (Prom. below, ει δε η στάσις ήλλακτο των ορέων, 458). After this disappearance of Sirius κ.τ.λ., where the seasons” are localized as an evening star, it would be invisible as meteorological phenomena, without any for the space of about thirty days, after reference to the motion of the sun, which, which time the sun would have past from indeed, is regarded as influenced by them. the west to the east of it, for a sufficient See also iii. 10, αποκλινομένης μεσαμ- space to allow it to be just visible on the βρίης, and the note there.

eastern horizon before all the stars disapVOL. I.

of the Hellenes.

Their ka- Ελλήνων, εμοί δοκέειν, όσω "Έλληνες μεν διά τρίτου έτεος εμβόrior to that λιμον επεμβάλλουσι 14 των ωρέων είνεκεν, Αιγύπτιοι δε τριηκοντη

μέρους άγοντες τους δυώδεκα μήνας 15, επάγουσι ανά πάν έτος

πέντε ημέρας πάρεξ του αριθμού και σφι ο κύκλος των ωρέων They first

ες τώυτό περιϊών παραγίνεται. δυώδεκά τε θεών επωνυμίας gave names to the twelve έλεγον πρώτους Αιγυπτίους νομίσαι 16, και "Έλληνας παρά σφέων established αναλαβείν βωμούς τε και αγάλματα και νηους θεοίσι απονείμαι altars, images, and σφέας πρώτους, και ζώα εν λίθοισι εγγλύψαι. και τούτων μέν temples.

νυν τα πλέω έργω εδήλουν ούτω γενόμενα" βασιλεύσαι δε πρώτον

Αιγύπτου ανθρώπων έλεγον Μήνα: επί τούτου, πλην του Θηβαϊfirst king of Egypt,

κού νομού πάσαν Αίγυπτος είναι έλος και αυτής είναι ουδέν υπερin whose time all the έχον των νυν ένερθε λίμνης της Μοίριος εόντων 18. ες την ανάπλους

Men the

cause

peared under the influence of the dawning whom an altar was erected in the agora at day. Such a rising, as a morning star, Athens by a grandson of Pisistratus, while was the åvatory of the primitive astro. filling the office of archon, before the exnomy; and it is plain that either the pulsion of his family (Thucyd. vi. 54). ανατολή (sometimes called επιτολή, be- A reference is made to it again below (vi.

its being a rising observed 82). It is not easy to say what deterafter an observed setting) or the dúois mined the number of deities here united, formed an equally good fixed point but the duodenary division was early fafor an epoch. During the interval be- miliar to the Ionic race. See what the tween two consecutive phenomena (of author says in i. 146. It may be reeither class) the sun would have passed marked that the altar of “the twelve through the whole circle of the heavens ;- gods” being in the agora, seems to indiin other words, a year would have been cate that the commercial relations of the completed.

state were specially under the guardian14 δια τρίτου έτεος εμβόλιμον επεμ- ship of these corporate deities. Hence, βάλλουσι. This is not a perfectly exact perhaps, ARISTOPHANES makes Euelpides description of the method of intercalation Swear by « the twelve gods” when struck practised at Athens before the introduc- by the strange appearance of the Epops, tion of the Metonic cycle; but it probably whom he regards as a foreigner (Aves, refers to the so-called octaeteris. (See 95). See also note on vi. 108. Hence, Excursus on i. 32.) But note 12 shows too, they would be familiar to travelling that the astronomical knowledge of the merchants, to whom the remark in the writer was very vague.

text would naturally be made. 15 τους δυώδεκα μήνας. The Egyptian 17 ζώα εν λίθοισι εγγλύψαι. See note months, according to PTOLEMY (ap. Ideler, 238 on i. 70. Handbuch der Chronologie, i. p. 97) oc- 18 των νυν ένερθε λίμνης της Μοίριος curred in the following order:-1. Thoth; εόντων, « of the places which are now 2. Phaophi ; 3. Athyr ; 4. Choiak ; 5. further down the river than the lake Tybi ; 6. Mechir ; 7. Phamenoth; 8. Mæris." The statement of the Egyptians Pharmuthi ; 9. Pachon ; 10. Payni; 11. to Herodotus is deserving of attention, as Epiphi ; 12. Mesori. Then come the five an example of the way in which, in early intercalated days. The beginning of the times, physical theories are put forward year fell on the 26th of February in the as historical facts. The surface soil of year 747 B.C., or the year 3967 of the lower Egypt is alluvial, but the period of Julian period. That epoch is the com- time which must have elapsed for the de. mencement of the era of Nabonassar. posit being made may be gathered from (IDELER, I. c.)

the amount of that which has taken place 16 δυώδεκά τε θεών επωνυμίας έλεγον in the last 1700 years.

This is, acπρώτους Αιγυπτίους νομίσαι. The allu- cording to WILKINSON (Journal of the sion, probably, is to the twelve gods to Geog. Soc. ix. p. 432), about nine feet

cept the

Thebaic

this.

από θαλάσσης επτά ημερέων εστι ανά τον ποταμόν. Και ευ μοι 5 έδόκεον λέγειν περί της χώρης» δηλα γαρ δή και μη προακούσαντι

country exιδόντι δε, όστις γε σύνεσιν έχει, ότι Αίγυπτος, ες την "Έλληνες ποe was ναυτίλλονται, έστι Αιγυπτίοισι επίκτητός τε γη και δώρον του 4 8Wamp. ποταμού 19. και τα κατύπερθε έτι της λίμνης ταύτης μέχρι τριών Its present ημερέων πλόου, της πέρι εκείνοι ουδέν έτι [τοιόνδε 29] έλεγον έστι confirms δ' έτερον τοιούτον.

Αιγύπτου γάρ φύσις της χώρης εστί τοιήδε πρώτα μεν προσπλέων, έτι και ημέρης δρόμον απέχων από γής, κατείς καταπειρητηρίην πηλόν τε ανοίσεις και έν ένδεκα' όργυιήσι έσεαι. τούτο μεν επί τοσούτο δηλού πρόχυσιν της γης εούσαν. Αυτής δε της 6 Αιγύπτου έστι μήκος το παρά θάλασσαν εξήκοντα σχοίνοι, κατά ο Egypt : ημέες διαιρέομεν είναι Αίγυπτον από του Πλινθινήτεω κόλπου 21 3600 stades μέχρι Σερβωνίδος λίμνης, παρ' ήν το Κάσιον όρος τείνει 28. ταύτης ών άπο οι εξήκοντα σχοϊνοί είσι: όσοι μεν γαρ γεωπείναί εισι ανθρώπων, οργυμήσι μεμετρήκασι την χώρων: όσοι δε ήσσον γεωπεϊναι, σταδίοισι οι δε πολλήν έχoυσι, παρασάγγησι οι δε άφθονον λίην, σχοίνοισι. δύναται δε ο μεν παρασάγγης τριήκοντα στάδια, ο δε σχοίνος έκαστος, μέτρον εον Αιγύπτιον, εξήκοντα στάδια24. ούτω αν είησαν Αιγύπτου στάδιοι εξακόσιοι και τρισ

Dimensions

seaboard.

just below the first cataract, lat. 24° 5'; 21 έν ένδεκα. Some MSS have εν δέκα. about seven feet at Thebes, lat. 25° 43' ; 22 από του Πλινθινήτεω κόλπου. This about five feet ten inches at Cairo, lat. is the bay of which the eastern extremity 30°. At Rosetta, and the mouths of the ran up to the immediate neighbourhood Nile (lat. 31° 30'), the diminutions in the of what was afterwards Alexandria. It perpendicular thickness of the deposit is was so called from a town Plinthine, lessened in a much greater decreasing where, probably, before Alexandria was ratio than in the straitened valley of built, the wine which was produced in Central and Upper Egypt, owing to the abundance on the banks of the lake much greater extent, east and west, over Marea, or Mareotis, used to be shipped. which the inundation spreads, and there The coast was full of small ports as far as the elevation of the land in the same Paretonium, which was to the west of period of 1700 years has been compara- Alexandria, a run of 1300 stades. Among tively imperceptible. In point of fact, them was a village called Apis, from which limestone rock lies throughout at no great caravans reached the oasis of Ammon in distance below the surface, and it is an five days (STRABO, xvii. p. 435). Compare elevated portion of this formation which ScYLAX, cited in note 65, below. It is constitutes the Isle of Pharos.

obvious that the description in the text 19 δώρον του ποταμού. This is the proceeds from 8 commercial navigator. actual phrase which Hecatæus used in 23 παρ' ην το κάσιον όρος τείνει. The speaking of Egypt. (ARRIAN, Exped. Casian promontory is especially mentioned Aler. ν. 6.)

from its importance as a landmark to the 20 τοιόνδε. This word is omitted by mariner. On it and the Serbonian Marsh, the manuscripts S, V, b, and d, and cer- See notes on iii. 5. tainly seems to be a gloss.

24 εξήκοντα στάδια. This cannot be

From the coast to Heliopolis the road is

7

χίλιοι, το παρά θάλασσαν. 'Ενθεύτεν μεν και μέχρι Ηλιουπόλιος 25 ες την μεσόγαιαν έστι ευρέα Αίγυπτος, εούσα πάσα υπτίη

τε και άνυδρος 8, και ιλύς. έστι δε οδός 28 ες την Ηλιούπολιν από same length

ength θαλάσσης άνω ιόντι παραπλησίη το μήκος τη εξ Αθηνέων οδώ, τη

considered as an accurate measure. STRABO a avvopos, “ without spring-water."
says, that in boating up the river to Mem. This is the reading of all the MSS,
phis, he had very different dimensions of and there is not the least occasion to
the oxoivos given him in different places. change it into evopos or évudpos. See
ARTEMIDORUS made it vary as much as note 626 on i. 185. The fountain of the
from 30 to 120 stades (ap. Strabon. xvii. sun at Heliopolis would, probably, be the
cap. i. p. 443). It is observable that the first instance of spring-water which the
word is not applied by Herodotus or traveller would come to.
Strabo to pure land-measurement, but 26 έστι δε οδός. These words appa-
only to those cases in which the extent of rently apply to a journey by the road, not
land is determined by the run of a vessel, by the river. It will be seen that the
or the course of a tow-boat (see note on üï. distance, by the tow-boat, from the sea
5). This may in some degree account for to Heliopolis, is estimated at 1220 instead
the different magnitude of the schænus, of 1550 stades (§ 9). The additional
which, like the stunde in modern Switzer- length of the land journey might arise
land, or, in some cases, the mile of the from the necessity of following the cause-
Roman Itineraries, might have had respect ways which connected the inland town-
to the time of performing the space as ships with one another. These were
much as to the space performed. Hence, formed upon the banks of the network of
in Egypt, the rapidity of the river and canals, by which the country was inter-
the condition of the towing-path, would, sected, and the latter would be drawn
probably, have modified its magnitude. without any reference to the facility of
JEROME (Comm. Joel, iii. 18), whom land communication. If it be supposed
Kenrick quotes, seems to show that these that the author is writing here as an
considerations might even have been the čuropos, not as a geographer, the road
principal ones. " In Nilo flumine, sive in of which he speaks would be one by
rivis ejus, solent naves funibus trahere,certa which the several towns might all be
habentes spatia quæ appellant. funiculos,' reached in the time of the inundation, a
ut labori defessorum recentia trahentium season at which it will appear that he
colla succedant." STRABO says that the probably visited Egypt (Excursus on ii.
variety in the length of the schænus was 149). A road taking in a considerable
ούτως εξ αρχής παραδεδομένων και φυλατ- number of towns would necessarily be
Tóuevov uéxpı Toù vûv (xi. c. 11, p. 442). very winding, and hence the difference of
For a similar inequality in the parasang, 280 stades might not unreasonably be
see note on vi. 42.

supposed to arise. RENNELL says that 25 Méxpı 'HALOUTÓlos. Heliopolis, the the direct distance from Athens to Pisa On of the Scriptures, was situate on the by the map is 105 geographical miles ; eastern side of the Pelusiac branch of the and that from Heliopolis to the opposite Nile. A fountain of fresh water which point of the Delta only 86. It is plain, springs up there, goes by the name of therefore, that, under any circumstances, Ain Schams (the fountain of the sun). Herodotus greatly exaggerates the disThe ruins, which bear the modern name tances. But if we compare the distance of Matarieh, occupy a rectangular space of Athens from Pisa (1485 stades) with of about three miles in circuit. Helio- that of Heliopolis from the coast (1220 polis is in the Antonine Itinerary placed stades, as estimated in $ 9), the exaggeraat twelve Roman miles from Babylon, tion wil be seen to be nearly proporfrom which to Memphis was twelve more. tional, being in the one case 14:19, in the The ruins are in direct distance about other 14:14 stades to the geographical eight and a half geographical miles from mile measured on the map. The numbers, Fostat, the presumed site of Babylon, the therefore, given in this passage, must difference being probably owing to the arise from some other cause than simple windings of the road. (RENNELL, Geog. exaggeration, and no other reason seems of Herodotus, p. 495.)

so obvious as the one suggested above.

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