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Tristitiam vitaeque labores

Molli, Plance, mero, seu te fulgentia signis

Castra tenent seu densa tenebit

Tiburis umbra tui. Teucer Salamina patremque Quum fugeret, tamen uda Lyaeo

Tempora populea fertur vinxisse corona,

Sic tristes affatus amicos:


'Quo nos cunque feret melior fortuna parente. 25 Ibimus, o socii comitesque.

Nil desperandum Teucro duce et auspice Teucro ;
Certus enim promisit Apollo,

Ambiguam tellure nova Salamina futuram.

O fortes pejoraque passi


probably bring me nothing but annoyance and vexation. You, a statesman, must enter more seriously into the affairs of life than I do; still you need the relaxation of convivial pleasures; and that these are not inconsistent with activity in business, I can show by the case of Teucer' (line 21, onwards.) The south wind is called albus, because it sometimes makes the sky bright and clear, though commonly bringing rain and storms. For deterget we might also have had detergit. See Zumpt, § 177.-18. Tristitiam, the stern seriousness of life,' opposed to cheerfulness and mirth. Hence also in the next line, molli mero, wine which softens the heart.' -20. Castra fulgentia signis. In Roman camps the standards of the legions and cohorts, which consisted of silver eagles, and even the staves of which were richly adorned with metal, were stuck into the ground in front of the general's tent.-21. Tiburis tui, equivalent to Tiburtini tui, the name of the town being put for the villa near it. Teucer: Telamon, king of Salamis, when he sent away his two sons, Ajax and Teucer, to the Trojan war, had commanded them to return together, because he would not receive the one without the other. Accordingly, when Ajax killed himself from vexation at being conquered by Ulysses in the contest for the arms of Achilles, Teucer did not dare to return home, but sailed to Cyprus, and there founded another Salamis.-22. Lyaeo, a name of Bacchus, very appropriate here, for it means the deliverer from care :' tempora uda Lyaeo, his temples moist with wine.'-25. Quocunque, divided as in i. 6, 3. Fortuna melior parente, Fortune, kinder than my father,' who exiles me.-27. Auspice Teucro. Horace here puts into the mouth of the Greek hero an expression derived from à Roman usage. A Roman commander-in-chief had the auspicia; that is, the right of consulting the gods by the flight of birds, for the purpose of ascertaining whether any proposed course of proceeding met with their approval. He was therefore not merely the dux, but also the auspex of his army.-28. Certus Apollo. Apollo was the god of prophecy; and consequently he and his oracles were 'infallible, truth-telling.' 29. Ambiguam, 'a second,' so that it would be doubtful which was Salamis, properly so called, or so that when any one spoke of Salamis merely, without any distinctive epithet, his hearers would be uncertain

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Mecum saepe viri, nunc vino pellite curas;
Cras ingens iterabimus aequor.'


to which he alluded.-32. Iterabimus = iterum navigabimus or iterum peragrabimus.



DESCRIPTION of a youth called Sybaris, who, from love to Lydia, has become effeminate, and has given up all serious and manly employments.

LYDIA, dic, per omnes

Te deos oro, Sybarin cur properes amando

Perdere; cur apricum

Oderit campum, patiens pulveris atque solis?
Cur neque militaris

Inter aequales equitat, Gallica nec lupatis
Temperat ora frenis?

Cur timet flavum Tiberim tangere? Cur olivum


3. Apricum campum, 'the sunny plain;' namely, the Campus Martius, where the young men used to amuse and train themselves by warlike exercises of all kinds-riding, spear-throwing, swimming in the Tiber, which flowed past the field, and the like.-4. Patiens The pulveris atque solis, he who could bear both dust and sun.' taris, in the next line, he who has come to an age when he should serve as a soldier, and who has both strength and courage enough to be one.'-6. Gallica ora, the mouths of Gallic horses.' horses of Gaul were highly esteemed as war steeds, and were brought into Italy in great numbers. They were governed (tempe rare) by frena lupata; sometimes also called simply lupus, a bridle, the bit of which was jagged, so as to make it more severe.-8. Fla. vum Tiberim. Bathing in the river was always considered as a means of strengthening the constitution, and was especially recommended in the time of the emperors, when the immoderate use of hot baths was doing much to weaken the bodily vigour and mental energy of the Romans. As to the epithet flavus, see i. 2, 13. Cur olivum. The poet comes now to the exercises of the palaestra, which were of Greek origin, but were at this time practised with great spirit by the Roman youth. They consisted, as is here mentioned, in wrestling, and throwing the spear and the discus-a plate of metal very like our modern quoit.' Before wrestling, the intending combatants used to rub their bodies over with oil, in order to render themselves more supple, and thus able more easily to elude the grasp of their opponents. Here, therefore, olivum vitare means 'to


Sanguine viperino

Cautius vitat, neque jam livida gestat armis
Brachia, saepe disco,

Saepe trans finem jaculo nobilis expedito?

Quid latet, ut marinae

Filium dicunt Thetidis sub lacrimosa Trojae
Funera, ne virilis

Cultus in caedem et Lycias proriperet catervas?

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shun a wrestling bout.'-9. Sanguine viperino, for quam sanguinem viperinum. The blood of snakes was believed to be a most deadly poison.-10. Gestat brachia livida armis. Gestat, used poetically for habet: arma here are the discus and jaculum mentioned immediately afterwards. 12. Trans finem expedito, thrown quite beyond the point attained by any of the other players.' Expedito belongs to disco as well as to jaculo. Nobilis, well-known, famed,' is to be understood, like patiens in line 4, as who once was, and still might be.-14. Filium Thetidis marinae, the son of the sea-goddess Thetis: namely, Achilles. When the Trojan war broke out, his mother, knowing that he would lose his life in it, took him to Lycomedes, king of Scyros, where, disguised in female attire, he was brought up with the king's daughters. Ulysses discovered him by a stratagem, and induced him to join the Grecian host. Sub funera. to sub, used of time, see Žumpt, § 319.-16. Lycias catervas. The Lycians, under the command of Glaucus and Sarpedon, were allics of the Trojans. Lycias, therefore, is here used as = Trojanas.




AN exhortation to enjoy life so long as youth and circumstances permit, leaving the management of the world to the gods. Thaliarchus, the name given by Horace to the friend to whom this ode is addressed, is fictitious, and means according to its Greek derivation, magister convivii. The poem is in imitation of an ode by the Greek lyrist Alcaeus, part of which is extant. Horace, however, makes his scene the country near Rome. Mount Soracte, now called Monte Tresto or Monte di S. Silvestro, was distinctly visible from the city, being situated about twenty-four Roman miles from it, in the district of the ancient city of Falerii.

VIDES ut alta stet nive candidum
Soracte, nec jam sustineant onus

1. Vides, ut, 'Dost thou see how?' &c. little different from vides

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Donec virenti canities abest

Morosa. Nunc et campus et areae
Lenesque sub noctem susurri
Composita repetantur hora,

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Soracte stans?-3. Laborantes. The trees tremble and bend under their burden of snow. -4. Constiterint acuto. Sharp, keen,' is a standing epithet for cold. Frost contracts; hence constiterint; and hence also, in the following line, dissolve, as the opposite of constiterint. -5. Super foco, a poetical construction, for which a prose writer would have said super focum. Zumpt, § 320. -7. Deprome quadrimum Sabina -merum diota, take liberally from the Sabine jar wine which is four years old.' Diota was a two-handed jar (diwrov) from which the goblets were filled. It is called Sabine, because the wine it contained was Sabine, a bad sort: hence in Carm. i. 20, 1, the poet styles it vile Sabinum. Horace knows, however, that his friend's wine has been improved by keeping, since it is quadrimum, of the vintage of four years ago.' In Epode 2, 47, the peasant is said to drink wine of the same year; and in Carm. i. 19, 15, Horace, in making a libation to Venus, is content with wine two years old (bimum.)-9. Simul simul ac, 'as soon as.'-10. Stravere (sedarunt) ventos. Sternere is properly used in reference to the waves of the sea, to smooth: hence, poetically, also of the winds, which raise the billows.-13. Fuge quaerere, used poetically for noli quaerere, as in ii. 4, 22.-14. Fors-Fortuna. Quemcunque, divided as in 6, 3, and 7, 25. — Lucro appone, consider as gain,' gain to which you have properly no claim, but which is simply and entirely a gift of Fortune.-16. Tu is inserted merely to make up the line, and is consequently not to be translated.-17. Virenti=florenti, said of one in the vigour of youth or early manhood.-18. The poet speaks of three pleasures pursued by the Roman youth: first, the Campus, scil. Martius, the exercises of which have been touched upon in the previous ode; secondly, areae, open squares, where the young people used to meet and saunter and gossip; and lastly, intercourse with the fair sex.-20. Composita hora, at an hour agreed upon.' Repe tantur, let these different modes of amusement be practised repeat

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Nunc et latentis proditor intimo
Gratus puellae risus ab angulo
Pignusque dereptum lacertis
Aut digito male pertinaci.

edly, often.'-21-24. Description of a merry game of 'hide-and-seek.' The sentence consists of two parts, corresponding to the two parts of the game, and connected by et-que. The girl hides, but betrays herself by laughing. When the seeker discovers her, he takes from her a forfeit or pledge, either a bracelet (pignus dereptum lacertis), or a ring (pignus dereptum digito), which she teasingly refuses to give (hence digito male pertinaci.) Construe thus: nunc et gratus risus, proditor ab intimo angulo puellae latentis; that is, qui prodit. puellam latentem. To risus pignusque, supply from line 20 repetantur, or some verb of similar meaning.



A HYMN to Mercury. This, like the preceding ode, is in imitation of a Greek poem by Alcaeus.

MERCURI, facunde nepos Atlantis,
Qui feros cultus hominum recentum
Voce formasti catus et decorae

More palaestrae,

Te canam magni Jovis et deorum
Nuncium curvaeque lyrae parentem,
Callidum, quidquid placuit, jocoso
Condere furto.


1. Nepos Atlantis. Maia, the mother of Mercury by Jupiter, was a daughter of Atlas.-2. Mercury's first merit. He has given man language and eloquence. Feros cultus, wild way of life: the plural is poetic. Recentum, 'newly created.'-3. Catus, an old Sabine word, seldom used in later times, equivalent to prudens, sapiens.— 4. More palaestrae. Mercury presided over wrestling-schools, and over physical training generally. The palaestra is called decora, because it gives man a graceful carriage. The young Romans exercised themselves in the palaestra with the same view as young people now practise dancing; namely, to give ease and elegance to their motions. -5-6. Mercury is described as the messenger of the gods, and the inventor of the lyre. Et deorum; that is, et ceterorum deorum, a mode of speaking pretty common both in Greek and Latin. Curvae lyrae: Mercury, as the tradition ran, formed the lyre out of the crooked shell of a tortoise, by fitting strings to it.7. Mercury was the god also of gain made by eraft and cunning. Callidum condere, a Greek construction for

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