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hecatomb. Quotquot eunt dies, 'as many days as pass, every day.' -7. Ter amplum Geryonen, the son of Chrysaor and Callirhoë. The poets described him as having three bodies.-8. Tityus, a son of the goddess Earth, of immense size, who, when killed on account of an assault upon Diana, covered in the lower world nine acres of ground. Tristi unda, the Styx, whose waters are dark and sluggish; hence tristi.-10. Terrae munere, the gift (that is, fruits) of the earth,' especially corn. 12. Coloni are here rustics, or country people in general.-13. The idea is this: in vain may we avoid war, or the dangers of the deep; in vain may we take most anxious care of our health; we must die.-14. Hadria is the Adriatic, as in i. 3, 15. The sea is called raucus, hoarse,' 'hollow-sounding,' on account of the dull, hollow roaring of the waves.-16. Austrum, the south wind, called Scirocco in Italy, which prevails especially in the end of the summer, and is very injurious to health.-18. Cocytus, one of the rivers in Tartarus. Danai genus, the fifty daughters of Danaus, who, on account of the murder of their husbands, were condemned to the endless toil of pouring water into a vessel full of holes.-20. Sisyphus, son of Aeolus, condemned

'Up a high hill to heave a huge round stone,'

which, as soon as he reached the top, rolled away down again. Laboris longi damnatus, poetical for ad longum laborem damnatus.

23. Cupressos. The cypress, being sacred to Pluto, used to be planted at graves.-24. Brevem dominum, thee, their lord but for a brief season,' since thou must soon die.-25. Dignior. The heir is more worthy of the Caecuban wine than thou art, because he en

Tinget pavimentum superbo,
Pontificum potiore coenis.

joys and uses it, whereas thou art niggardly of it.-27. Tinget pavimentum mero superbo, a sign of extravagance: the heir does not merely drink the wine, but he allows it to run over upon the ground. -28. Pontificum potiore coenis, better than the banquets of the priests; that is, than the wine drunk at these. Compare i. 37, 2.

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An ode in which the poet describes the luxury of his time, as exhibited in the erection of magnificent buildings, and laying out of large pleasure parks. These latter, particularly, were injurious to the country; because by them immense tracts of arable land were withdrawn from cultivation; so that Italy, a naturally fertile land, had to be supported by the grain of Sicily, Africa, and Egypt.

JAM pauca aratro jugera regiae
Moles relinquent, undique latius
Extenta visentur Lucrino

Stagna lacu, platanusque caelebs

Evincet ulmos.

Tum violaria et

Myrtus et omnis copia narium

Spargent olivetis odorem,
Fertilibus domino priori:


1. Regiae moles, magnificent buildings;' buildings as large and beautiful as if an Eastern monarch were to inhabit them.-2. The poet points to the luxury of the Romans, as exhibited in their fishponds (piscinae.) At all parts of the Lucrine Lake, which was situated near Baiae, the most frequented watering-place in Italy (in 1538 this lake was filled up by an earthquake), the water was led off into the private estates in the neighbourhood to supply fishponds; and also, perhaps, to form convenient bathing places. Hence undique extenta stagna visentur, 'the water will be seen extended on all sides.'-4. Instead of the elms, which, on account of their little shade, do no harm to agriculture, plane-trees are planted, under whose thick branches nothing can grow well. Hence evincet = superabit, 'will dispossess, or take the place of.' The plane is called caelebs, 'unwedded,' because the vine cannot be trained up it, as it is, for instance, on the elm; the technical expression for such a training was maritare ulmos, to marry the elms.-6. Myr tus is plural, myrtle-trees.' Copia narium; that is, of sweet. smelling flowers,' flowers valuable only for their sweet odour. — 7. Olivetis fertilibus domino priori, upon, in place of the olive-yards,



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which brought fruit to the former owner.'-9. Laurea, used poetically for laurus.-10. Ictus radios. 11. Praescriptum, scil. est. Cato is called intonsus, because the Romans of his time did not shave the beard. This custom was not introduced at Rome till 300 B. C., when barbers came from Sicily. It found at first little favour, but in the time of Horace was universally practised.- 13. Census, 'fortune.'- 14. Nulla - Arcton refers to the fact that the wealthy Romans built particular rooms for the summer season, which faced the north, and consequently were shady, and received the cooling northern breezes. The winter rooms looked to the south. Construe thus: nulla porticus metata decempedis excipiebat opacam Arcton privatis. 17. In the good old times of Rome, the private houses were poor, constructed of the fortuitus cespes; the materials which the earth happened to afford at the place where they were to be erected. On the other hand, the public buildings, even at this early period, were built novo saxo; not with the stones of Italy, but with new, far-fetched stone; that is, marble.

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ODE to Pompeius Grosphus, a Roman eques of Sicily, whom Horace mentions also in his epistles (i. 12, 22.) The poet sings the praises of a peaceful life, accompanied with temperate enjoy.


OTIUM divos rogat in patenti

Prensus Aegaeo, simul atra nubes
Condidit lunam, neque certa fulgent
Sidera nautis :


2. Prensus deprehensus, 'caught, taken by surprise; namely, by a storm. Simul simul atque.-3. Certa-sidera. The stars served to the ancient mariners instead of a compass: they are called

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Otium bello furiosa Thrace,


Otium Medi pharetra decori,

Grosphe, non gemmis neque purpura ve

nale neque auro.

Non enim gazae neque consularis
Summovet lictor miseros tumultus
Mentis et curas laqueata circum
Tecta volantes.

Vivitur parvo bene, cui paternum
Splendet in mensa tenui salinum,
Nec leves somnos timor aut cupido
Sordidus aufert.

Quid brevi fortes jaculamur aevo
Multa? Quid terras alio calentes
Sole mutamus? Patriae quis exul
Se quoque fugit?

Scandit aeratas vitiosa naves

Cura nec turmas equitum relinquit,
Ocior cervis et agente nimbos

Ocior Euro.

Laetus in praesens animus, quod ultra est,
Oderit curare et amara lento

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therefore certa, safely-guiding.' When they are concealed, then the sailor trembles, and prays to the gods for a clear sky and a calm. -5. Thrace. The Thracians were famed for their addiction to warfare. Besides their own wars, they also engaged in those of other nations, as mercenaries.-9. Consularis lictor. The poet, alluding to honours generally, adduces the consular dignity as an instance.10. Summovere is the proper expression for the duty of the lictors, who, going before the consul, 'keep off' the crowd.-11. Laqueata tecta, wainscoted ceilings.' The roofs, when not vaulted, were divided by the beams of the next story, which lay across one another, into small sunken square spaces (lacunar.) These, in the houses of the rich, were adorned with gold, or painted. Such ceilings were called laqueata.-13. Parvo, for little, with little, at little expense.' Before cui, supply ab eo.-15. Timor, the fear felt by the man who possesses wealth, and dreads its loss. Sordidus cupido, of the avaricious and greedy man. As to the gender of cupido, see Gram. § 62, 17.-17. Jaculamur, a stronger expression for petimus, we strive after, aim at.' -18. Quid mutamus terras calentes alio sole? Why do we take lands warmed by another sun in exchange?' namely, for our own country? that is, why do we travel to foreign lands?-19. Patriae fugit (perfect.) The sense is this: we gain nothing by travelling, since we cannot escape from ourselves. Exul patriae; properly, one who has been banished from his country, here one who has voluntarily left it.-21. Aeratas, 'brass-tipped;' for the prow or beak of ships, especially of ships of war, had to be made strong.-25. Quod ultra est; namely, ultra praesens, the future.'-26. Oderit curare, poetical for nolit curare,

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the negative imperative, must not care.'-27. Temperet, 'temper, make bearable.'-29. An instance of the perversity of fortune. The gallant Achilles was doomed to die young; whereas Tithonus, son of Laomedon, and the favourite of Aurora, a man who had performed no exploit, attained a great age, because Aurora had obtained from Jupiter immortality for him.-33. Connect circum with mugiunt.-35. Apta quadrigis equa, the mare yoked to the fourhorse chariot' the proper signification of aptus is joined, connected.' Bis Afro murice tinctae lanae, wool twice died with the African murex.' The murex (a shell-fish from which a fine purple dye was procured) was found on the coasts of Africa, Phoenicia, and Peloponnesus. Dyeing twice produced a finer shade of colour. -39. Parca non mendax, the truth-telling Parca,' the goddess of Fate, who never makes mistakes.-40. Spernere is dependent on dedit, and stands for the prose ut spernam.



MAECENAS, to whom this ode is addressed, suffered, particularly in the last years of his life, from constant illness, fever, and want of sleep. With this there was connected a fear of death, so strong as to approach the ridiculous. It was natural, therefore, that he should distress those about him, among whom was Horace, by his complaints. The present poem is an answer to a complaint of this kind,

CUR me querelis exanimas tuis?

Nec dis amicum est nec mihi, te prius.

2. Amicum est, according to a Greek usage:


placet, is agreeable

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