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time-honored rites of the Jewish ceremonial without a sigh. It is thought no reproach that he could turn from Moses and Elias, when a greater than both appeared. And shall we find fault with our Reformed progenitors, for turning from the Pope and his idolatrous mass and demon worship without hesitation or re


Nor will we! A puerile sentimentalism many write its rhymes in praise of those, whose deep rooted predilections for boary superstitions, so controlled them, that they could not give them up otherwise than Rachel did her teraphim! But reason and sound judgment, enlightened by the truth, and controlled by a supreme regard for God, and His true worship, will ever be found applauding those who hold Christ's enemies for their enemies, and ask not for time to bid them so much as farewell, when once they have been detected.

And this, as a distinctive peculiarity of the Reformed side of the great evangelical movement of the 16th century, is set forth with special clearness and decision in the Liturgy before us. And the German Reformed Church especially may congratulate itself in view of this most significant and interesting fact. Though possessed of natural feelings which qualify it for understanding full well the hesitations and compromises to which the other sides of the Reformation inclined, an enlightened judgment, and convictions founded on the letter of the Holy Gospels, and on the Spirit of the true Christian Church, will ever give an unequivocal verdict in favor of the example originally set by the noble Zwingle and his pious Zurichers, and afterwards so zealously pursued in the Palatinate under the learned and devout Frederick.

3. And this view of the case will secure more cheerful assent in consideration of another fact, strikingly exhibited in the book before us. Reference is of course had to the spirit of subordination and moderation which reigns throughout. Its influence makes itself felt on every page. Knowing the circumstances under which the Church, of which we have here a liturgical picture, was organized, it is natural to expect some evidences of spiritual licentiousness. But we look in vain for radicalism here.

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Having but just cast away the chafing chains of religious tyranny, we wonder at their tolerating any control, But how comparatively easy and quiet the transition, from the iron collar of Popery to the yoke of Christ ! From the cross dishonoring idolatry of the Mass, to the instructive, melting service of the Holy Supper!

Here indeed is such evidence of the law by which the pious Reformers of those days were governed, as all may delight in contemplating! No wonder that such giants in moral courage, when courage was required, and yet such children in all teachableness of disposition, when the Truth offered its holy instructions, were thought fit instruments for the vast objects to be achieved ! No age ever produced mightier or meeker men! And this, more than any thing, proves it to have been an age in which the Lord Himself was powerfully present with His wronged and degraded Church, to vindicate its honor.

May the Reformed Church seek to have this spirit more abundantly revived in her present life. She needs it. As her peculiar calling in the Kingdom of the Lord is indicated by it, so this calling also demands the diligent cultivation of this apostolic spirit. As therefore she would be true to herself and her Rock, let her listen to no terms of compromise with bald and baseless superstitions, no matter how innocent their face. And as she would be equally true to herself and Christ's Church, let her consent to no dalliance with the rabid radicalism, by which Satan is even now seeking first to disband the Church, then to subvert all civil rule, and finally destroy the world!

Long may this Old Palatinate Liturgy of 1563, remain with us, as a spiritual amulet against disasters like these! Easton, Pa.

J. H. A. B.


The continued inquisitions being made in the sphere of natural science, tend more and more, to a confirmation, and substantiation of the truths of revealed religion. The infidel once triumphing in pedantic style over the supposed inconcinnity between the discoveries of science and the truth of revelation, has been brow-beaten and compelled to retreat before the overpowering array of later investigations. Not only is there found to be no discordance, between the deductions of science and the facts of religion, but the most harmonious agreement. The varied departmenis of philosophy, which were once marshalled in stern array against the revelations of the Bible, are now waving their forced opposition, and joining hands with them in mutual fellowship. That this would ultimately be the case might have been, and was inferred a priori. Theoretically there is no ground for the hypothesis of a contradiction between science and relig

As Nature and Religion are both voluntary emanations of the Divine mind there must be consentaneousness in order to avoid disagreement in God himself. It is reasonable that Nature and Religion springing from the same inexhaustible fountain should flow together like the streams of the Rhine and Saone, in the same channel, though with distinguishable waters. Though our faith in the Divine origin of Christianity going before all natural testimony, could not be overthrown by such a dissonance, yet is it not comforting and streng: hening, to have it backed by The evidence drawn from the natural world? The lines and Tendencies of scientific research are drawing closer to Divine revelation, and arraying themselves around it in geometrical order. There is a convergence between the results of the discovering philosopher, and the established facts of revelation, so as to give us on a large and grand scale, the picture as described by Ilomer on his hero's shield; of things and moveinents heavenly, that appertain unto a higher sphere, hemmed round and embellished by the representations of earthlier and homelier pursuits.

We purpose in this essay to present in miniature form, some of the results in the sphere of Philological and Physiognomical Ethnography, which tend to establish the record of Moses that ali nitions of the earth have sprung from one common stock. This question, whether the diversified nations of the earth have sprung from one and the same origin? is not extraneous to the study of relationship between Nature and Revelation. It is interworen with the whole tissue of the Chrietian Religion. Da VOL. III.- NO. II.


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the necessity for a common progenitor rests the doctrine of original sin, and its transmission to succeeding generations; and the central doctrine of Divine Redemption through a one-man Deliverer, uniting and unifying in his person all the qualities and properties of the whole human race. A denial of the unity of the whole human race is virtually an abnegation of these fundamental doctrines of the Christian Religion. If mankind have proceeded from different roots, what becomes of the theory of an organic diffusion of sin ; and the extension and expansion of the blessings of Christianity from one great fountain Reject the supposition of common origin, and you blot out from the inspired record the doctrine of a common sinning and fall in Adam, and the glorious mystery of redemption.

The theories accounting for the marked diversity of races, are as numerous and variable as the different shades of color and habit found in the race itself. They have sprung up and move in close array like the moving pillars of the desert, and like them too many are sand, and fall because of their incompactness and instability. “ The Mosaic record” says a learned writer, “ does not make it quite clear that the inhabitants of the world descended froin Adam and Eve. Moreover the entire or even parval inspiration of the various writings comprehended in the Old Testament, has been, and is, doubted by many persons, including learned divines, and distinguished oriental and biblical scholars. To the grounds of doubt respecting inspiration, which arise from the examination of various narratives, from knowledge of the original and other oriental languages, and from the irreconcilable opposition between the passions and sentiments ascribed to the Deity by Moses, and that religion of peace and love un: folded by the Evangelists, I have only to add, that the representations of all the animals being brought before Adam in the first instance, and, subsequently, of their being all collected in the ark, if we are to understand them as being applied to the living inhabitants of the whole world, are zoologically impossible.' The Mosaic expressions “God created man inale and female” and again (chap. v,)“ in the day that God created man, male and female created he them,” are supposed by the above quoted author to refer to a different creation from that of Eve. Even the celebrated Eichhorn, one of the boldest and rashest interpreters which modern Germany has produced is found vindicating the above quotations from the charge here preferred against them. .

He however in the end arrived at the same conclusion by a rejection of the Divine inspiration on philological grounds. This exponent of the inspired record was the first who pretended to

have established, what had previously been conjectured; that the Pentateuch was only a combination of historical mythical legends, incorporated by Moses in the Divine record. This inference was unwarrantably deduced from the use of peculiar words. As for instance the word Jehovah is omitted in the first chapter; and is inserted in connection with Elohim in the commencement of the second chapter. In a general description of the cosmogony the self-existent appellation of the Creator alone is used. Elohim is the generic name of God; whilst Jehovah is the name of Israel's God; and is used in a geogonic description, wherein is given a particular account of the earth in its relation to man. The same definite distinction of these terms is found in the record made of the flood. Among the opponents of the theory maintaining a unity of the human race are found the names of Voltaire, Virey and Lamarck. Voltaire in truth was one of the first to observe that “none but a blind man can doubt that the whites, negroes, albinos, Hottentots, Laplanders, Chinese and Americans are entirely distinct races."

Virey belonging to the same school, in light and wanton frivolity carried out the theory still farther. Not content with attributing to the Negro a different origin from the European, he goes so far as to suspect a certain fraternity between the Negro and Baboon.

Lamarck collected and arranged in systematic form what had been vaguely and disconnectedly presented by others, and devel. oped the theory to its ultimate point. From the lowest order of created matter up to the immortal spirit, he discerned successive links uniting them in one inseparable whole. The two volumes of his Philosophie Zoologique are entirely directed to support this degrading theory; the first to prove how man's bodily organizalion sprung from a casual, though natural modification, of the ape; the second to show that the spiritual prerogatives of the hunan mind, are but the extension of the faculties possessed by brutes, and only diller quantitatively, and not qualitatively, from their perceptive powers. This theory was drawn analogically from the regular gradations found to exist, in each distinct kingdoma. As in Nature there is a regular ascent in the scale of organized beings, so in the animal realm there must be the same regular gradation. Each animal having new wants, and being driven by them to peculiar habits, gradually changes its organization, until in succeeding generations the distinction becomes inerasibly fixed. Thus for instance a bird, is driven by its wants to take to the water, and either swim or wade; its successors do the same ; in the course of many generations, the out

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