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true the Spaniards have their full share, had to send him weeping into sackcloth and very little connection. Religion was as

ashes. Were the fires of Protestant persesumed as a mask to conceal the vilest and cution, which illuminated the first years of niost detestable motives which ever yet led the reformation kindled by flame from heato the commission of crying injustice; the ven-or did they catch intensity, from the Jews were doomed to persecution and de breath of human passion-of love of gold, struction on two accounts, their great of bigotry and sin ? Were the “other and riches, and their high superiority over the more deserving hands,” which divided the Spaniards in learning and intellect. Avarice plunder of the English monasteries, moved has always been the dominant passion in Spa- altogether by the inspiration of faith, and nish minds, their rage for money being only the beauty of holiness? What is the to be compared to the wild hunger of wolves moral, which is drawn by the philosophical for horse flesh in the time of winter ; next to Prescott, from the unhappy expulsion of avarice, envy of superior talent and accom the Moriscoes from the Peninsula ? It is plishment, is the prevailing passion. These not one of denunciation, of wrath, or of two detestable feelings united, proved the

insult. It is the mournful question which ruin of the Jews in Spain, who were, for a he asks of humanity, and the answer long time an eye sore, both to the clergy whereof, in every man's heart, should and laity, for their great riches and learning.

humble instead of feeding our pride. Much the same causes insured the expul “ Where is the land, which can boast that sion of the Moriscos, who were abhorred the spirit of intolerance, which forms the for their superior industry; while the refor very breath of persecution, is altogether mation was kept down by the gaunt arm of extinct in its bosom ?!'* Can Mr. Borrow the Inquisition, lest the property of the Church forget how the Jewish people were hunted should pass into other and more deserving down, during the reigns of Richard I. Henhands. The faggot piles in the squares of ry III. and Edward I. of England ? Does Seville and Madrid, which consumed the history tell no tales of torture, robbery and bodies of the Hebrew, the Morisco, and the confiscation, of which these unhappy men Protestant, were lighted by avarice and envy, were unceasingly the victims, until in the and those same piles would likewise have nineteenth year of the latter king, fifteen consumed the mulatto carcass of the Gitá thousand of them, after having been plunno, had he been learned and wealthy dered, were banished from the kingdom, enough to become obnoxious to the two where, as Hume says, few of them, down master passions of the Spaniards.”—Vol. i. to his time, had afterwards lived ?t Was it

“avarice or envy,” which did these deeds We pray the reader to observe the quiet of shame? Were the wolves raging for nonchalance, with which Mr. Borrow de the horse flesh to such a degree, in “ nounces the "wild hunger” of “the Church” lightened England,” that for three hundred for its own possessions, as something wol and sixty-four years, down to the great fish beyond comparison, whilst the effort of rebellion, the children of Israel remained the “other and more deserving hands” to in weary banishment? Alas! that men's lay hold of what, by no law of God or prejudices should so weaken their underman, could belong to them, seems to be standings, and extinguish their better feeltreated as commendably righteous! We

ings, as to bid them ascribe to systems which will not embitter an article, mainly literary,

they hate, the sins that are common to our by entering into invidious national compa

nature—as to send them forth, with a prerisons, but we think that Mr. Borrow, if tence to heal in others, the wounds that fesimbued with that Christian spirit which he

ter in their own breasts! From Mr. Borrow, professes so ostentatiously, might perhaps

this atrocious libel on the Spanish people have found, in the history of his own dear comes with an especially bad grace. Durnative land, similar developments of “

*2 Prescott, 456.

+1 Hume, 448. rice and envy," on a scale horrible enough Jac. L. Dic. Tit. Jews.

p. 153.



ing the long years that he passed in the prehend it. In the first place, it seems to peninsula-prosecuting an errand contrary us, to render the “still small voice” not to the laws—a stranger too, and not over only a very doubtful, but a very variable civil—he was made welcome to all that the commodity, and may perhaps account for humble hospitality of town and country Mr. Bo w's cavalier mode of treating it, could afford him. The roof of the poorest when beneath the Spanish sun. But, in peasant sheltered him, as comfortably as good earnest, where is this English moits master, and though the bread was brown nopoly to stop ? Power, commerce, enand scanty, the half of it was his. To lightenment, religion, and last of all conthese facts we have his own testimony.* scienceOf these hungry wolves, he himself con

“ Did you say all? fesses, that “ they always esteem it a privi What, all my pretty chickens and their dam, lege, to pay another person's reckoning.”+

At one fell swoop ?” Of these “ Spaniards who have their full

We should be pleased if Mr. Borrow share of fanaticism and bigotry," he him

would “say why.” We confess ourselves self affirms, that “strange as it may sound, entirely unable to understand “why,” unSpain is not a fanatic country. I know

less it be true, as Knowles has it, that something about her and declare that she is not, nor has ever been; Spain never

Repentance is a grace, but it is ono changes !” Where then is the truth? If

That grows upon deformity.” Mr. Borrow were “a mere carnal rea And the most natural way of accounting soner," we should say that he had involved for the superabundance of the "grace," is himself, inextricably, in most disreputable to suppose that there exists a large surplus contradiction. As it is, we suppose that of the " deformity." what is true, must be so taken—what is We have already extended this article, salse must be understood in a Pickwickian beyond the limits which we had appointed, sense only! We will have charity at least, and we shall close it, by a reference to our and leave Mr. Borrow

author's views of the Spanish Gipsy legisWe were going to say, we should leave lation.Mr. Borrow to his conscience. Before we “The first law issued against the Gipsies do so, we had better examine his notions of

appears to have been that of Ferdinand and that tribunal.

Isabella, at Medina Del Campo, in 1499. It has been said, that there is a secret In this edict they were commanded, under monitor, or conscience, within every heart, certain penalties, to become stationary in

which immediately upbraids the individual towns and villages, and to provide themon the commission of a crime; this may be selves with masters whom they might serve true, but certainly the monitor within the for their maintenance, or in default thereof, Gitá no breast is a very feeble one, for little to quit the kingdom at the end of sirly days. attention is ever paid to its reproofs. With No mention is made of the country to which regard to conscience, be it permitted to ob they were expected to betake themselves in the serve, that it varies much according to climate, event of their quitting Spain. Perhaps, as country, and religion ; perhaps nowhere is it they are called Egyptians, it was concluded so terrible and strong as in England ; I need that they would forthwith return to Egypt ; not say why. Among the English, I have but the framers of the luo never seem to have seen many individuals stricken low, and considered what means these Egyptians posbroken hearted, by the force of conscience; sessed of transporting their families and thembut never among the Spaniards or Italians." selves across the sea to such a distance, or if Vol. i, p. 313.

they betook themselves to other countries, what If this be not the acme of absurdity, or reception a host of people, confessedly thieves something worse, we are at a loss to com

and vagabonds, were likely to meet with, or

whether it was fair in the two Christian princes Bible in Spain, preface p. 10. + Ib.

to get rid of such a nuisance at the expense


of their neighbors. Such matters were of Carlos Tercero had any thing further to do course left for the Gipsies themselves to settle.with its enactment than subscribing it with Vol. i, p. 175.

his own hand, is a point difficult to deterSucceeding monarchs, down to Philip V, mine; the chances are that he had not; modified this law, and increased the seve there is damning evidence to prove that in rity of its provisions, confining the Gitános many respects he was a mere Nimrod, and it to their particular cantonments, and making is not probable that such a character would it lawful for the proper officers to arrest or occupy his thoughts much with plans for the slay them, under certain circumstances of welfare of his people, especially such a class disobedience to the many prohibitory en as the Gitános, however willing to build actments proclaimed against them. In the public edifices, gratifying to his own vanity, year 1783, Charles III being king, the with the money which a provident predewhole system was revised, and a new code cessor had amassed. enacted, remarkable alike for its wisdom The law in question is dated 19th Sept., and humanity. Instead of persecution, 1783. It is entitled,

“ Rules for represwhich was found to have had its usual sing and chastising the vagrant mode of life, effect, of increasing the evil, an opposite and other excesses, of those who are called method was adopted. All trades and pro

Gitános.” It is in many respects widely fessions were thrown open to the Gipsies, different from all the preceding laws, and as to other subjects. They were united to on that account we have separated it from the body of the people, by freedom of them, deeming it worthy of particular access to common pursuits, and by the en notice. It is evidently the production of a joyment of equal rights. The law pun comparatively enlightened spirit, for Spain ished them, precisely as other offenders, had already begun to emerge from the and only resorted to severity, after a wilful dreary night of monachism and bigotry, and notorious violation of its provisions, though the light which beamed upon her was and a determined manifestation of their not that of the Gospel, but of modern philohostility to society and civilization. Under sophy. The spirit, horoever, of the writers of the influence of this system, Mr. Borrow the Encyclopédie is to be preferred to that of admits that the wild, wandering propensi Torquemada and Moncada, and however ties of the Zincali have been modified, and deeply we may lament the many grievous that they are now sinking into the bosom of omissions in the law of Carlos Tercero (for the other race, their ultimate extinction no provision was made for the spiritual instrucbeing certain, if distant.

tion of the Gitános,) we prefer it in all points, Now, one would think that in this happy to that of Philip III, and to the law passed result, there would be room for nothing during the reign of that unhappy victim of but gratulation—that the errors of the old monkish fraud, perfidy, and poison, Charles system would be forgotten and forgiven, II."-Vol. i, p. 188. through the merits of its successor. What Were it not melancholy to see a man of says Mr. Borrow in that regard? Let him intellect, pandering to the miserable prejuspeak for himself.

dices which these paragraphs were obvi“We should not have said thus much of ously meant to foster, we should consider Carlos Tercero, whose character has been the weary cant which fills them, as a most extravagantly praised by the multitude, and amusing instance of the “caput insanabile.” severely criticised by the discerning fero who It will have been observed that Mr. Borlook deeper than the surface of things, if a row sneers at the law of Ferdinand and law passed during his reign did not connect Isabella, for its cruelty in banishing the him intimately with the history of the Gipsies without directing them where to go. Gitános, whose condition to a certain ex The words two Christian princesare tent it has already altered, and over whose italicised in the original, to show, we supfuture destinies there can be no doubt that it pose, that all the Christianity of Ferdinand will exert considerable influence. Whether and Isabella was in their title. Now it so

Vol. II.--No.5.


happens, that by statute v Elizabeth, ch. xx, passed in 1563, when England, it is to be supposed, had none of the leaven of Catholicity about her, (unless, perhaps, the Protestant Catholicity now revived at Oxford), when “monachism and bigotry were out of the question—it was enacted that “if the Egyptians themselves remain one month in the kingdom, or if any person, being fourteen years old, which hath been seen or found in the fellowship of such Egyptians, or which haih disguised himself or herself like them, shall remain in the same, one month at one or sereral times, it is felony, without benefit of clergy;"* that is to say, loss of lands and goods, and punishment of death! Now, where were the English Gipsies to find a home, in foreign lands, with only half the time to seek it, which was allowed by the law of Ferdinand and Isabella ? Was it at all more fair, in the Virgin Queen and Defender of the Faith, “ to get rid of the nuisance at the expense of her neighbors," allowing the Gipsies, under no circumstances, to remain in the realm, than it was, in the “Christian princes,” to banish them, only in default of their pursuing an honest livelihood ? The Gipsies were, as the facts prove, either unwilling or unable to leave the kingdom, and accordingly Sir Matthew Hale informs us,t that, at one Suffolk assizes, at a late day-shortly previous to the restoration--thirteen Gipsies were executed under this statute. Even Blackstone's toryism revolts at this barbarity. I

By a singular coincidence, in the year 1783, the identical year of the reform by Charles III, the statute of Elizabeth was repealed, and not until then. The English reform was attended with no affirmative legislation, and the Gipsies were thrown back on the statute xvii George II, ch. v, which constitutes them, and all other “persons pretending to be Gipsies," ipso facto

rogues and vagabonds,” liable to be publicly whipped or sent to the house of correction. If, therefore, our author, instead of raving about “monachism and bigotry," “wolves,” and “

horse flesh,” in foreign

lands, had quietly turned his eyes homeward, he would have found every difference of legislation palpably and notoriously in favor of the wisdom and humanity of the Spanish government. He would have found that the repealing statute of 1783 (23 George III, ch. li), like its Spanish contemporary, made “no provision for the spiritual instruction of the Gipsies.” Instead of denouncing Charles III, as a “mere Nimrod,” and going out of his way to deprive that monarch of the glory of a wise law, he would have found occasion to lament that George III, ultimately a mere idiot, was never wise enough to have the merit of any great measure requiring the exercise of statesmanship. He would have discovered, that if he himself, Mr. George Borrow, “agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society,” had, at any time prior to 1783, presumed to consort with the Gipsies of England for one-twentieth part of the time which he spent with impunity among his friends, the Zincali, he would have been a felon, and would have died a felon's death! Finally, he would have seen, that down to the year 1825, when by statute v George IV,ch. lxxxiii, the statute of George II was repealed, he himself would have been liable to be whipped or sent to the house of correction, for “ pretending to be a Gipsy;" and that, even now, his roaming with them, speaking their tongue, and partaking of their adventures, would make out against him a prima facie case, in virtue whereof, he might be sent, by a single justice, on the oath of a single witness, to hard labor for three months in the house of correction. Yet in the face of all these facts, Mr. Borrow not only sets himself up to bring all things to the level of “enlightened England," but indulges in the following “screed of doctrine," all of which our readers will perceive, is not only truthful, Christian, and unprejudiced, but likewise remarkably germane to the matter in hand.

Spain for many centuries has been the country of error; she has mistaken stern and savage tyranny for rational government; bruse, low, and grovelling superstition for clear,

* Blackstone's Com. 166. #4 BI. Com. 4.

+ 1 Hale's Pl. C. 671.

*Stephen's Criminal Law, 110.

bright, and soul-ennobling religion ; sordid cheating she has considered as the path to riches ; vexatious persecution as the path to poroer ; and the consequence has been that she is noro poor and powerless, a pagan among the pagans, with a dozen kings, and with none. Can we be surprised, therefore, that, mistaken in policy, religion, and moral conduct, she should have fallen into an error on points so naturally dark and mysterious, as the history and origin of those reinarkable people, whom for the last four hundred years, she has supported under the name of Gitános ?"_Vol. ii, p.

82. Like a man bitten by a tarantula, Mr. Borrow removes the phrenzy of which the above is a trifling orgasm, by the musical strains of the following pleasant consolation.

“ In England, of late, the Gipsies have excited particular attention, but a desire far more noble and laudable than mere antiquarian curiosity, has given rise to it, pamely, the desire of propagating the glory of Christ among those who knew him not, and of saving souls from the jaws of the infernal wolf.”—Vol. ii, p. 82.

Most sincerely do we trust that such a desire, if honestly entertained, may be gratified; but it appears that the Gipsies have already reached the highest poim of hatred to their neighbors who are not of their class, and as this would seem to be the essence of what Mr. Borrow considers “ soul-ennobling religion,” we do not know that the jaws of the wolf are likely to be deprived of many victims by the “attention” which it is probable he would commend. At all events we do not anticipate much success from the adoption of Mr. Borrow's system as detailed in the following paragraphs. We rather opine that the “small glass of Malaga wine" was a more potent missionary than that gentleman, with all his eloquence. Our readers will perhaps concur with us, when they examine the uses to which our author's translated Gospels were applied. We commend to them the concluding story, which shows that Mr. Borrow in the absence of a good proselyte, could make out to gather a good joke for his book.

Try them with the Gospel, I hear some one cry, which speaks to all : I did try them

with the Gospel, and in their own language. I commenced with Pépa and Chicharona. Determined that they should understand it, I proposed that they themselves should translate They could neither read nor write, which, however, did not disqualify them from being translators. I had myself previously translated the whole Testament into the Spanish Rommany, but I was desirous to circulate among the Gitános, a version conceived in the exact language in which they express their ideas. The women made no objection, they were fond of our tertúlias, and they likewise reckoned on one small glass of Malaga wine, with which I invariably presented them. Upon the whole they conducted themselves much better than could have been expected. We commenced with St. Luke; they rendering into Rommany the sentences which I delivered to them in Spanish. They proceeded as far as the eighth chapter, in the middle of which they broke down. Was that to be wondered at ? The only thing that astonished me was that I had induced two such strange beings to advance so far in a task so unwonted, and so entirely at variance with their habits as translation."-Vol. i, p. 318.

“ The Gitá nos of Madrid purchased the Gipsy Luke freely: many of the men understood it and prized it highly, induced of course more by the language than the doctrine ; the women

were particularly anxious to obtain copies, though unable to read ; but each wished to have one in her pocket, especially when engaged in thieving expeditions, for they all looked upon it in the light of a charm, which would preserve them from all danger and mischance; some even went so far as to say, that in this respect it was equally efficacious as the Bar Lachí, or loadstone, which they are in general so desirous of possessing. Of this Gospel five hundred copies were printed, the greatest part of which I contrived to circulate among the Gipsies in various parts; I cast the book upon the waters and left it to its destiny."Vol. i, p. 319.

· My little congregation, if such I may call it, consisted entirely of women : the men seldom or never visited me save they stood in need of something which they


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