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came the most odious and detested of all the proved to be the culminating point of Clark's ed March 1, 1784, and the Territory of the British officers concerned in these operations.

Northwest became organized under the ordiThe news of the rebel invasion reached him Chapter xii. continues with various impor-nance of 1787. The seal bears date of July 13, August 8; he left Detroit October 7, with men tant events on the Wabash in 1779. The cher- 1787, with the motto, “ Meliorem lapsa locavit.” said to have been 179 in number, went down ished project of a campaign against Detroit But before the great drama was ended, Clark the river, across the lake, up the Maumee to was in abeyance, but one important expedition was ordered off the stage of events. He was re"Ome” (Indian village "aux Miamis," site up the Wabash captured seven British boats lieved of his command July 2, 1783—that is, he of Fort Wayne), over to the “Ouabache" and about forty men, with supplies intended was simply dropped. He bad never been an (Wabash), and so on to Fort Sackville in seven- for Fort Sackville. Bowman was dead. Clark officer of the Continental army, and on the nety-two days. Tbis was tbe important Post returned to the falls of the Ohio and divided cessary reduction of Virginia troops he was St. Vincents, in the present Vincennes, Ind., bis troops between Vincennes, Cahokia, Kas- thrown out"with thanks," but without the dewhich Clark had meanwhile garrisoned with a kaskia, and the falls, by general orders of cencies or even the necessaries of life. He detachment under Capt. Helm, then reduced August 5, 1779, thus establishing possession of retired to Kentucky to neglect, to humiliation, to twenty-one men, while Hamilton's force the country which had been for ever wrested to dire stress of poverty, with the most inbad increased to several hundred British, from the British. The appendix to Volume I. jurious effect upon his health and morals. At Frencb, and Indians. Helm surrendered with is rich with contemporaneous documents of that time the State actually owed bim money; bonors of war December 17, and Hamilton extreme value, relating to the events just fifty years afterward there was judged over beld the fort.

sketched, some of them here appearing for the $30,000 due the administrators of his estate; it Rochblave, the last of his Majesty's com- first time in print, and all being additional to was not till twenty years after his dismissal, manders in the Illinois, had been sent captive such as we have in the main text. They in. and six before his death, when he had become a to Virginia August 4. The Governor commu- clude, among other letters and reports, Bow.maimed paralytic, that he was allowed a pennicated the news of Clark's successes to the man's journal of January-March, 1779; Clark's sion of $100 a year. Iu 1783 we have the specdelegates in Congress November 16, and own diary of December 25, 1776-November tacle of the conqueror of the Northwest in that body voted a resolution of thanks No-22, 1777; the roll of officers and men captured Richmond to beg for bread. In 1792 he was vember 23, to which Clark replied March at Fort Sackville, etc.

still struggling with poverty; a letter written 10, 1779. Virginia promptly organized the Volume II. opens with chapter xiv., pp. to his brother Jonathan, May 11, 1792, speaks "County of Illinois,” under John Todd, De- 605-663, giving a long and circumstantial ac- of his account against the State as being "as cember 12, 1778; Gov. Henry also wrote to count of the captivity in Virginia of Hamilton just as the book we swear by"; and bitter Clark the same day, and again January 1, and other prisoners, harshly treated in retalia- must have been the reflections of one who could 1779, but Clark does not seem to have been tion for cruelties to American prisoners in then say with truth, “I bave given the United advised of these communications February other quarters. By the end of the summer of States balf the territory they possess." 3, when he reported the whole situation to 1779 the little garrison Clark had left on Corn No kindly light ever led Clark on after 1783. the Governor, and outlined his proposed Vin- Island had removed to the mainland on the In 1786 he was put in command of some operacennes campaign; for, as he said, “we must Kentucky side and built a stockade in present tions against Indians which resulted fruitlesseither quit the country or attack Mr. Hamil Louisville, probably at the foot of Twelfth ly and ignominiously, by open revolt of his ton."

Street, thus laying the foundation of the city men from his authority. He retired to Vin. At Kaskaskia, Clark had but a few more agreeably with Clark's plans. Meanwhile, Jef- cennes, overwhelmed by tbis fresh disaster; his than one hundred men, and could not have ferson had succeeded to the governorship of habits grew worse, and he did things wbich moved but for assistance from Francis Vigo Virginia, June 1, 1778. On September 30, 1779, must bave pained bis friends then, even as they (1747–1836), who furnished the sinews of Clark issued orders for a fort on the Mississippi still make the judicious historian grieve. war in an amount, $8,616, which became with near the mouth of the Ohio, and Fort Jefferson “Clark is playing bell,” was the word on De. interest over $149,898 when fipally settled in was built early in 1780, when Clark went with cember 12, 1786; and though Jefferson re1875. On February 4, 1779, the Willing a few men to Iron Banks, in present Bullard | mained his staunch friend, and tried in 1791 to dropped down from Kaskaskia with forty-six County, Ky. The American position was still briog bim up again, it was impossible to do so. men, under Lieut. Rogers: the land force was endangered by Indian hostilities, and insecure In 1793 Clark made probably the greatest misof four or five companies, in all about 170 by reason of an invasion of the British from take of his life, enabling his enemies to affix a men. The latter left next day under Clark, by Micbilimackinac. The latter was repelled by stigma of dishonor and even treason to a name the trail sometimes styled the “Appian Way Clark, who made a counter raid from his red- already tarnished by private bad habits. He of Ilinois," en route to Vincennes, via present dezvous at the mouth of the Licking, on to the accepted a commission with the high sounding Sparta, Coultersville, Oakdale, Nashville, Wal- old Indian town of Chillicotbe, with less than title of “Major General in the armies of put Hill, Salem, Maysville, and Lawrence- 1,000 men, and attacked Piqua, August 8, 1780. France and Commander in-chief of the revo. ville, a distance of some 160 to 170 miles, then This same autumn De la Balme's expedition,lutionary legion on the Mississippi River," called 240. The Wabash was crossed just be. with a few men from Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and against the Spanish, in violation of internalow the mouth of Embarras River February Vincennes, against British posts on the lakes, tional law and under governmental condemna. 21, and Clark was on the heights back of Vin- was defeated by the Miami chief Little Turtle, tion. He may never have meditated action cennes on the evening of the 23d, after a terri- in the vicinity of the present Fort Wayne. against his own country, but any such expedible march, in part over country flooded with Such operations brought up again Clark's long- tion as he had in view was stopped by act of icy waters.

cherished plan of an expedition against De-Congress of June 5, 1794, and proclamation of It is disputed whether the fort which Clark troit. Jefferson approved. Clark was made a March 24, 1795, declaring the proposed operatook is of 1713, named for one Jean Sacque brigadier, and arrangements were perfected tions unlawful. Clark's military career closed ville, or 1769, for a Lord Sackville; there may by which he expected to leave Fort Pitt with for ever, under a cloud. easily have been two of different dates, with 2,000 men in June, 1781. But he failed to be- The remainder of this extremely copious and similar names. The one captured stood on cure Continental troops, and the failure of 700 intensely interesting work is largely occupied the east bank of the Wabash, between that others reduced his total force to about 400. He with minute details of the "Clark Grant," by and First Street, and between Vigo and Baro. was to have been reinforced by Col. Lochry; acts of the Virginia Legislature of January 2, det Streets, at the foot of Church Street, but this officer reached Wheeling, August 8, 1781, and of 1783, locating about 149,000 acres close to the St. F. Xavier Church of that time, one day after Clark left, and he was cut off by of ground for allotment in severalty to the in present Vincennes, Ind. A night attack the Indians, who killed or captured bis entire officers and soldiers of the Illinois regiment. was made on the 23d; a peremptory demand force. This was disaster in itself, and it also The survey of this land by one William Clark for surrender next morning; a truce for three frustrated the Detroit campaign-probably the brings up the question of the three persons who days was rejected, a conference held, and Post most bitter disappointment of Clark's life. bore that name, and Mr. English has succeedSt. Vincent capitulated, the garrison marching Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown, Va., ed in identifying them all. Surveyor William out on the 25th. Clark changed the name to October 19, 1781. Indian troubles lessened Clark, son of Benjamin Clark, brother of MarFort Patrick Henry. The boat Willing ar. when the natives were no longer instigated or ston Green Clark, and cousin of George Rogers rived two days later. Insignificant as may led by the British; the provisional treaty of Clark, deceased November or December, 1791, seem to us now the forces in action, this peace ensued, November 30, 1782; cessation of was not the jurist, William Clark, who died at completed the conquest of the North west hostilities was agreed upon at Versailles, Janu. Vinceunes November 11, 1802, nor yet the Wilin a short, spirited, and almost bloodless ary 20, 1783, proclaimed by Congress April 11, liam Clark of “Lewis ani Clark” fame. A campaign, fraught with far-reaching conse- concluded at Paris September 3, and ratified facsimile of the patent issued by Edmund Ran. quences of great magnitude. It is sad to be January 14, 1784. The cession by Virginia of dolph, Governor of Virginia, December 14, obliged to add that the capture of Vincennes all her lands northwest of the Ohio was effect- 1786, is given, and also another, of the original official plot, certified by Surveyor William founder of that system, and cannot be held tury"; and then he criticises bim for submitClark, with a roll of the men, sketches of the responsible for it.” However, we will defertiog to the law like an orderly person and for commissioners, and other biographical data of further consideration of that point until we an example. The interpretation given to the the greatest possible value. It seems that Gen. have made a brief examination of what pre- anecdote about the thanksgiving mass at the G. R. Clark attended the meetings of the board cedes it.

Kazan cathedral offers another instance of from 1784 to March 14, 1810, the date of his last The fact seems to be, with regard to this seeing things in diametrically opposite ways, signature, after he had become paralytic. This book, that it is composed of articles published according as one has point to prove or is grant was the origin of Clarksville, Ind, and at various times during the last five years. merely a disinterested spectator. various other towns along the Ohio opposite The internal evidence proves this, but as no Nevertheless, with all our involuntary doubts, Louisville and thence upward. The old gene- direct bint is given of this state of affairs, for it is of the highest interest to bave these clear ral there dragged out many lonely years, in the benefit of non experts, the constant as- statements as to important events and meaoblivion and intemperance. He was stricken sumption that the whole has been written in sures, as viewed by the revolutionary party. with paralysis after a drinking-bout, fell in the the immediate present is frequently mislead. Some of them are, it is true, utterly irreconfire, and so burned one of his legs before re- ing to a serious degree; as, for example, when cilable with everything which has been aucovering consciousness that erysipelas set in "the present Emperor” stands for Alexander thoritatively stated bitberto-such as the naand amputation became necessary. This was II. instead of the actual occupant of the ture of the document wbich Alexander II. was early in 1809, before the days of anæsthetics, throne. Stepniak admits that matters change on the point of promulgating when he was and the grisly old warrior lost his leg to the so rapidly in Russia that it is not possible for assassinated. In this connection, it is rather music of drum and fife, played to distract bis the revolutionists who live abroad to direct surprising that Stepniak, wbile mentioning the attention from the misery of such an operation operations; they cannot even understand the Princess Dolgoruky. Yurievsky's pamphlet, does One of the most persistent myths which have conditions from the other side of the border. not also refer to the answering pamphlet wbich reached us is that when General Clark was pre. Consequently, a difference of five years, or was written by one of the Court dames, and sented with a sword, he cried, “Damn the even of much less time, plainly renders certain which might have furnished him with some sword!" etc., or said, “When Virginia needed | utterances less valuable, when it does not nul. telling points against the Princess, who mis. a sword I gave her one. She sends me now a lify them altogether.

represented, as he thinks, his friends and the toy. I want bread.” Mr. English's analysis Very few writers are as insidiously persua circumstances. His elucidation of the Slavoof the traditions shows about as much truth sive as Stepniak. He has the art of engaging pbile doctrines is very good, and bis exposition in them as in the still more celebrated our sympathies, and convincing us of wbatever of the workings of the new District Commandstory of the "little batchet" of Washington. he pleases, unless we cbance to be able to pin ers is extremely useful, and the most complete General Clark was twice presented with a him down on one incontestable point, and so that is accessible. But why did he not do jussword by the Virginia Legislature-June 12, obtain the proper gauge of confidence which tice to the Government by stating the reason 1779, and February 20, 1812–at which latter we must give to his arguments and illustrative for the change contained in the appointment date he was placed on the pension list. He died anecdotes. It is very unfortunate that, in the of these District Commanders? While no at the bouse of his sister, Lucy Crogban, at hastily written first chapter, designed to in- landed proprietor, in anticipation or in pracLocust Grove, Ky., February 13, 1818.

troduce and bind together the scattered papers tice, approves, unreservedly, of that reform, Much more than we can possibly outline here which form the book, he should bave fallen it is certain that not one proprietor could be is given in estimation of Clark's life and ser- into the grievous error of telling that anec. found who would not frankly admit that some vices; sketches of many men who served under dote about Count L. N. Tolstoy's drama, “The radical change was necessary, owing to the him; and a full account of the handsome Dominion of Darkness.” Stepniak's “trust. peasants' abuse of electoral rights. Abuses of monument erected at Indianapolis February worthy source" bas furnished bim with a the same sort occur even in advanced repub25, 1895, mainly through the distinguished a'l- very good story, which runs, briefly, to the lics, and it is not always easy to decide upon thor's own efforts to that end. We have also following effect: Alexander 1II. read and liked tbe best remedy for them under the most famuch Clark genealogy, especially full regard. “The Dominion of Darkness." His daughter, vorable circumstances-which is not the proper ing the brothers and sisters of G. R. Clark. Xenia Alexandrovna, who is the wit and lite- description for the Russian circumstances, it The appendix to this volume contains a great rary critic of the family, liked it still more, must be confessed. variety of interesting matter, including in full and she proposed that the play should be pri

"The establishment of the District ComClark's account against the State of Virginia, vately performed in one of the balls of the manders is one of the sorest grievances of and the strange bistory of the bill in chancery Anitcbkoff Palace. After the actors bad been rural Russia. The emancipation of tbe serfs

was not a great success. Even the partisans over his alleged will, filed May 6, 1835, and not engaged, and all the arrangements made,

of the Government admit that pow. It did dismissed till November 20, 1865. It also ap. Count Dmitry Tolstoy, Minister of the Inte.

not improve the material condition of the pears that the present work is but an instal- rior, agreed with the Head Censor that its per

But the former serfs became citizens; ment of that which the author has in hand, formance must be prohibited on the ground of

they recovered their personal independence

and immunity from interference in their priand we trust sincerely that he will elaborate its “immorality,” and the imperial perform

vate affairs." his other materials in the same fruitful man

was stopped. When Xenia Alexan. drovna mentioned the matter at a family

Americans who are conversant with the party, at which some of the ministers were

negro problem at the South will find no diffSTEPNIAK'S LAST WORK.

present, expressivg her surprise, the Czar turn- culty in understanding this.
ed to his ministers and merely exclaimed,

More difficult to reconcile are such stateKing Stork and King Log: A Study of Mo. with a meek astonishment one does not asso

ments as those on pages 119, 120, in regard dern Russia. By Stepniak. London : Dow- ciate with the idea of an all-powerful despot:

to the recent great famine, and the Governney & Co.; New York : Charles Scribner's

“The editors “Yes, imagine! the play has been prohibited!" ment's efforts to keep it secret. Sons. 1895. The date of this extraordinary tale is not

of the papers received stringent orders not WHATEVER else can be said about the late given, but, as Xenia Alexandrovna was only

to publish, under the fear of suppression and Stepniak's writings, it can never be asserted fourteen years old when Count Dmitry Tol- other administrative penalties, any news about that they are not interesting as to matter and stoy died, in April, 1889, its apocryphal cha- the famine likely to 'disturb the public mind."" trencbant as to style. The very title of the racter is plain enough; an American girl Yet it is asserted that Count L. N. Tolstoy's book before us furnishes a proof, though some would not be allowed to read that play at that

letter calling upon the Government to state readers may question the propriety of call- age, much less a Russian girl. Thereafter the plainly whether or not there was sufficient ing the late Alexander III. “King Stork,” reader involuntarily questions the accuracy of

corn in the country to keep the Russian people and feel startled at the temerity wbich can every emphatic utterance, and all the utter- until the next harvest, and to provide it, in decree to Nicholas II., after a reign of less ances are emphatic. The anecdote is enlighten

case there was not, was not only printed but tban a year, the epithet of “King Log." If it ing in another direction also, namely, as to

"quoted and endorsed by the whole press," is regarded as a valid excuse, in the case of the author's babit of using all arguments, no

and “Vyshnegradsky found it necessary to Lord Salisbury, that a new Government in- matter how contradictory, to assail the object give it a reply." evitably inherits the policy and political of his dislike. He has already said of Alexan.

Among the topics with wbich Stepniak deals debts of its predecessor, and must be allowed der III.: “He bad not the masterfulness of his

is that of the Jews. "The classes which are at time to initiate gradual changes, it certainly grandfather, Nicholas I., a typical despot, and,

the head of the Russian anti-Jewish movement is not unreasonable to claim some small mea. unlike his father, he had a great respect for have long ago outlived the period of religious sure of the same excuse for the corresponding the laws passed by himself. His reign was the fanaticism,” he says. autocrat in Russia. In fact, our author says most lawless we have had since, perhaps, the "With them the hostility towards the Jews in one place : "Alexander III. was not the time of the adventurers of the eighteenth cen- is purely racial. With the masses, also, the

masses.

ance

ner.

racial antipathy is also a much stronger ingre. that the judgment must, of necessity, be super- this year he has constantly taken part in tourdient in the anti-Jewish feeling than religion.

ficial and basty; that it is not softened by even paments and matches, and, while never in the Thus we may fairly describe the anti Jewish movement as racial.

Everywhere the

so much as the suggestion that a vast empire very first rauk of players, be bas met with Jews almost monopolize the most lucrative cannot be switched to another track in the enough success to entitle him to a hearing on calling in the community--that of middlemen. course of a few months; and that, while the behalf of his particular theories. At the outset They come to constitute a class apart as well as a race apart, and racial hostility comes to

author hotly champions the cause of the pea- he disavows any claim to absolute originality embitter the struggle between the classes. sants, he blames the Emperor for paying too in his chess ideas, but he has always been known

In the Pale of Settlement the Jews, much heed to them as well as for oppressing as a believer in certain irregular openings-par. although forming but one-seventh of the popu

them. “Relentless, implacable hostility to- ticularly P to K B+-and his book is a some. lation, have concentrated in their hands one. balf of tbe wholesale trade of the region, and

ward the whole of enlightened, educated Rus- what rambling but decidedly entertaining bave almost monopolized the retail trade." sia, and patriarchal benevolence toward the plea for such openings, and in general for

peasants, such is the policy of the new Czar," brilliant as opposed to "drawing-master's" This is the explanation of a friendly writer, he says, just as he has violently attacked Alex. chess. He points out that whereas, in the it is to be noted. Very curious is the explava- ander III. for being "the Peasant Czar" and great match between Labourdonnais and Mc. tion of the anti-Jewish riots. A year before upholding the peasants by entirely different Donnell in 1833, no less than sixteen different these occurred, the Emperor issued a manifesto methods. In short, it is unjust irrevocably to openings were tried, the modern masters denouncing the Nibilists, and calling upon all condemn Nicholas II. as “King Log" for in. | rarely venture beyond the Ruy Lopez or the his faithful subjects to assist the police in ex- action, and Alexander III. as “ King Stork,” | queen's gambit. This lack of variety he at. terminating them. The official name for Nihi. the devourer of his people, when it is plain tributes to the high stakes now played for, lists is kramolniki, which means, in Russian, that no consistent canon of conduct exists wbich give an undue importance to the mere rebels, state criminals. But in the south of even in the mind of the implacable judge who fact of winning, with a resulting unwillingRussia the peddlers and retail traders, who seeks thus to sentence them to eternal oppro- ness on the part of the players to risk any but are all Jews, are popularly called kramorniki. brium.

the safest and most deeply analyzed openings. The illiterate peasants, not unnaturally, got We return, last of all, to our former asser- It is certainly curious that so little that is the two words mixed, and believed tbat the tions, that the two volumes are interesting and novel has been attempted in the openings durJews were at tbe bottom of the trouble. Not- entbralling to the highest degree, but that we ing the last fifty years. In the Modern Chess withstanding tbis, they behaved in a friendly dare not accept them as finally authoritative, Instructor,' publisbed by Steinitz in 1889, the manner, as Stepniak relates, to Jews who bad either as to concrete statements or as to the only two original suggestions, viz: P to Q3 been friendly to them.

general impression produced, after the speci. in the Ruy Lopez, and Kt to K R 3 in the Naturally, Stepoiak has a good deal to say mens of inaccuracy which we have selected for Two Knights Defence, have not stood tbe test with regard to the political exiles in Siberia, illustration.

of practice, and bave been abandoned by their and his narratives are of the most thrilling

author. On the other band, it seems very sort. But he is not quite just, in many in

doubtful wbether Mr. Bird's elaborate argustances; men whose sentences were pronounced Chess Sparks. By J. H. Ellis. Longmans,

ments in favor of his special openings will in 1874-6 can hardly be regarded as, primarily,

Green & Co. 1895.

carry conviction to the minds of other players. oppressed by Alexander III., whose reign dated | Chess Novelties. By H. E. Bird. Frederic Writing before the recent meteoric appearance only from 1881. At one point, also, he speaks

Warne & Co. 1895.

of young Pillsbury, Mr. Bird evidently regard. of an exue having died at Berezoff, and, imme- In a letter about chess written some years ago,

ed himself as almost the sole survivor of the diately afterwards, remarks: “But under John Ruskin remarked: “I may tell you one

school of Anderssen and Morphy, who aimed Alexander III. it (leniency) was entirely thing much in my mind-the possibility of as

to mate or win, while the other players of the thrown aside, and the practice of exiling peo signing value to games, primarily by the few day bad become imbued with the theories of ple to places utterly unfit for human habita

ness of moves, secondly by the fewness of cap. Steinitz, who aims to avoid losing and to be tion was introduced on a large scale." Berezoff tures. Exchange games, where, after a hun. certain of a draw. But, since this book was is included in that category, as recently intro- dred and fifty moves, the victor wins by an printed, a second Morphy has astonished tbe duced, whereas it was used as a place of exile odd pawn, may contain calculations enough chess world, and the St. Petersburg tournain the middle of the last century-for Prince for next year's almanac, but they are quite out ment just over proved that some of Mr. Bird's Mentebikoff and for Ostermann, among others. of my horizon of chess.” Impelled, no doubt, theories will probably require revision. None Stepniak's disregard of his country's bistory by similar views, Mr. Ellis has made a most of the four masters engaged in that tourpadoes not, of course, mitigate the horrors of fascivating collection of games in which a winment will be found to have offered a P to K B Berezoff, but it increases the uninitiated read.

ning position was attained in twenty moves or 4 opening. er's indignation against Alexander III. An. less. Many of these games were played by other very confusing result of carelessuess in celebrated masters, and are more or less well. writing and proof-reading arises from the dif. known specimens of brilliancy, wbile others

Two Years on the Alabama. By Arthur Sin. ferent dates assigned to various events: for are perhaps more remarkable for brevity than

clair. Boston: Lee & Shepard. 1895. example, the Emperor Nicholas II.'s wedding scientific skill. Among the examples of eigh- This book has a right to exist. Written by manifesto is set down as having been issued on teenth-century play is a delightful giuoco piano one of the line oflicers of the Alabama after a January 24, instead of on November 26, there of sixteen moves, wou by Jean Jacques Rous service coincident with the cruise of the vesby ruining the argument of comparison be. seau in 1760 from the Prince de Conti, another sel, it has certain advantages over Semmes's tween it and another manifesto. Again, on proof--if proof were needed-of the versatility narrative in consequence of the subsidence of p. 170, it is said: “ Politically, the speech of of that remarkable intellect. Abundant dia- war passions and the settlement with England December 20 (1894) marks an epoch in the his- grams make it easy for the reader to follow of the Alabama question. Seumes's narra. tory of our opposition movement.” On p. 200 the more complicated games, and Mr. Ellis has tive was in a turgid and inflated style, and this sperch is referred to as baving been made further supplied bim with an index of players, bitter in partisanship and denunciation of the on January 20 (1895). We must also allude to a table of solutions, and a chronicle giving the Nortb. Sinclair, it is true, professes only to give the errors which arise from Stepniak's imper- results of all the important chess matches and personal narrative of the cruise, but this lect mastery of the English past tenses of the tournaments from 1824 to 1894. Typograpbi- practically includes all that is of general or verbs. Astonishing as was his knowledge of cal errors, of the kind so common in chess professional interest, while in narration of our language, he unwittingly leads the ordi. books, are pleasantly lacking.

facts he writes more pleasantly as well as more nary reader astray by inaccurate use of those This particular merit is not shared by Mr. correctly than Semmes. He has taken contenses.

Bird's book, which contains plenty of in. siderable trouble to verify his statements, and Among the other topics of vital moment stances of K instead of Kt, and even K to Q3 be bas also profited by data and criticisms that which are bere treated are: the situation in Fin- instead of Kt to Q B3. Other merits, how- were probably unknown to Semmes. land and Poland ; the character of the Russian ever, it certainly possesses. In the first place, After all that can be said as to the great peasants, to whom Stepniak pays the bigla tri the veteran author is an interesting personage vexation and pecuniary loss brought about bute which is tbeir just due, but which they in the chess world. As long ago as 1817 be during the civil war by the cruise of the Ala. rarely receive from foreign writers; Nihilism, was playing matches with that admirable | bama, the fact remains, and stands out in clear of which he gives the first and best summary, in performer Buckle, the historian. In 1851 be light, that her career had no vital effect upon its strikingly varied pbases, from its inception played on even terms with the great Anders- the course of the war. Semmes saw this, and to the present day; and the revolutionary view sen, and in 1858 he made a very fair showing laments it in his book, while Sinclair in turp of Nicholas 11., and his brief reigu to date. As against the invincible Paul Morphy. From remarks that, parallel with the success of the to the spirit of the latter, it can only be said that time up to the Hastings tournament of Alabama in her latter days, was the stearly

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105),

failure of the war against the Union and the having made an especial study of this branch with little or nothing to counteract it. Mr. approaching downfall of the Southern Con. of naval training, had no equal in eitber navy. Seward is almost the only person who, after federacy. Too much prominence cannot be As a requisite for a well.educated naval officer passing under Mr. Tuckerman's eye, has not given to the policy of Secretary Welles, steadi- it has not lost its importance in these later bad some rip or tear in his moral garb exposly persisted in and so well justified by results, times, either in time of war or in the more ex- ed, or what is meant to appear such. Some.. not to weaken the pressure of the blockade on tended period of peace.

times this effect is produced at the price of the Southern States by a large diversion of The account of the final engagement of the very inadequate knowledge. To say that Edforce against the Confederate cruisers. The Alabama is excellent. It is the best that we ward Everett "felt the leaden weight of maintenance of this great naval operation was know of and is without hyperbole or exaggera- disappointed ambition" (i. 33), that Abbott a vital element in the subjugation of the Con. tion. The intention of Semmes to board the Lawrence (indicated as Mr. L--) acquired his federacy, by destroying its commerce and de- | Kearsarge is dwelt upon, and the advantage manner by “studying his Talleyrand,” is to priving an agricultural country of manufac- that the superior speed of the Kearsarge gave convict Mr. Tuckerman of the most superficial tured articles wbich included military supplies in the avoidance of this purpose is well brought knowledge of these emivent men. of all kinds, and also gradually closing to it out. The failure to board, and the damaged These volumes, though generally written in the market for its staple article, cotton, upon condition of the Alabama's powder, the author good English, contain some disgraceful blunthe sale of which it relied for outside aid and seems to think were the principal causes of the ders-whether of author or printer is not alassistance-financial, political, military, and defeat. The statement of the master of the ways clear. “Blaine Washburne” appears paval. The commerce destroying of the Ala. Deerhound, the yacht which picked up Semmes, (i. 84) as one person, between Thaddeus Stevens bama was insignificant in its results compared was, however, that "it was a fair stand-up and Reverdy Johnson. Lord Ronald Gower to this commerce suppression; and the com- fight. The two vessels were constructed of the becomes (i. 127) Lord Gower, by the eternal mand of the sea always with the North, de- same materials, and the chances at first seemed American blunder in similar titles. Two pages spite the raids of the Confederate cruisers, not to be even enough.” As to the use of the further on we have statu quo in the nominaonly kept the blockade intact, but brought the anchor chain of the Kearsarge for protection tive for status quo. A well-known quotation pressure from the sea responsive to that by amidship, the author frankly ackpowledges has its point nearly spoilt by being given, land which encircled the States in rebellion that Semmes knew of this use of the chain “From grave to gay, from serious to seand caused the success of the Union cause. cable of the Kearsarge, and also that he could vere" (i. 153). “Sondambula" is twice printed

Lieut. Sinclair brings out more forcibly have adopted the same scheme from his own “Somnambula” (i. 164, 190). "Maria Stuarda" than most writers the English character of resources had he so desired. But the protec- becomes “Maria Stuarta” (i. 181). The famous the crew of his vessel. The sympathy of tion thus afforded was insignificant, as a peru- answer, "Qu'il mourât," wbich our author puts English officials and of colonial authorities is sal of Winslow's reports and the appendices into the mouth of Rachel, as Cumille, belongs an old story, but it is interesting to note what giving the hits made and their localities will to the part of the old Horatius (i. 185). The is said on page 148:

show. In regard to the mistake made by French word embonpoint is wrongly used “The English,” he says, “the foster-fathers Semmes in consenting to an engagement, (i. 305), and Simon Pure (i. 319). Joaquin Milof the Alabama, are naturally proud of their which in a large sense may be called a strategic ler is printed Joacbim, as if it were a real creation, and they appear to be also in sym. mistake, the writer professes ignorance of its pame (ii. 13), Petits Lundisloses an s (ii. pathy with us and our cause. Our crew are about one ball Eoglish man-of-war's men, and purpose. It was probably the mistake of a Le Japon” becomes “La Japan” (ii. bave found among the sailors of the English brave man stung by taunts as to want of cou- 166), “Jeunesse dorée" loses its final e (ii. 245). squadron bere many old shipmates, and doubt- rage to meet an equal. It is quite certain, too, The phrase genus homo is used as equivalent less tbey have already planned a glorious time

as the author mentions, that a long detention to the male sex (ii. 281). Grande Rue" is together on shore the first liberty day."

for repairs at Cherbourg would have brought altered to “Grand Rue” (ii. 341). When one Tbe author's criticism of the neglect of our about that port a fleet of Union cruisers which has to pay five dollars for two small volumes, Navy Department to station a vessel at such would have prevented her safe departure. this is an extra allowance of mistakes. salient points as the vicinity of Cape St. Roque, The story of the cruise is as a whole well the Cape of Good Hope, Singapore, and similar written, clear, and consecutive, exceptiog a positions, is well founded, and the neglect re. pardonable repetition on page 114. This vol

Mars. By Percival Lowell. Boston: Hough. flects upon the good judgment and wisdom of ume, with Bullock's account of the Alabama's

ton, Mifflin & Co. 1895. the naval advisers of Secretary Welles. Credit origin and Semmes's account of her career,

MR. LOWELL's book is charming in more ways is given to Capt. C. H. Baldwin, commanding will probably constitute the definitive presen

than one. His facile pen would make easy the Vanderbill, for the best display of judg. tation of the remarkable cruise of the Alabama reading of the driest subject; and when it ment in the pursuit of the Alabama Human- from the side of those who cruised in her. deals with a theme so fascinating as that of ly speaking, had it not been for the detention

the conditions of life on another planet, hardof the Vanderbilt by Admiral Wilkes, and (at

hearted indeed must be the critic who does a later time) for the enormous consumption of Personal Reminiscences of Notable People.

not find himself ready to embrace conclusions coal by the Vanderbilt, the captor of the Ala.

By Charles K. Tuckerman. 2 vols. Dodd,

which he would have contemptuously rejected bama would have been Baldwin instead of

Mead & Co, 1895.

if reached by a rougher path. The author's Winslow, and its fate met off the Cape of Good THESE two costly volumes purport to be only a enthusiasm for his subject is shown even more Hope or in the Indian Ocean rather than in réchauffé of what has already appeared in strongly by the enterprise on which the book the English Channel off Cherbourg. The various magazines. They cover very different is based than by what the latter sets forth. It is greater part of the cruising and most of the ground, the first dealing with the reminiscen- no commonplace spectacle, that of a man of not captures of the Alabama were made under ces of the author's earlier life, encountering very easy leisure, per baps in a situation where sail. Excellent sailing vessel that she was, various great men in America; the second the ordinary mortal would have been comher powers of keeping the sea far exceeded founded on his diplomatic experience in the pletely engrossed in business, abandoning his those possessed by the cruiser of to day-the East, at Athens and Constantinople. It is home for nearly a year, and fitting up at po so-called commerce - destroyer — whose sail hardly necessary to say that the latter series

little expense an establishment in the deserts power has disappeared, and whose coal con- of anecdotes is much more novel and inte. of Arizona, for the sole purpose of seeing from sumption, reduced by modern improvements, resting than the former. The chapters which the best point of view what is going on in is newly taxed by the daily domestic demands show the ivcurable procrastination and chi- Mars. We feel that such an enterprise defor distilling, heating, electric lighting, and canery of the Turkish Government are well serves some good result, and some more cheerauxiliary engines. We prophesy that the next worth reading at the present day, when the ing word than that of the astronomer who regreat war will witness the commerce-destroyer great Powers of Europe and America, untaught marked that Mr. Lowell bad been very sucprincipally occupied with the duty of scout and by the experience of generations, are waiting cessful in discovering what he had announced convoy, commerce itself being duly convoyed for the Sultan to keep his engagements-in his intention of finding before he set out. or carried by vessels having swift pairs of heels. other words, for the Bosphorus to run dry. From our guide over the oceans and conti

Agreeing with Bullock, the author pays a The rest of the book is gossipy, and of but nents of Mars we learn that our neighboring high tribute to the special qualifications of little permanent value. A large number of planet really has an atmosphere, though serious Semmes for the work upon which his fame stories, e.g., that of the Duke of Wellington conflict with Prof. Campbell's opposite view is rests. One of these special qualifications was (i. 271), are distinctly stale; otbers, as that of avoided by that atmosphere's being rarer than his knowledge of international law, wbich Butler (i. 89), pretty flat. But the whole book ours is at the tops of the Himalayas. Clouds stood him in good stead in the many contro produces an uneasy feeling from the frequent rarely.obscure the sundy skies, yet there is versies he was engaged in during his cruise. It insertion of anecdotes leaving a mean impres- enough of watery vapor to condense into a is probable, as the writer states, that Semmes, 'sion of the individuals to whom they relate, 'snow.cap around either pole during its winter. As spring advances, the cap slowly begins to other extreme, he attempts to delineate indi asm. It will please the general reader also by melt away and form an ocean of blue water vidual character on too extensive a scale, bis the piquant show of manners and customs with around its contracting boundary. Water is work will be little better than a voluminous which it abounds. Admirers of General Butvery scarce on the planet, and is growing compilation of biographies. The history of a ler and of the carpet-bag régime, however, had scarcer from age to age, owing to its absorp- city-especially of a relatively young city, better skip cbapter xiii.-the only one which tion into the body of the planet. The inhabi. presents a more circumscribed field; but if the treats of "our late unpleasantness.” tants have utilized the diminisbing supply by first danger is minimized, to avoid the last is an elaborate system of irrigation. 'Canals are still more difficult; the founders, the actors in

BOOKS OF THE WEEK. dug which appually convey the water melting the development of the city are so near to us

Andreae, Percy. Stanhope of Chester. Rand, Mc. at either pole to the equatorial regions. A tbat the story of their deeds, transmitted by

Wally & Co. 25c.

Balzac, H. de. Ursule Mirouët. London: Dent; New broad belt, thus watered into fertility, skirts word of mouth from one generation to an. York: Macmillan, $1.50.

Cinner, Paul. Old stories Retold.. Syracuse: C. W. each canal, and these belts, distinguished, by other, has all the charm or force of actuality. Bardeen, 250 their vegetation, from tbe arid plains which | Tradition has not bad time to become legen

Bruce, Philip A Economic History of Virginia in the

Seventeenth Century 2 vols. Macmillan. $6. form all the rest of the planet's surface, are dary. Corroborative evidence is not lacking.

Chamberlain, A. F. The Child and Childhood in Folk

Thought. Macmillan 83, seen from the earth as a network of fine lipes. Hence, the temptation to write of individuals Dasent, Sir George. Tales from the Fjeld. From the

Norse or P. Ch. Asbjörnsen. New ed. London: Gib. The author cannot be charged with ignoring rather than of events must be great.

binge & Co; New York: Purpams. $1.75. avy obvious objections to his views. The lat. Miss Grace King bas avoided both dangers

Field Eugene. The Love Affairs or a Bibliomanlac.

Scribners. 81.25. ter are sustained by a wealth of illustration in ber new work on New Orleans. The accu. Fortescue, J. W. Dundonald. [English Men of Action.)

Macmillan. 600 and a completeness of argument which leave racy of the historical part of the book is unim- Franke!, Aaron H. Thou shalt Not KII: The "Tborah "

of Vegetarianism. New York: The Author. nothing to be desired except credibility of peacbable, and the documentary proofs testify Godard, Harlow. An Outline Study of United States foundation and conclusion. We do not object; to the industrious researches of the author.

History. Syracuse: C. W. Bardeen. 500.

Grasny, w. C. Teacbing in Tbree Continents: Personal we only feel that we know so little of the pos. But the facts are presented in Miss King's Notes of the Educational Systems of the World.

Siracuse: C. W. Bardeen. $1.50. sible conditions on the surface of Mars tbat tbe usual graceful style, and there is nothing dry Hillis, W.J. A Metrical History of the Life and Times

of Napoleon Bonaparte Putnams. 85. chances are scores to one against any theory about them. Nor does the history proper form,

Holman, S. W. Computation Rules and Logarithms. we can now frame being a true one. While as it were, a separate chapter, a parrative, Macmillan.

James, BW. Echoes of Battle. Philadelphia: H. T. commending Mr. Lowell's production to the soon ended, to introduce biograpbical compi- Coates & Co. $2.

Laboucbere. Norna.
Ladies' Book-plates.

London: general reader, we cannot deny that astrono-lations-as is the case with some other books Bell: New York: Macmillan. 83. mers would everywhere bave felt more confi. on New Orleans. Here, from beginning to

"La Gracieuse" Bibliothèque Enfantine. 10 vols.

Brentanos. 82 25. dence in his observations if he had been sati:- end, from the first exploration of the Missis.

Michels and Ziegler. Thomas Morus : Utopia. [Latein.

ische Litteratur-denknäler des XV. und XVI. Jahr. fied to confine bimself to describing and pic- sippi to the present day, we see a succession hunderts.) Berlio: Weldmannsche Buchhandlung.

Neoil, W.R. The Seven Words from the Cross. Lonturing wbat he saw, without attempting to of panoramic views, of tableaux vivants, in

don: Hodder & Stougbton; New York: Dodd, Mead & frame any theory, even in the innermost re

Co. 500. wbich the dramatis persone-be they La Salle,

Pennell, Joseph. The Illustration of Books. London: cesses of his mind. Without this precaution Iberville, Jobn Law, the Regent, Louis XV., Unwin; New York: Century Co. 81.

Prothero. R E. Letters and Verses of Arthur Penrhyn the most careful observer is liable to become a O'Reilly, Villeré, Napoleon, Jackson, Lafitte Stanley Scribners. 85. dupe of the "expectant attention" of the psy. the pirate, or Ben Butler, be they far or pear

Purcell, E. S. Life of Cardinal Maoning. 2 vols. Mac.

millaa. 86 chologists, and to see things in accord with bis-appear in a life like delineation. It is bis- Quiller-Couch. A.T. Wandering Heath:? orles, Studies,

and Sketches. Scribners. 81.25. preconceived notions rather than with the tory acted, not told. And while the eventful Raynor, Cecil. The Spinster's Scrip. sacmillan. $1.

Repan, Ernest. Life of Jesus. Translation newly refacts. Especially is this the case in tracing growth, the rise and fall of the old French vised. Boston: Roberts Bios. 82.50.

Russell, C. E. Blossoms of Thought. Boston: Arena markings so faint and shadowy as those on the city and its new life, are thus faithfully por.

Pubuishing Co. surface of our neighboring planet. trayed, the place itself, with its fading land.

Sala, G. A. oLife and Adventures. 2 vols. Scribners.

$3. marks, its gayeties and days of mourning, its Sayce, Prof. A. H. The Egypt of the Hebrews and He

rodotos. Macmillan. 82. local celebrities and quaint characters, its he- Schmoller, Gustav. The Mercantile System (Economie New Orleans : The Place and the People. By roes and benefactors, is described with a light.

Classics. Macmillan. 750.

Stedman, E.C. and Woodberry, G. E. The Works of Grace King. New York: Macmillan. ness of touch, a pathos and humor, which keeps Edgar Allan Poe, Vols VI.-X Chicago: Stone &

Kiinball. Each $1.50. The historian who, with impartial acumen, the interest awake. The reader is loath to lay Stuart, Eleanor. Stonepastures. Appleton. 750.

Vogüé. E. M. de. Russian Portraits. Putnams. 60c, sifts a mass of documents in order to form a aside this handsome volume, profusely illus. Walded, Treadwell. The Great Meaning of Metanoia.

Thomas Whittaker. $1. clear judgment of events long past, must trated, with rare fidelity, by Frances E. Jones.

Waiford, L. B. Successors to the Title. Appletons. $1. speak with soberness of detail of the actors in The Creoles are poted for their entbusiastic Watson, Rev, John ("lan McLaren”). The Upper

Room. Dodd, Mead & Co. 500. a nation's life; their personality is lost sight attachment for their city, and Miss King, ber. Weale, W. H. J. Gerard David. (Portfolio Mono

graphs.) Macmillan. of in the importance of the part they play. self a native, may be charged with partiality

Webb Peploe, Rev. H. W. The Victorious Life. Baker Yet it he confine himself exclusively to the by those who do not know New Orleans; but & Taylor Co. $1.25.

Wh te, A M. Outlices of Legal History. London: broad lines of his subject, he will make bis to those who do, her book bears tbe stamp of Sonnenschein : New York: Macmillan. $2.

Wichert, Ernst. An der Majorsecke. Henry Holt & history very dry reading; if, running into the truthfulness as well as of a generous enthusi.

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