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he develops these doctrines more in detail, but and too brief at times, of the events which very bright and vivacious, and nearly all based it cannot be said that he strengthens bis pre- have led to the partition of Africa. It is illus- upon a thought, occasionally a serious one, but sentation of them. Of course, many things trated by a number of portraits and some scarcely worth putting together into more stated here are true, but there are as many rude but serviceable maps.

permanent form. They are witty, sarcastic, more that are untrue, and the reasons given * The Fishes of Sinaloa,' by Prof. D. S. Jor- keen, and help to pass an hour enjoyably. This for the true things do not commend themselves dan of Stanford University, is a reprint of 137 much praise may freely be given. as just. The author's knowledge of art is evi. pages and 28 plates from vol. v. (second series) The Paris Journal des Débats announces dently purely theoretical and derived from of the Proceedings of the California Academy that, beginning with the new year, its two edi. reading only, and he makes blunders that are of Science. Tbe paper will be very useful in tions, of morning and evening, adopted three truly amazing. A single one must serve as an the study of our West Coast fishes. A large years ago, will be abandoned. Hereafter there example. On page 41 is to be found this state number of species are described and figured. will be but one edition, in the evening, with the ment: "In drawing and painting, shading is the work would be much more convenient and familiar pink color retained. The dimensions usually produced through the use of lines helpful for reference if the date and place of of the paper will be enlarged to rival the greateither in black or in color, wbich, for this pur publication had been added to the name of the est yet adopted by the French press. In all pose, are either abruptly or gradually lesser ed describer of each species. These slight addi. other respects the character of this sober and in number or intensity.” This is so completely tions cost a writer but little trouble, and in civilizing journal will remain unchanged. wrong, and shows such entire ignorance of the saving the time and labor of investigators con- When Edmond Biré was engaged upon his arts under discussion, that it dispenses the tribute greatly to the advancement of science. volumes on Victor Hugo, he had access to the serious critic from the necessity of further The Report of the United States National manuscript of Adolphe Jullien's 'Le Romanconsideration of the writer, The book is Museum for the year ending June 30, 1893, is a tisme et l'Éditeur Renduel,' to which, as some lavishly illustrated with 200 odd cuts, raked bulky octavo of nearly 800 pages, with a large readers may remember, he refers in several of together from all sorts of sources and nearly number of plates and other drawings. It con- his foot-notes. Out of consideration for per. all bad.

tains the report of Prof. G. Brown Goode, and sons still living, this work has hitherto been The Portfolio for November is devoted, reports and special papers by a number of bis withheld from publication. But now the for once, to a purely modern subject, the re- assistants. Prof. Goode's report is an able Revue des Deux Mondes (December 1) publishcent · Renaissance of Sculpture in Belgium.' presentation of the history, present status, and es a first instalment from it under the above Its autbor, Georges Destrée, is, we take it, possibilities of the Museum, and of museum title and the sub-title, “Eugène Renduel et himself a Belgian, and, for a guess, a Walloon, development in general. The numerous illus- Victor Hugo.” The pages are interesting, but and patriotic impulses are perbaps discernible trations give a good idea of the cases, mount- contain nothing important concerning the in bis enthusiasm ; but whether or not modernings, labels, arrangement, etc., accepted at literature of the epoch. Hugo's character apBelgian sculpture is, as he would seem to inti- the time as best adapted to their purposes. pears bere in much the same light as tbat to mate, the modern school of sculpture par ex- The majority of the special papers are ethno- which Biré has accustomed us. Renduel was cellence, it is only necessary to glance at the logical, the most extensive being “Notes on the publisher and friend of many of the most excellent illustrations be gives us to convince the Etbnology of Tbibet," by W. W. Rockhill, noted writers of the Romantic period, and, as one's self that it has produced a series of most profusely illustrated. A paper of much inte all his papers and books have fallen into M. vital and interesting works. Here are half-a- rest to the ornithologist is that of Maj. Charles Jullien's hands, we may expect much from the score of artists whose very names will be new Bendire on the “Cow Birds.” “The Poison-latter's divulgences. to most of us, and every one of them is a man ous Snakes of North America," by Leonhard Several astronomical articles of interest apof power and originality, whose work one may Stejneger, is a work of great general as well pear in recent numbers of Knowledge. Variconceivably dislike, but must surely admire. as special interest. The author has gone deep- able red stars are treated by Dr. Brester of Mr. Destrée writes in French, and the transla-ly into the literature of the subject in all its Delft, and the question "What is a nebula po tion, seemingly excellent, has been done by bearings. His summaries of what is known of is again raised, this time by Mr. E. W. MaunMiss Florence Simmons.

habits, distribution, anatomy, venom, reme- der of the Royal Observatory, who gives Mr. F. Adolphus has put together his re- dies, etc., are comprehensive, the average of

as satisfactory as possible in the miniscences of life in the French capital for the many illustrations is good, and his descrip- present state of information on this significant more than forty years in a pleasant little vol. tions and comparisons from the Museum's col subject. The second and third of Mr. Stewume, which he has entitled 'Some Memories lections are admirable. It is matter of regret art's articles on spectrum analysis appear, of Paris' (Henry Holt & Co.). The most that in a work of so much excellence the and an account of new stars by Dr. Brester, as noteworthy chapters deal with the agony synonymy is not entirely complete, and that well as a very interesting article by Miss of the great city in 1870-71. A vivid de- apparently several of the spakes are not men- Clerke on the exterior nebulosities of the Plescription is given of the last day of the Se. tioned.

iades, followed by a note upon the same subcond Empire, together with the account of M. Paul Verlaine has given to the world, ject by Prof. Barnard, late of the Lick Obserthe distribution of the English gifts of food to through the publishing department of the Fin vatory. With the beginning of the new volthe Parisians after the siege, the narrative of du Siècle, a small volume of Confessions,' ume for 1896, Knowledge will revert to its orian eye-witness of the entry of the Germans wbich cover the period of his life from his birth, ginal title, “An Ilustrated Magazine of Sci. into the conquered city, and a record of per- at Metz, in 1844, to his meeting with Arthur ence, Literature, and Art,” which it bore sonal experiences during the Commune. Mr. Rimbaud, at the end of 1871. They are not when Mr. Proctor founded it fifteen years ago. Adolphus seems to have had excellent opportu- very startling, and are pleasantly written. Although this implies a wide field, it is hoped nities for observing wbat was going on during His description of his college life and exami- that the magazine will not fail of filling it, these critical months, and to have kept his nations for the baccalauréat, and his account and of affording its readers even greater inte eyes open to the dramatic possibilities of his of his early poetic efforts, are interesting; but rest in the future than in the past. surroundings. He was with Laurence Oli- the real Verlaine is, after all, to be sought for Some interesting facts as to the recent prophant, at that time correspondent of the in bis works.

gress of Bolivia in building railways, post-roads, Times, when the Germans entered Paris, and M. E. Lintilbac has put into book form, and telegraph lines, taken from the Chilian seems to have been on intimate terms with under the title · Les Félibres—à travers leur Minister's report to his Government, are given that erratic man of genius. Oliphant left Paris, monde et leur poésie' (Paris : Lemerre), the in Petermann's Mitteilungen for November. 80 Mr. Adolphus tells us, after a parrow escape articles he wrote on this subject for the Temps. It contains also a discussion of the proper posifrom a bullet on the day of the outbreak of the They are well worth preserving, and in their tion for the provisional boundary-stone beCommune, in the belief that the bullet brought present form are infinitely more useful. The tween Chili and the Argentine Republic, a him a message from Propbet Harris that he literature which is here treated of has an in- question in which Bolivia and Peru are likewas to return at once to America. But in terest and value of its own, apart from the wise interested. The distribution and religion the middle of June, 1871, Oliphant returned, atteution which it merits as a revival of a once of the various non-German races in the Geraccompanied by Harris, who described the rich and flourishing branch of the national man Empire are shown upon an admirably col. Commune as " a yell from the lower man; an literature of France. The work of Aubanel isored and shaded map. up-seething from the turbid sources; a snatch studied most fully by M. Lintilhac.

Capt. Lugard's account of bis Borgu expediat the impossible and the undefined; a failure M. René Doumic has already made a name tion, in the Scottish Geographical Magazine where success would have meant a nation's for bimself as a critic of weight. His latest for December, is noteworthy for its vigorous shame" (p. 177).

book is not up to his former productions, how. denunciation of the liquor traffic in West Al* Earope in Africa in the Nineteenth Centu-ever, and is rather ephemeral in character. rica and his hearty advocacy of the Hausa ry,' by Elizabeth W. Latimer (Chicago: A. C. • La Vie et les meurs au jour le jour' (Paris: Association. This has been formed to promote McClurg & Co.), is an account, both too dill’usePerrin & Cie.) is simply a collection of articles, 'the study of the Hausa language, which is used

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1 largely by the Moslems of the western Sudan. of which the Pensauken furnishes an abundant ceous, the rest Tertiary. The names are printIt is taught in their schools-the Arabic al supply. The report is accompanied by plates ed in very heavy type, without synonymy exphabet being used in writing it-and it has the and a large colored map of the surface forma- cepting two references (to the original name rudiments of a literature. A grammar and tions of the Passaic valley and its surround- and to the name adopted), and four others (by dictionary of the language has been compiled, ings. Mr. Lewis Woolman extends his annual number only), to the prior lists of Baird, 1858, and a translation of a part of the Gospel of St. record of artesian wells in Southern New Jer- Coues, 1873 and 1882, and Ridgway, 1880; and Matthew is already in print. The magazine sey, and enumerates the several diatom clay a statement of habitat is made in every case. also contains some notes, historical and geolo- beds involved in the borings; No. 3, which ex- The book makes a sizable octavo of pp. viii, gical, on Vancouver Island.

tends to North Carolina, being the most re. 372, and will doubtless remain the only recog. Signor Anderson (Rome: Spithöver) has been markable and extensive in the world. The re- nized authority in classification and nomenof late greatly increasing the debt owed him port on forestry, by Mr. C. C. Vermeule, re- clature until its next revision, which is expectby all students of Italian art. He has made a veals an unbroken tract of forest of 11,000ed to be another decennial one. reproduction approaching the original in size acres on the top of the Palisades. This is shown of Giorgione's “ Soldier and Gypsy”; a repro- on a tinted map of the whole State. Finally, -Occasionally a scientific observation is duction the more valuable now that, thanks to Mr. John Gifford makes a preliminary report made which gives a wide glimpse into the vast the ridiculous pretensions upon private art- on the forest conditions of South Jersey, which unexplored region of ignorance by which we property made by the Italian Government, the possesses a curious interest on account of its are surrounded, and which will doubtless for Giovanelli Palace is absolutely inaccessible. particularity, and especially for its informa- ever save the scientist from the pain of being At Parma, Signor Anderson has photographed tion respecting forest fires, which there is ur- obliged to sit down with all his work accomeverything of interest. We need not speak of gent need of controlling by State regulation. plished. A German investigator has just Parma's greatest treasures, its many Correg.

made out the very curious fact that if the gios; but the gallery contains unrivalled Cimas -At the founding of the American Ornitho- long, thread-like pseudopodia of certain low as well, and one of Sebastiano del Piombo's logists' Union in 1883, a committee, consisting animals (foraminifera) are touched by the grandest works, a portrait of Clement VII., in of Messi's. Coues, Allen, Ridgway, Brewster, threads of another individual, they contract, itself worth all the biographies of that astute and Henshaw, was appointed to prepare cer- shrivel up, and even break up into separate and fascinating Medici. In or near Parma are tain canons of nomenclature and apply these to drops of protoplasm, but that if the threads also to be found some of the finest works of a revision of the list of North American birds. which touch are those of the same individual, Parmigiano, the most genuine and therefore the code followed up to that time, tacitly nothing of this sort occurs.

The threads may the most lovable of décadents.

and in the main, was the Stricklandian of 1844, even be cut off, and this same sensitiveness to The Gallery of Modena was for twenty years which in its time formulated the consensus of the difference between the Me and the not-Me unhung. At last it has been admirably ar- opinion or general practice of ornithologists continues. There is, of course, absolutely no ranged, and Signor Anderson bas photographed since the Linnæan period. The committee difference of structure-nothing in the organic its many interesting works. There, better than prepared a more elaborate and more precise world can be more alike so far as our powers anywhere else, the Ferrara-Bolognese school code, some main features of which were the of observation can be extended by all the apcan be studied; but the glory of Modena is its recognition of priority as a cast-iron principle pliances at our command, than these undiffer. many masterpieces by Dosso Dossi, a most fas- of nomenclature, the taking of Linnæus at entiated threads of naked protoplasm. And cinating artist, hitherto almost undiscovered. 1758 instead of 1766, and the rejection of homo- this still more curious fact is to be added-the Symonds is the only writer of note who has nyms in face of whatever sanction by usage, pseudopodia of young individuals of the same made so much as a passing mention of Dosso, and thereupon drew up their list of native brood do not cause this mutual contraction whose “Jester” he greatly admired. This birds with a degree of consistency which had when brought into contact with each other ; “Jester,” even in the photograph, reveals its never before been witnessed in any department this difference in the protoplasm of different quality of Shaksperian humor.

of zoölogy. This list acquired such authority individuals, whatever may be its nature, is

tbat every name not on it went out of use. developed in the course of the life of the indi— The annual report of the State Geologist The code itself found great favor among other vidual. If little things like orbitolites have for New Jersey for 1894 (only recently printed) naturalists, particularly those working in other such profound differences in structure as this is again to be remarked for Prof. R. D. Salis. departments of vertebrates and in conchology would indicate, what deep physical bases may bury's report of progress in the study of sur

and entomology; and many who found fault there not be for the antipathies and sympathies face geology. This novel survey continues with particular provisions preferred to waive of highly organized human beings? to throw an unexpected light on the glacial their objections and take it in en bloc, as being and pre-glacial history of the State, as, in the on the whole most conducive to that stability - The career of Antonio Gallenga, who died influence of stagnant ice on the deposition of of nomenclature for which they yearped. The a fortnight ago in England, illustrated the stratified drift, the evidences of submergence, same icbor in due course infected the bota- boundless possibilities of romance which our etc. The study proceeds from the Schooley nists; and the present eruption in their no. miscalled commonplace century has furnished. peneplain, and may be recommended to pedes-menclature, with all its “ burning questions," He was born in Parma in 1810, and was swept trians and bicyclists whose excursions have a wbich bad never been allowed to ignite during into the whirl of Italian conspiracy by the more substantial motive than mere exercise. Asa Gray's lifetime, is mainly due to the in- abortive revolutions of 1831. Thenceforth he To one who understands the topography of fluence of the ornithological ordinances. The became an exile. Visiting this country, he northwestern New Jersey, says Prof. Salis. original committee has remained the same, was cordially received by, and for a time lived bury, “the long, even crest of Kittatippy with one exception, and has never found occa- on intimate terms with, Longfellow, Prescott, Mountain, stretching away for miles to the sion to revise its code in a single particular, Ticknor, and the older literary society in north, and the almost equally even crest line but has just issued what may be called its first Boston and Cambridge. Returning to Europe, of the Highlands, seen in the distance across decennial revision of the list, mainly for the he made England his abode, if any one who the valley to the east, tell of a lapse of time purpose of formally including the additions to travelled continuously could be said to have an and of an amount of erosion beside which the our bird-fauna made during the past few years. abode. At any rate, bis chief works, 'Mari. gorge of the [Delaware] Water Gap seems These are more numerous than they ever were otti's Italy,' 'Italy in 1848,' 'A History of paltry and mean.

As a geographic before in the same space of years; but of Piedmont,' etc., were written in English and feature, the Kittatinny Mountain cannot be changes in pames from some unexpected bear-published in London. From 1859 till about said to have been greatly modified by the ing of a canon in this or that case the instances twelve years ago, Gallenga was the Italian ice of the glacial period." The chapter on the are very few. We could not state the pre- correspondent of the London Times, a posi. abundance and direction of glacial striæ is ex- sent total of species and subspecies recognized | tion in which he exerted an influence that his tremely interesting, and so are those on the without actual count, as the committee use character hardly justified, for Gallenga may changes in drainage, on the nature and variety a, b, c, etc., for subspecies, and interpolate fairly be regarded as an excellent specimen of of the lakes of northern New Jersey, on the new species with a decimal point in order that the modern type of versatile, clever, and irre. gravels and sands south of the terminal mo- the numbers originally affixed may be perma-sponsible journalist, and the ease with which raide, etc. "If the ice which coöperated with nent; we suppose the total to be upward of 900. he changed his political principles to suit the water in the deposition of the Pensauken [for- Names relegated to the “bypothetical list," taste of his employer is further evidence of his mation] was berg ice-emanating from gla- which is the Union's waste-basket, are only 22 fitness for journalism. His works, which we ciers—it is believed that it belonged to a gla- -a surprisingly small amount of refuse or re- have mentioned, are still worth reading by cial epoch antedating any which has heretofore fractory material after sifting and identifying any one who wishes to get a contemporary look been recognized in America.” Of great prac- several thousand names and synonyms. The at Italy fifty years ago. He writes with much tical value are the remarks on road material, 'list of fossil birds is 64—1 Jurassic, 23 Creta-' vivacity-like Ruffini, he quickly mastered

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English-and he has unusual ability in inter- Only a few points of interest in this long the population of France, they yet possessed weaving statistics, events, and aspirations. But story, so voluminously told, can even be glanc- over 850 places of Worship, served by upwards probably he will be remembered longest as ed at in the limits of this review. One feature of 700 ministers, and a share in the commerce having been, iu his youth, under the alias of Huguenot development, then, that strikes tbe and manufactures of the land out of all pro" Luigi Mariotti," engaged in an attempt to reader of Prof. Baird's volumes is the change portion to their numbers. Prof. Baird attri. assassinate Charles Albert, King of Piedmont. that came over the party after the establish butes the superior prosperity of the HugueAccording to his story, Mazzini gave bim a ment of the Bourbon House. Thougb granted nots of the middle classes to their high ave. dagger with which to commit regicide. Maz. a large measure of privilege by the Edict of rage of moral character, but he also gives zini denied complicity in the proposed crime, Nantes, the termination of the struggles weight to their pon-observance of the ecclebut for years his enemies used the insinuation, which had torn France under the Valois siastical holidays--a neglect which he estimates as if it had been proof, against him. Mazzini- Kings, and the opening of new avenues to ad- as yielding an advantage of twenty per cent. ans, it may easily be imagined, were not dis- vancement to the Huguenot chiefs under in working time to the Protestants. posed to construe charitably Mariotti-Gallen- Henry IV., cost the party that active leader. From the beginning of the personal reign of ga's conversion into a courtier of the King ship of great representatives of the nobility Louis XIV. the situation of the Huguenots whose father he had wished to kill.

which had been largely its source of political grew rapidly worse. Yet the policy of the strength. Sully did much for France, but lit. King seems to bave looked towards the conver

tle for his fellow-Protestants. Bouillon pre- sion of his Protestant subjects by Catholic misBAIRD'S HUGUENOTS.

ferred his own interests to theirs. Henry of sionary effort, by unfriendly interpretation of

Roban, the last great Protestant leader, is es. existing laws and the creation of dew legal The Huguenots and the Kerocation of the

teemed by Prof. Baird “as generous as Admi- annoyances, and by the employment of bribery, Edict of Nantes, By Henry M. Baird.

ral Coligny, whom he probably excelled in rather than to have contemplated a revocation Charles Scribner's Sons. 1895. 2 vols , pp. military genius"; but bis unavailing attempts of the Edict of Nantes. Thus the King regulated Ixviii, 566; xix, 604.

to support the political power of the Huguenot the times of weddings and funerals, the duraPROF. BAIRD may well be congratulated on party by arms from 1021 to 1629 met with tion of pastorates, and the dress and visitation the completion of a great undertaking. The “a divided support from his fellow-believers," of ministers; abolished the mixed courts of jus. two volumes before us round out the story of because it was “an age of inferior devotion tice; deprived the Huguenots (between 1660 the Huguenots already traced through its and less ardent enthusiasm, an age in which and 1684) of two-thirds of their houses of worearlier course in his ‘Rise of the Huguenots' the ideas of the royal prerogative had reached ship by a variety of legal devices; and finally (1879) and 'Huguenots and Henry of Navarre' an exaggeration unknown in the preceding (1681) made the expression of a preference for (1886); and the hearty commendation expressed century."

Catholic worship by Huguenot children who in our notices of the preceding sections of this Prof. Baird points out many instances of bad reached the age of seven an irrevocable series is deserved by these volumes also. They this zeal for royal absolutism among the renunciation of their parents' faith. exhibit the same characteristics-lucidity of

French Protestants of the seventeenth cen. Naturally, such unscrupulous royal zeal for style, patient investigation, guarded state- tury, remarking "that as the toleration of the conversion of Protestants was emulated by ment, and repression of partisan extravagance the Reformed religion became more and more those wbo wished to stand bigb in the graces in praise or blame—that mark the other por. precarious, ... the Huguenots, in their en- of the King; and Prof. Baird shows that the tions of his work. Prof. Baird's sympathies deavor to prove themselves to be, what in re- notorious dragon nades originated in 1681 are never in doubt, and his aversion to the dis-ality they were, the most obedient and trust- through the inventiveness of Michel de Maril. honesties of Louis XIII. and XIV., of Louvois, worthy subjects of the crown, were tempted lac, intendant of Poitou, who turned the trcops of Bossuet, or their servants and associates, is to rear with their own bands that formidable he had been using to collect unpaid taxes to as manifest as his revulsion from the cruel. structure of the absolute authority of the the work of persuading Huguenots, with such ties of Marillac or Foucault; but he carries King, which, when once erected, was destined apparent success as to win the approval of the stamp of fairness and of willingness to to prove the ruin of their hopes of quiet.” Louvois and Louis XIV. Public opinion did see good wherever it may be found. Prof. Prof. Baird holds the address of Pierre Hespe.indeed force Louvois eventually to remove MaBaird's recent volumes have the same limi. rien to Louis XIII., in the name of the Narillac from office; but it was Marillac's system tations, also-largely sell-imposed, we judge- tional Synod of 1617, to be representative of which Foucault revived in the spring of 1685, which characterize his earlier parratives, and the views of the party generally : “After in Béard, with the countenance of Louvois, have already been pointed out by us. So en God, we recognize your Majesty to be our and which, a few months later, when Foucault tirely is his work the history of a party that only sovereign ; and it is an article of our reported 21,000 “conversions" in his distriet as contemporary political and intellectual de creed that tbere is no intermediate power be- its result, Louvois applied widely, though offivelopment is given a subordination that is al- tween God and kings. It is among us cially disclaiming the violence which he and most exclusion. Not infrequently this neglect dampable heresy to call it into question." Louis XIV. must well have known was being seems a real loss. It would certainly be ger- Daniel Tilenus, the honored theologian of Se-exercised. These measures undoubtedly promane to the story of the Huguenots to de- dan, writing to his fellow-Huguenots in 1621, duced a nominal change of faith in great num. velop with some fulness the policy of Richelieu went so far as to say : “You wish him (Louis bers, and to the sanguine thought of the King which led to the downfall of La Rochelle in XIII.) to be bound to observe his predecessor's it seemed as if Protestantism was about to dis1628. That policy is outlined, indeed, but with Edict in every point; but you do not consider appear. Prof. Baird shows that the Revocation the utmost brevity. Even more desirable that you owe him all obedience by an obliga. of the Edict in October, 1685, was due to a would be a sketch of the growth of the philo- tion divine, natural, and civil. Bear in mind somewhat sudden determination on the King's sophic spirit in France during the eighteenth that no king is bound by the ordinances of bis part, “based upon a false opinion that Procentury, for, assuredly, it was not increased predecessors, nor even by bis own. ... By testantism, thanks to the measures put into love for Protestantism that gave toleration to the laws of God and of nature he is undeniably operation for that end, had almost, if not quite, the Huguenots in 1787.

bound ; nevertheless, should be chance to con- ceased to exist.” He assigns the chief influProf. Baird's two volumes under considera.travene them, he has no other judge but God.” ence in the royal deliberations to Harlay, archtion cover nearly two centuries-from 1610 to Certainly the contrast between these views bishop of Paris, to Père de la Chaise, the King's 1802. In them, as he tells the reader,

and those of their fellow.Calvinists across the confessor, and to Louvois; to Mme. de Main.

English Channel is instructive, and a suggest- tenon, so often charged with being a chief "I have treated of the attempt to undo the work of the great Henry, from the gradual

ive light is thrown on the later experiences of instrument in the Revocation, he ascribes encroachments under Louis the Thirteenth to the Huguenots themselves.

no weight in swaying the King's decision, the more rapid and more violent measures that The loss of Lu Rochelle in 1628 signified the though she undoubtedly sympathized with the prepared the way for the formal Revocation of passing away of Huguenot political power; step. the Edict by Louis the Fourteenth. I have also pointed out the consequences of the recall

but though a statesman like Richelieu could Prof. Baird depicts the consequences of the in the great ernigration, the suppression of hardly have done otberwise than oppose that Revocation with graphic minuteness. Of the Protestant worship save in the proscribed con- imperium in imperio which the Edict of Nan- Huguenot ministry, on whom the blow fell venticles of the Desert, and the war of the

tes had sanctioned in the assignment of höstage Camisards, into which fanaticism was driven

most severely, and to whom great induceby cruel intolerance. Finally, I have deline.

cities to Huguenot control, Prof. Baird shows ments to conversion were offered, only about ated the gradual recovery by the oppressed that the Protestants found the great Cardinal one-eighth abjured Protestantism. Of their Huguenots of their ecclesiastical organization and of the civil and religious rights from which

an honorable master; and he deems the years flocks Prof. Baird estimates that not far from they had been long debarred, until, after being from 1629 to 1660 the most prosperous in Hugue- four hundred thousand (though exact figures barely tolerated, they were at last fully recog- not story. Counting "somewhat over one-fif- are impossible) left France, in spite of the nized by the civil government."

teenth, never more than one-tenth part," of perils which the King put in their way, to the



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lasting advantage of England, Holland, and supervision of the state-a law with which tion concerning which the scholastic doctors Germany. With interesting fulness he traces Prof. Baird closes his history.

were agreed was the practical infallibility of the efforts to preserve Protestant worship, Altogether the volumes under review are Aristotle. What marked their teaching was, now officially non-existent. He concludes scarcely less suggestive to the student of first, its general form (it was usually either a that at least fifty of the exiled pastors re- general history than to the investigator of ec- commentary or a disputation, or botb), and, visited their flocks before 1700, and the fate of clestiastical story in their demonstration of the second, the algebra-like formality of its statesuch of these returned ministers as fell into difficulty and costliness of crushing opinion by ments. Scotus Erigena was not a scholastic; the hands of the Government shows that the force; and one application of this lesson to for, first, be lived over three centuries before secrecy observed regarding the Man of the events of our own age is pointed out by Prof. the regular organization of the universities, Iron Mask was no unique feature of the ven- Baird in his preface, when he remarks : “As and in a deeply dissimilar civilization (or want geance of Louis XIV. Sent to prisons like history repeats itself, the close of the nine- of civilization); second, he is not an Aristote those of the Île Ste.-Marguerite or of Vin- teenth century is even now beholding the lean; third, the ‘De Divisione Naturæ' is cennes without public trial and with every counterpart, or the copy, of the legislation by neither a commentary nor a disputation ; precaution to avoid communication with the means of which Louis the Fourteenth under-fourth, it is not marked by great formality of outside world, they disappeared no less com. took to crush out the Huguenot religion from statement; fifth, it is in no sense a school-book. pletely than apparently mysteriously from France, in laws remarkably similar, menacing The university of Alexandria, according to sight, and friends inquired in vain for years the existence of Protestantism in the Baltic Benjamin, was “begun by Alexander.” We for the secret of a fate which modern publica- provinces of a great empire of our own times." apprebend it will be necessary to take the will tion of records has revealed.

for the deed, to make that out. As ornaments of the Camisard war Prof. Baird bas much

of that university are mentioned Archimedes to say, and the picturesqueness of the struggle

BENJAMIN'S HISTORY OF ELECTRI- and Hipparchus. The former did study and makes the story of the efforts of these peasants


the latter may have studied there ; but Archione of interest, though the evident hopeless

medes did the work of his life in Syracuse, and ness of their task, and the fanatical spirit of

The Intellectual Rise in Electricity: A History. Hipparchus at Rhodes and elsewhere. He did 80-called prophecy which they exhibited, made By Park Benjamin. Appletons. 1895. not observe in Alexandria. the rising the work of only a fragment of the The present history is, in its two halves (the Mr. Benjamin's references are not seldom in. Protestant population of France. It demon- first down to Gilbert inclusive, and the second accurate. The following is a single specimen: strated, however, in the sight of all Europe from Gilbert's successors to Franklin, inclu- “Vincenti Bellovacensis: Speculi Naturales, the absurdity of any governmental claim that, sive), of very different orders of merit ; the etc., tom. ii., lib. ix., c. 19." On one of the since the Revocation, Protestantism had ceased last part being much the more valuable. In first pages there is a faulty reference to a pasto exist in the dominions of Louis XIV,

the first part, in wbich we miss any reference sage in Pliny, which is all the worse because of more value for the permanent interest of to the graceful, useful, and beautifully printed Pliny is not quite accurately reported. Even the land was the restoration of organized French translation by our countryman, Dr. Mottelay, the scientific statements are often careless. Protestantism effected by Antoine Court in of Gilbert on the Magnet, which we reviewed Thus, we are told that the orientation of the 1715, with its reëstablishment of the synods some months ago, every scrap of information Great Pyramid is in error by 19' 58', and that and regular ministry. The story of these has been diligently collected ; but our com- a surveyor “with the best modern compass” churches of the “Desert," as they styled them- ments will show that the work bas its ble- could hardly do better. Now, to begin with, selves in language borrowed from Scripture mishes. In the second half, this work comes the error of orientation is only about 174', and conveniently indefinite as to their habitat, into competition with Dr. Priestley's History wbich, being the minimum visibile, is as small is told from their beginnings in the Cévennes and Present State of Electricity,' which, be. as the probable error of the best possible naked. to their ultimate recognition by the French sides being a thorough and full account of the eye observation. No modern surveyor, when Government. In spite of life-imprisonment matter, is also a particularly well-arranged he wants to do nice work, dreams of employing and galley-slavery for attendance on their ser- account, which can hardly be said of Mr. Ben- a compass; and, for that reason, there has vices, they continued to grow, aided by the jamin's. Priestley's is also entirely free from been no attempt to develop a compass of pretheological school which Court established at the sensational tone of our fin-de-siècle style. cision. But in all magnetical surveys the deLausanne about 1730. As the eighteenth cen- But there is enough, both of fact and of well- viation of the needle is ascertained far more tury wore on, this opposition declined, so that executed general sketches of historical situa- closely than the figure given. though the last execution of a minister was as tions, in the volume before us to establish it But let us come to the substance of the work. late as February 19, 1762 (François Rochette at as the leading work on the subject in any lan. The author has unfortunately a theory. If it Toulouse), the Protestants attempted to build guage.

were a very broad and instructive theory, eschurch.edifices by 1755, and a year later could In the period antecedent to the death of Ba-pecially if it were very solidly founded, this count 48 pastors-a number which had increas- con there is much baseless conjecture. Thus, would be no misfortune. But it is neither ed, when the memorable year 1787 arrived, to Mr. Beojamin guesses that Gilbert lived in broad nor solid. It is that the knowledge of about 125. Yet the case of Calas, wbich Prof. London in Linacre's house. But he could the earliest form of mariner's compass came Baird narrates at length, together with the easily bave ascertained that Dr. Gilbert lived from the Baltic town of Wisby, that it came efforts of Voltaire to right a great injustice, in the lape called Peter's Hill, south of Little to Wisby from the Finds, and that it had shows the popular and legal hostility to which Knightrider Street, while the Linacre house been, perhaps, an ancient heritage of the great Protestants were still liable. So far, however, was No. 5 of Knight Rider Street proper, and, “ Turanian race. Apparently because that did enlightened opinion outrun the slow pro- we believe, on the north side. While thorough theory is sadly in need of support, the author cesses of legal revision that the Government, scholarship was not an indispensable qualifica- accepts without the slightest reserve the theo. speaking through its Comptroller-General, tion for Mr. Benjamin's task, we could wish ry of Mr. Terrien de Lacouperie of the ElamTurgot, in 1775, gave a recognition to the still there were fewer indications of the lack of it. ite origin of the earliest Chinese civilization, proscribed Protestant bodies by invoking the On the second page of the first chapter we read Singularly enough, however, when it comes to services of their ministers in suppressing the that Homer (“Iliad, Z.1513: T.1 398") calls the sun accounts of the Chinese possessing compasses bread riots. Such an act was natural from Méxtop. A proofreader familiar with the looks before the Europeans, he becomes unexpected. one who had written in favor of religious of Greek words would have challenged that. ly sceptical. The letter of Klaproth of 1835 tolerance as early as 1753. It was Lafayette, Boesius is the name which Mr. Benjamin gives is generally supposed to have proved the propohowever, who, on May 23, 1787, presented to to the philosopher Boetius. We are familiar sition that the Chinese, some time before A. D. the Assembly of Notables the resolution which with Boethius and even Boecius, but do not 400, at latest—that is, many ages before the that body transmitted without opposition to remember Boesius. Under the reign of “Ael. Europeans-knew that a needle could receive Louis XVI. praying that Protestant proscrip- fred," Mr. Benjamin informs us that Scotus directive force from a lodestone. As for the tion might cease. The result was the Edict of Erigena "began the assertion of the scholas- Egyptians, Dr. Benjamin reaches the sane conToleration, wbich did not, indeed, grant legal tic philosophy.” There are three errors here. clusion that they knew nothing about magnets, permission to Protestant worship, but relieved in the first place, Erigena (whom it is no though the process by which he reaches that the Protestants from the worst of their disa- longer permissible to confound with another result is open to some objection. As for bilities. From this Edict the tide of the Revo- Irishman at the court of the Mercian King) knowledge of the magnet on the part of the lution swung the cause of Protestant free- was not a subject of Alfred. In the second Greeks and Romans, it is easily stated. Dr. dom rapidly onward to the law of April 7, place, the scholastic philosophy did not consist Benjamin drags in irrelevant matter from 1802, by which the Reformed and Lutheran in any assertion. It was the philosophy taught Rossignol's essay on the mythology of Greek churches of France were given full rights, and in the lecture-rooms (schole) of the mediæval miners; but, for the matter in band, the wellplaced under the controlling and supporting' universities. The only philosophical proposi- ' known passage in the 'lon' of Plato gives all

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the information there is. Namely, the Greeks got it from the Chinese, and that from them There are few contested points in the history knew that a lodestone would lift an iron ring, the knowledge was carried through, or crept of electricity from Gilbert to Franklin. One and that another, and so on; but they knew no round, Europe to the north. But it may be of these is whether Cuneus, a gentleman of thing of the polarity of the magnet.

doubted whether the invention is so difficult Leyden, bad any hand in the discovery of the It is next to impossible to prove the nega- that it might not, without improbability, be Leyden jar. In the first printed account of it tive proposition, that the mariner's compass supposed to have been independently invented by the Abbé Nollet, in the 'Mémoires de l'Aca(in some crude form) was not known at a given in different places. Is it incredible that a man démie Royale des Sciences' for 1746, it is said date. Such is the stupidity of man that it playing with two lodestones should find out that Cuneus had seen some of the experiments would be known for a very long time before their polarity, and then magnetization, and upon wbich the celebrated Musschenbroek of it came much into use. On an Arabian vessel then the directive virtue of the needle ? Leydep was then engaged, to ascertain whether we first hear of it, Mr. Benjamin assures us, The latter half of Mr. Benjamin's history, the effects of electricity wonld not be increasin A, D. 1240. Since the needle was floated on after taking leave of Gilbert, is, on the whole, ed by enclosing the electrified body in glass, water, and was magnetized then and there much the more interesting. To be sure, no star- and that Cuneus undertook to repeat one of (only soft iron being at hand), it would be tling discovery was here possible. The suc- them at his home. But instead of leaving the used only on cloudy nights when the sea was cession of discoverers was Von Guericke, flask in which the conductor to be electrified pretty calm. It might go a long time unrecord-(Hauksbee ?), Gray, Du Fay, Watson, and was placed, on the table, he beld it in his hand, ed in a book; and it might be recorded in num- Franklin. Mr. Benjamin modifies a little here and thus got a strong shock. It was afterwards bers of books before it was recorded in one and there our notions of what each did. It said that Cuneus had nothing to do with it; which Western scholars have read. To show appears that that Sagredo who takes the lead- that that was a story got up to detract from how slow progress was in those days, the oom- ing part in Galileo's dialogues, not only was a Musschenbroek's credit. But Dr. Priestley, pass is mentioned (as Klaproth shows) as a f& living person, like the personages of Aretino's writing his history only twenty years later, was miliar thing in the laws of Alfonso X. of Cas- dialogues, but also probably discovered the in a condition to collect testimony. He says: tile dated A.D. 1263; and yet the evidence seems secular change in the variation of the com- “The views which led to this discovery in to be (we are indebted to Mr. Benjamin for pass. He mounted a lodestone of five pounds Holland were, as I have been informed, as fol. this) that Spanish galleys were never supplied so that it would support twenty pounds. It lows." He states that Cuneus accidentally with it before 1403. The rational conclusion was in experimenting with that lodestone that made the experiment in repeating an experiseems to us to be that it was probably known Galileo found out the effect of the armature ment by Musschenbroek; but he does not say, in the Mediterranean before A.D. 1200; but, in causing the magnet to grow in strength. as the Abbé Nollet does, that to Cuneus belongs owing to the choppy seas, it was little used in The Jesuit Nicolaus Cabæus is another old the credit. As Cuneus never made any reclathese waters until it was balanced on a point. physicist whose acbievements, as Mr. Benja.mation, the inference is that he immediately

We now turn to northern waters. The Norse min states them, are of quite another order of communicated his experience to Musschenmen used to follow the method of Noah, ex- importance from what we had supposed. To broek, and that the analysis of the phenomecept that they sent out ravens instead of doves. make our meaning clear, let us say that there non was completed by the latter. Perbaps The earliest description of the mariner's com- are five departments of work in any branch of Cuneus did not of himself find out that the pass (in precisely the same form as that of the pure physics, like electricity ; namely, (1), shock depended on bis holding the bottle in his Arabians of A. D. 1240) which Mr. Benjamin the phenomena bave to be brought out and seen; band. Mr. Benjamin inelines to disbelieve enfinds is in Neckam's book “De Natura Rerum,'|(2), suitable instruments bave to be invented tirely in any share in the discovery by Cuneus. written about 1180. He gives a flattering por- for their study; (3), the process of experiment- Mr. Benjamin is quite wrong in speaking, as trait of Neckam, and compares his book with al analysis, or cross-questioning of Nature, in one place he does, as if the use of experi. the Origines' of St. Isidorus. But surely the must be applied so as to produce statements of mentation as an instrument of disco two greatest merits of an encyclopædia are to the laws of the phenomena ; (4), measure. at variance with the Cartesian philosophy. We be full and to be compressed. The work of St. ments have to be made (though, of course, will also venture to doubt his confident asserIsidorus in twenty books has both those merits there was little of this in the pre-Franklinian tion that Sir Kenelm Digby, in his 'Two in an eminent degree. Considered as an en. ages); and (5), hypotheses, mechanical or Treatises, in the one of which the Nature of cyclopædia, the work of Neckam is contempti. Other, must be constructed and experimental Bodies, in the other the Nature of Man's Soule ble, being both small and garrulous. Within ly verified to show the inward nature of the is looked into in the way of Immortality,' a few years after Neckam, notices of the com- phenomena. What we have hitherto been told plagiarizes extensively from the Principia' pass in northern waters multiply. M. Paulin about Cabæus was that he extended the list of of Descartes. The latter work appeared from Paris gave in 1842 some verses by Guyot de electrics ; that is, he slightly increased the the press of L. Elzevir in Amsterdam on July Provins and some others by another poet. Dr. range of a known phenomenon. But it now 10, 1644. Descartes had set out from the Hoef Benjamin has very prettily translated several

appears that he observed that when little May for Paris; for the censure (we presume) of these; but the originals would have been bodies are attracted to an electrified body and would not in those days permit "author's corquite worth giving, too. Within fifty years strike it, they are at once thrown off from it. rections” of the proofs. He arrived in Paris of the first passage in Neckam we know of Now this observation was the first step neces- at some time between September 27 and Octonear a dozen passages referring to the com- sary in the experimental analysis of the phe- ber 1, inclusive, and there first received copies pass. The contrast between this state of things nomenon, ultimately leading to a knowledge of his book. Digby had been in Paris all along. and the single Arabian passage may be at- of its laws. Nor was that all. For it seems There is evidence that his book (a folio of tributed to the thorough overhauling of early tbat Cabæus was the first to plunge a lodestone medium thickness) had been substantially writEuropean literature. The inference is, that into a mass of iron filings and notice the re- ten in the previous spring. The dedication is the compass could have been very little sult; and, further, that he made an analogous dated in August. The last imprimatur was known, if at all, in Normandy much before experiment by plunging electrified amber into affixed September 26. Now, there could bardly the earliest of these quickly succeeding notices. a quantity of sawdust. Here be took a step have been time for extensive plagiarisms (for Therefore, although the balance of evidence of the second kind, in our enumeration ; for every hypothesis, if plagiarized, is modified) inclines toward the supposition that the com- these tbings were instruments of observation between the date at which Digby could have pass was known in the north before it was of high importance.

seen the Principia' and the date of the imknown in the Mediterranean, it inclines only In many places, Mr. Benjamin fills up the primatur. Descartes remained in Paris ten or slightly that way. As far as investigation bas gaps of history in this way. Nor does he ne. twelve days, during which, though much pressgone, there is no evidence whatever of the glect the historian's more difficult tasks. Heed for time, he had several prolonged intercompass having been known in those early pictures the fad for experimentation that was views with Digby. He rever made the least days in the Baltic. True, it is mentioned as of caused by Charles II.'s interest in it. He reclamation, though he binted that Digby was great importance in the laws of Wisby; but shows that that interest was pretty deep, too, a bold theorist, for he says to the Prinit is probable that that law was a late insertion. and that it had a most stimulating effect upon cess Elizabeth, “ Pour ce qui est de l'état de We should expect that the compass would in experimental science in England. In France, l'âme après cette vie, j'en ay biens moins de its early shape have been used in the Baltic, on the other hand, the bollowness of Louis connoissance que Monsieur d'Igby." Digby owing to the fogs and the smooth sea; but XIV.'s endeavor to interest himself in science, and Descartes never corresponded, and Despositive evidence is altogether wanting. combined with the total absence of interest on cartes was a cautious man in the matter of

Mr. Benjamin seems to regard the invention the part of Louvois, are fully proved to have communicating unpublished ideas, while Digof the early mariner's compass as an exceed. had a very unfortunate effect on French by, on the other band, was a talker. Finally, ingly difficult one. If that be just, then de- science. All such general sketches have been although no man ever more widely missed the cidedly the probable bypothesis about its in-executed by Mr. Benjamin upon a basis of style of Nature than Digby did in his physical troduction is tbat of Klaproth, that the Arabs' thorough study.

hypotheses, yet those hypotheses have a strong.

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