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which menaces them and prepare at once only to naturalization and the franchise, government in Germany as the result of to ward it off.
but to the conduct of the finances and the great military triumph of 1870. Edi
to taxation ; to the hardships of the tors guilty of lèse-majesté are no longer The proposal to abolish the institution working classes ; the “resentment" allowed out on bail pending their trial. of a Congressional and legislative chaplain in connection with the “labor question "; | dress, in heelless slippers, to prevent their
caused by monopolios; the “grievances" They are brought up for trial in prison of course encounters the opposition of conservatives who always stand for the main. and, to crown all, Mr. Chamberlain ra- running away, and with metal numbers tenance of old traditions, but it is really ther imperiously advises Krüger to give on their breasts. Lèse-majesté, or Manot so radical a suggestion and not so
the Rand district at once “a modified lo- jestätsbeleidigung, is a queer thing. uplikely to be accepted as was the idea of
cal autonomy.” This unprecedented in A man in Cologne last October was disabolishing Fast Day in Massachusetts terference with "a free and independent cussing the American Constitution. He when it was first brought forward a few government” Mr. Chamberlain defended had just returned from this country, and
in the Commons as the untram melled years ago. Indeed, it is entirely in keep methods of a fresh and direct mind ap-government, and then was going on to
was eloquent in praise of our system of ing with the whole tendency of the age towards the disappearance of the public plied to diplomacy, going straight to the discuss the Kaiser, and said : “ As for the prayer. Col. T. W. Higginson, in the point without regard to musty conventions. Kaiser"-when he suddenly realized his Christian Register, notes the revolution However, if President Krüger was offend danger, and stopped short. But he was
overheard and denounced to the police, that has come about within his recollec-ed, he would withdraw his remarks. No tion in the matter of saying grace at the thing could be handsomer. Meanwhile, it arrested, tried, and sentenced to three table, or "asking the blessing," as it is
will be gratifying to the bewildered friends months' in prisonment for what he was commonly called in New England, and of Chamberlain, the ex-social-reformer, to evidently going to say. At Danzig, a man
was called on to appraise a plaster bust of having family prayers. In his boyhood find him enthusiastic in enforcing a social there was scar
the Empress. He said it was not worth a arcely a family in the First programme in the Transvaal, no matter Parish of Cambridge which did not ob
how England may suffer from bis neglect, mark. Majestätsbeleidigung. He was serve each of these customs ; he thinks
and to learn that he is strong for home tried but acquitted. Last summer, at that twenty would be a large estimate of
rule in the Rand, whatever be the fate of Bono, a man in a pleasure party said : Ireland.
" What a fool that Kaiser is!” He was the number which still keep up the practice. At a public dinner over which Col.
overheard. Majestätsbeleidigung. He Higgineon presided last winter, he asked
An interesting diecussion is in progress
was arrested and taken to the police sta"one of the most eminent of Unitarian in England as to the exact time at which tion, but was able to show that he meant clergymen," who sat near him, whether a man can be said to become a candidate
a man named “Kaiser." he had better invite anybody to say grace,
for office. The question has arisen at the and was promptly informed that it was trial of election petitions under the cor
A common mode of conce ceasing to be customary, and advised rupt-practices act, which makes certain
ncealing Majesagainst it. Last summer "another emi. the unseating of any candidate who can
tätsbeleidigung in conversation from the
servants is to allude to the Kaiser as nent Unitarian minister" dined with him, be shown to have used influence of any
"Herr Müller." Speech was, in fact, and the host, as a matter of courtesy to kind to promote his own election. In one him, requested him to ask a blessing. case the Justice conducting the inquiry freer under Louis the Great in France "He did so; but it seemed as if he did not held that “po definite period could be two hundred years ago than it is in Gerexpect it, and I thought it would be bet. stated as to when an election began.” In many to day under William the Wise.
And it must be remembered that a great ter not to take the thing for granted another, the Justice held that the elecagain.” Col. Higginson adds that in a tion began “when it was first known that people have been brought into this condisomewhat frequent stay at private houses the candidate had announced his intention through war. The tremendous milion lecturing trips he has been very much tion to present himself as a candidate at tary successes of 1806 and 1870 have turnstruck with the almost entire disappear the next ensuing election." In another,
ed the state into an army, turned a large ance of these external signs of devoutness the Justice held that “an election begins portion of the talent of the country into among Unitarians, and their diminution
as a candidate begins to hold
the invention of quicker modes of killing among orthodox Christians.
meetings.” A correspondent of the Lon people and destroying property, have don Times, citing these somewhat con
made the writers and thinkers and debatAlicting rulings, asks if any gentleman is
ers seem paltry fellows, who ought not to Mr. Chamberlain's dispatch of Febru- at liberty, in every possible way, and for
be listened to, and have converted a raary 4 to the High Commissioner for any length of time before the actual day
ther light-headed young man, who in a South Africa, reference to which has of issuing an election address, to “nurse
private station would be an unsuccessful been made in telegrams, and which has a constituency with a view to having a
"crapk," into a terrible "war-lord," who played an important part in the Parlia-field well prepared when he takes the field
has to be protected from even a breath of mentary debates on the Transvaal ques. formally later. There have been many obloquy by all the terrors of penal justice. tion, was published in full in the Lon decisions under the English act which
If we became a warlike military nation we don papers of February 8. It is certainly have unseated members of Parliament for
should lay in a supply of vajestülsbelei. an extraordinary document, and that it “ nursing” which was followed by a can
digung much quicker than the Germans. should have wakened the Calvinistic didacy later, but in all instances a con
We should go twice as crazy over victories, wrath of President Krüger is not won. Decting link has been established between
because we train ourselves in excitability; derful. It consists of iwo parts, the first being a long explanation of the attitude campaign. In this country the "nursing” the preliminary work and the subsequent and we should lock up or expel from the
country people who differed from us or of the Colonial Oflice towards the Jame begins very early, and is at once univer- criticised our madness far more readily Bon raid, wbich Mr. Chamberlain easily sally recognized as the preparatory step
than the Germans, for a similar reason. shows to have been at once correct and to a candidacy, prompting some such gene
We should soon have a young man like vigorous. But he thereupon, directly ral inquiry as " What's his game?" or
Mr. Roosevelt for a “war-lord," and he after declaring that the South African "What is the old man runding for now?”
would keep us fighting continually and Republic is "a free and independent
lock us up whenever we said we did not government as regards all its internal
want to be killed. “Dogs," he would say affairs," goes on to suggest a number There is a doleful account in the Con- to us, as Frederick the Great said to his of sweeping changes in the Transvaal temporary Review, from Mr. Eubule soldiers when they shrank from a desperate constitution and laws, These relato not! Evans, of the existing condition of the charge, "do you want to live always?"
THE VENEZUELAN SURPRISE. body supposed that the State Department more discredit on our civilization --not THE speeches in Parliament, combined was paying any more heed to him than slavery, not lynching, not corruption, not
lawlessness. were other sensible people. with Mr. Olney's application for British
We do not believe there is assistance for our commission, show that The whole affair having now got back anything which has during the last cenafter much trouble we have at last got to the region of civility and friendliness, tury done so much to discourage the beback to the position in which we stood
it will do immense good if it brings home lievers in buman progress as the revelabefore Mr. Olney wrote his despatch on to our public the uselessness and upseem
tion that “ Time's noblest offspring” was the 20th of July last-or, if any one pre
liness of what the Pensioner used to call as full of desire to kill and wreck, for the fers it, in which we stood before the a “vigorous foreign policy"—that is, the fun of the thing, as the savage races on President wrote his message on the 17th plan of addressing violent, menacing, if the site of whose corn-patches and torof December. A gentlemanly note, such
not ruffianly, despatches to foreign Powers. ture-stakes we are erectiog churches and as Mr. Bayard wrote the other day to There is nothing in the field of interna- colleges. Lord Salisbury, would have undoubtedly tional politics better established than the secured the information we are now ask
readiness of European Powers to put up ing for, without the alarm and loss which with anything from us except direct and THE FUNCTION OF DISCUSSION. have since intervened. In fact, if, as we
palpable insult or seizure of ships or ter- Now that the Venezuela question has, suggested in December, the President ritory. A quarrel with us is something after fearsul uproar, passed into the field had taken the threat out of the message from which they all shrink, because it
which it should never have left, that of by a letter of pacific instruction to the promises no advantage and plenty of ex
investigation of facts, it is time to ask newly appointed commission, the trouble pensive fighting. Everything which has who is hereafter to discuss these differmight have been allayed at once.
happened since Monroe's day, except the ences with foreign nations. There can be The speeches in Parliament show clearly invasion of Mexico during the civil war,
no doubt that our government is framed that there is a strong desire on both sides proves this. The stories the news agen
on the assumption that it will be carried not to quarrel with the United States on cies invent every now and then of a de
on by discussion-that is, by the practice any subject, and least of all on the Mon- termination of Great Britain to assume a
of oral or written persuasion. The Presiroe Doctrine. They show, also, the great bellicose attitude towards us, by pur
dent is elected by a majority vote, after surprise which both sides have felt on
chasing Cuba from Spain, or seizing prolonged discussion. Both houses of Conbearing that the Monroe Doctrine was inHawaii from the missionaries, are child
gress are supposed to resolve and enact volved in the Venezuelan dispute. But ishly silly. There is nothing which prac
after discussion. The regulation of distheir surprise was probably no greater tical men in Europe view with more won- cussion has become an important art, than ours here. It must be remembered derment than our paval preparations and
known as parliamentary procedure, in that the appeals of the Venezuelans to us
our apparent desire to fight somebody, which every American youth is proud to to take part in the controversy began in because the ocean wbich surrounds us is
be versed. The duty of hearing both sides 1870 and continued with little intermission in itself worth four of the largest fleets has become an elementary principle of down to last year. Six American secre
and four of the largest armies in the public morality. We take pains to teach taries answered these appeals over a period world. We cannot, in fact, have a quar
our young men in colleges the art of deof twenty-five years, both through corre
rel except by undertaking war as an edu bate-that is, the art of producing the spondence with Great Britain and with cational agency. Consequently there is
two views which may be taken of nearly Venezuela, and not one of them ever sug
no nation which needs less to vapor and every social and political problem. All gested that Great Britain was infringing threaten or crow in its diplomatic corre- this, too, is done not as a means of sharpenon the Monroe Doctrine. Every one of spondence.
ing the wits, like the controversies of the them took up the attitude of the common Our State Department might safely and Schoolmen, but as a means of preparation friend of two quarrelling Powers. The ought always to illustrate to the world the for action of some kind. To discussion discovery that Great Britain was threat-majesty of moderation, the dignity of good which does not pretend to prepare for acening Venezuela with a violation of the manners. The great difficulty in the way tion, we give the pame of “ academic," and Doctrine was made suddenly by Secretary of such a consummation is the press, which everybody who wishes to be considered Olney immediately after his accession to with few exceptions is apt to call for vio-practical, or a man of business, declines to office. The American public had no idea lent language in terms which shake the engage in it. And in discussing as a prepaof what was impending. It is true that nerves of secretaries of state. Worse than ration for action, we are following an unfor nearly a year Lodge, Chandler, Frye, this, it does its best to prevent the settle- broken tradition of the human race since the Tribune's Old Pensioner, and one or ment of any international dispute on terms governments were first founded. The two others, had been engaged in a sort of which will not hurt the foreigner's self- Greeks and Romans debated on public antiphopal caterwauling about Venezuela, respect by always representing, when he affairs much as we do, and even the Oriental but as they caterwauled in just the same meets us half way, that it was our “vigor" despots were apt to have an inner council, way about the Nicaraguan affair and the --that is, our insolence, abusiveness, and whose advice they sought, which conAlliança incident, the general impression brutality-that brought him to terms. It tained men who would produce the cons as was that they were merely preparing the is at this devil's work at this moment, by well as the pros of any undertaking on country for a Jingo Presidential canvass. proclaiming that it was Mr. Cleveland's wbich the sovereign was inclined to enter. Few or pone imagined that the State De- coarse threat which has “brought Eng- That very ancient and much quoted say. partment was taking them seriously. land to her knees,” that it is our swaggering, that" in the multitude of counsellors Senator Lodge and the Pensioner tried to which has drawn forth the pacific and there is safety," does not mean that give an air of seriousness to their labors friendly language of both the Ministry and everything that a large number of men by frequently describing the true Anglo Opposition in England, and the civil treat- hurrah for is sure to be wise, but that Venezuelan boundary line in print, and ment accorded to our Commission; that, what many men have decided on, after the exact nature and extent of Great in short, in international affairs the ruf-discussion from different points of view, Britain's encroachments, but nobody paid fianly way is the more excellent way. It is likely to be a good thing to do. them much attention. If Senator Lodge is impossible, when one reads this stuff, The thing which our Goveroment seemknew as much about the matter as he to avoid the conclusion that the wide- ed to consider wise in December last, a said he did, it was to him, and not to spread desire for war, the existence of challenge to a first-class Power to tight Great Britain, that the Commission should which there is no denying – war with over the untraced boundary of a semihave addressed itself for “ documentary somebody, but especially with England- barbarous state in a tropical wilderness, proof, historical narrative, unpublished is largely newspaper work; and we know was the third most solemn and serious archives, and other evidence,” But no- of nothing which reflects or has reflected proposal ever made in the pame of the
American people. The first the
For all practical purposes the Con- other parts of Latin America, and of conDeclaration of Independence. The se- stitution might as well have empowered demnation for British monarchists. Let cond was the opening of the war for the the President to declare war for such rea- us see what one of these republice really subjugation of the South in 1861. The sons as might seem good to him, and to is. two former were the result of great and procure from Congress as much money as After giving a rapid history of Guateprotracted debate. The war of inde- he might think necessary for the oxpenses mala from the time of its conquest down pendence was prepared for by about ten of the fight. But a state of things which to last summer, Sig. Caivano describes years' discussion ; that of 1861 by about would entail no great inconvenience on the very clearly the various elements of poputhirty years' discussion. The challenge community under Edward III. or Henry lation by which the destiny of the counof last December received no discussion V., when the nation was made up of small try has been determined. These elements at all. The framers of the Constitution farmers, and had neither commerce nor are three in number, viz.: (1) the creoles, or copied many things from the European credit, has very serious inconvenience in pure-blooded descendants of the Spanish monarchies, and in some particulars modern times, when every great nation settlers, who now form only about 5 per made the President more powerful than has vast dealings with all others, and cent. of the whole; (2) the ladinos or mesthe King of England. But one power when, instead of hoarding gold, it relies tizos, half-breeds, sprung from the interpossessed by all European monarchs they on its credit to supply it with funds for mingling of the Spaniards and Indians, denied him—that of declaring war. This emergencies. To such a nation no event and numbering about 15 per cent.; (3) the was something they refused to trust to is so grave as a war with a Power of near- Indians, virtually serfs, who make up the any one man's judgment or caprice.ly its own strength. Nothing can occur remaining 80 per cent. In 1821 GuateThey gave it to the Legislature, with the in its daily life needing so much debate. mala declared herself independent of evident design of making war a debatable Its readiness for the contest, and the pos- Spain, and called herself a republic. subject-that is, of insuring public deli- sible consequences of defeat, are among With Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and beration on it before it took place. To the most serious concerns of a civilized Costa Rica she formed a confederation give a power to a legislature means that community. Instead of "standing be- whose character can be sufficiently init shall be exercised only through public hind” a man who proposes such a thing, ferred from the fact that she and her discussion, for in no other way can a le- and egging him on, the place of the pa- confederates fought 143 battles with one gislature act.
triot is in front of him, so as to demand a another in the course of twenty years. But, oddly enough, although the framers full account of his reasons.
The more Then the league was dissolved. From of the Constitution made the change, it Congress, too, refuses or fails to discuss | 1842 to 1871 the government was in the seems never to have been fully accepted the situation, the more incumbent on the hands of ihe creoles, who succeeded not mentally by the American public. It held press is it to step into the gap and take only in maintaining order, but in engrafton, and holds on to this day, to the old up the neglected work of the Legislature; ing on the country some of the rudiments monarchical idea that when the King but it seems to be the last thing our press of civilization. But in 1871 the ladinos, decides to go to war, it is no business of thinks of. What it has for the most part or half-breeds, stirred up a revolution his subjects whether he is right or wrong. done during the late excitement is to which resulted in the overthrow of the All they have to do is to stand behind | “ holler" that everything that anybody creoles, and the establishment in power him” when he is defying the foe, and to did which made for war was wise and good, of the mongrel race which still dominates follow him to the field when hostilities and that whatever anybody did that made Guatemala. have begun. In all our recent disputes for peace was asinine, or corrupt, or Eng- The champion of this race was Rufino with foreigners, Congress and the politi-lish. This may be true, but such deci. Barrios, who soon made himself President, cians and the press have acted on this sions should be reached through discus- and remained tyrant of Guatemala, until view. It found full expression in the Chi-sion-that is, after hearing what was to killed by a beneficent bullet in 1885, in a lian trouble, in the Bering Sea dispute, be said for peace. No man who advocates fight with the Salvadorians. The atroci. and the other day in the Venezuelan peace is, ipso facto, foolish. Peace is so ties committed by this human tiger equal affair. We were all expected either to earnestly desired by the bulk of men that
any recorded of ancient Roman despots, keep silent when these controversies were there must always be some excuse for it or of Renaissance Eccelinos and Viscon. being carried on, no matter what might which will bear stating.
tis, or of modern Turks. He proposed to be our opinion of their merits, or to take
wipe out the creoles, who alone had given sides as vehemently as we could with
Guatemala a veneer of law and decency. our own Government. The Executive A SPECIMEN SPANISH-AMERICAN RE. He had hundreds of them arrested and was to be allowed to occupy whatever
cast into loathsome dungeons, where they positions it pleased, provided they were At the close of last year appeared a work, were daily given fifty or a hundred lashes, likely to promote hostilities, and our busiIl Guatamala,' by Tommaso Caivano, a until some died and others, mutilated for Dess was simply to help it to defend Florentine lawyer who has spent many | life, by confessing imaginary plots, implithem. During the Chilian trouble the years in Central and South America, cated new victims. For his afternoon press, both daily and monthly, teemed and has written several works which have amusement, he caused many of his enemies with curious and absolutely novel doc- bad a wide circulation among Spanish- to be publicly shot in the principal square trines of law and ethics, concocted solely | Americans. We count it timely that by of the capital; in three days, seventeen as weapons of war. In the pending Vene- the publication of this latest volume, persons were thus destroyed. Not content zuelan trouble, too, although we have see Sig. Caivano enables us to see exactly with wreaking his ferocity on men, he had hundreds if not thousands of newspaper what a Spanish-American republic is like the wives and daughters of his enemies comments, we cannot recall more than to-day. Recent experience shows that we exposed stark naked in cages. He revived three or four which admitted that there may be plunged without warning into dif- the old Spanish mandamientos, or de. w 28 any question about the right or wrongficulties, perhaps even into war, through crees, which reduced the Indian popula. of the matter, or that Great Britain had entanglements with one or other of the tion to slavery. Needless to say, he levied a leg to stand on. In fact, the vast ma- sanguinary governments to the south of taxes and emptied the treasury for his jority of the newspapers contented them- us; it is fortunate, therefore, that we personal enriching. Such was the “panselves with roundly abusing people who should have put within our reach, by an ther of San Marcos," as the Guatemalese thought the President ought not to fight intelligent and impartial foreigner, infor- nicknamed him from his native village. England on a week's notice.
mation which strips off illusions. During His nephew, Reina Barrios, the present It is plain to be seen that under this the past few months we have heard a President, began life as a street-sweeper; system the relegation of the war-making great deal of effusive praise of our noble then was promoted by his uncle to superpower to Congress does us no good what.' fellow-republicans in Venezuela and in 'intend the flagellation of prisoners; then,
on the death of Rufino Barrios, fled the which typhus fever and smallpox are science holds her attainments and makes country, and was leading a dissolute life endemic, and where assassins and robbers the future secure. The present revelation in what Sig. Caivano euphemistically calls make going out after dark uneafe; a town of the powerful and flexible instrument an appartement meublé at Saratoga, when where most of the houses are only one wbich she has at her disposal in the shape he was called back in 1892 to govern Gua- story high, and correspondingly primitive of trained investigators in all civilized temala. He is not charged with such in in their internal arrangements. This islands, waiting only for a hint in order to human crimes as his un possibly be. the place which Barrios plans to transform surprise the world with new secrets of nacause the latter's purging was so thorough into a resort for the rich, the fastidious, ture, must dispel all doubts of the permaas to render the creoles henceforth too and the dissipated pleasure-seekers of two pency of scientific enthusiasm and of the weak to be persecuted; but his tyranny continents!
services of science to mankind. has been equally absolute. He makes and We have left no space for speaking of the But vast as the practical benefits of the breaks the laws at will; he controls taxa- other subjects which Sig. Caivano treats Röntgen photography promise to be, we tion; he grants and revokes concessions to of, such as the beauty of the scenery, are inclined to rate their indirect and monopolists; he sets aside the decisions of the manners and customs of the people, what may be called their theoretic benethe courte. Every department of govern- the difficulties of travel, the oppression of fits higher. We mean their effect on the ment, the judiciary, the bureaus of admi- the Indians, etc., etc. He is an observant general attitude towards science and scinistration and police, are but organized traveller and an entertaining writer; but entific methods. Utilitarian science is blackmailing agencies; but the suitor who at the present crisis bis great merit, as we enormously valuable, is indispensable, but would be sure of satisfaction must bargain have remarked, lies in his furnishing us the scientific temper—the fronting of the with the President himself. What a con- with a truthful picture of a Spanish- universe with the calmness, the sobriety, temptible creature that President is, with American government. Volumes of Jingo the honesty of a scientific experimenter his mixture of braggart and coward, Sig. rhodomontade over "our sister repub-is the great thing to aim at, and the Caivano describes with vivid strokes. The lics” are powerless against a page of his utility of science is most useful when it spectacle of the General-in-Chief of Gua- facts. His book, which has recently been promotes this. Leslie Stephen says with temala needing a chair to mount his horse issued in Italian and in Spanish, ought to great truth and force: before reviewing his tatterdemalion army be translated into English, and widely
“We may denounce, and very rightly, those would draw a smile from even the fiercest read by those of our people who want to
coarse forms of utilitarianism which impiy an Jingo.
know what sort of cattle our Government excessive love of mere material advantages; Sig. Caivano closes his book with an is asked by the perverters of the Monroe acquired by modern science depends in great
but it is not to be forgotten that the prestige account of the great “public works" | Doctrine to go to war for.
measure upon its application to purposes of which President Barrios and his satellites
direct utility. Railways and telegraphs are
pot everything. Most true! but the prospect have been engaged in for several years in
of brioging the ordinary creeds of mankiod the hope of luring foreign capitalists to THE REAL CONQUESTS OF SCIENCE. into harmony with scientific conclusions de
pends, in no small degree, upon the general reput more millions within their grasp. The extraordinary rapidity with which spect for men of science; and that respect, They promise before 1898 to complete a the Röntgen discovery has been taken up
again, depends materially upon the fact that railroad between the capital and Puerto
men of science can point to such tangible rein a thousand laboratories all over the
sults as railroads and telegraphs. We need not Barrios, on the Gulf of Mexico, which will world, and eagerly tested in its various ap
fear to admit that, if there is a greater chance bring the city of Guatemala within easy plications and possibilities, is one of the quiring a definite supremacy, and resistivg the
now tban formerly of the ablest intellects ac. roach of tourists from the United States most striking things about it. It has constant tendency of mankind to lapse into and Europe ; but the line of this road has clearly set the scientific as well as the superstition, it is in great degree because such
conquests over the material world can be apbeen surveyed through an almost impass-popular imagination on fire. The routine preciated even by the ignorant, and reflect able mountainous region, 150 miles across, work of hundreds of trained observers and credit upon tbat system of thought with which which must not only make its construc experimenters has been dropped, and they
they are associated." tion enormously expensive (to the grief of are giving their days and nights to ardent It is this increasing power of science the foreigners who are to provide the exploration of the apparently illimitable over the general imagination, this unperfunds), but also preclude it from earning new province opened before them in in-ceived but sweeping change in the mental running expenses, should it ever be finish dustry and medicine, as well as in higher attitude of whole nations wrought by it, ed. At the capital, Guatemala, a city of physical theory.
which makes it the great solvent and con70,000 inhabitants, there is projected a By the very existence of so great a body queror that it is. Its kingdom cometh park 368 hectares (about 1,000 acres) in of scientific minute.men, ready for skilled without observation. There are no violent extent, with artificial lakes, grottoes, and service in any quarter on short notice, we cataclysms, no fierce struggles, no one fountains, besides drives and walks, are enabled to measure the assured marchdeadly contest from which dates a new shrubberies, gardens, and a race-course ; and achievements of science. Its thorough way of looking at the world. By insensithe whole connected with the town by a organization and its successful use of the
ble gradations, by subconscious mental magnificent boulevard two miles and coöperative method now give to every new processes, the old passes away and the three-quarters long. In the city itself a discovery the certainty of speedy investi- new is ushered in. Historians note with grand hotel, with 300 splendid suites of gation by expert hands, unlooked-for ex- surprise, at one interval after another, rooms, a theatre, baths, atc., etc., is to tensions, and the widest application. that persistent superstitions lose their make the astonished millionaire tourists This goes far to make up for the dying out power-now the belief in witchcraft, now of the United States and Europe forget of great all-round naturalists. One of the in the royal touch. Definite causes for Paris and New York. The ulterior motive addresses before the Ipswich meeting of their abandonment cannot be assigned; of these grandiose schemers is to establish the British Association lamented the dis- they seem silently to drop to the bottom a gambling hell which shall eclipse that
appearance of the type of scientific mind of the stream of thought, by their own of Monte Carlo.
like Darwin's or Dana's, which, in addi- weight. All we know is, that one generaSig. Caivano ironically contrasts this tion to special researches and distinction tion trembles before them, the next one project, designed to dazzle foreign lenders in some branch or branches, possesses flouts them. Such subtle changes it is of money, with the equalor and filth of wide-ranging knowledge and enormous the peculiar province of science to bring Guatemala itself-a town which has no power of generalization. But many about; and the secondary effects in this Bewers oor drainage and very few ceas- smaller minds intelligently coöperating direction of every great quickening of the pools; which depends solely upon thou- can do the work of one great mind. It is life and imagination of science, like the sands of zopilotes, or buzzards, to rid it as if the brain-cells were simply scattered | happy accident of Prof. Röntgen, are cerof the carrion, garbage, and ordure beaped through many heads, instead of being tain to be great. in the streets and courtyards; a town in ' housed in a single skull. In this way Dr. Jobpson used to maintain in his fine regal way that the study of external Nantes. Speaking of this year 1685, which was the uncle and guardian of this unfortunate nature could never be " the great and fre- was marked by several considerable events in young man. The letters wbich Father Tixier quent business of the human mind." The the life of Condé (the death of Cardinal de wrote regularly to Condé are, says the Duke "moral and religious discrimination of Retz, to whom Condé had become attached, d'Aumale, “ more striking in their severe simright and wrong" was the great affair; the death of La Rochefoucauld, the death of plicity than the passionate accounts of the Pro
Guitant, his great friend), the Duke d'Aumale testants. Full of facts, free from declamation, and he had characteristic words of conadds :
they form a crushing indictment against the tempt for those troublesome “inno. vators" of his own day who thought that the shameful dates in the history of France
“Why must this year also have been one of revocation of the Edict of Nantes." Father
Tixier is perfectly sincere and truthful. He the growth of plants or the motions of and have witnessed a real mutilation of our writes, for instance, that a poor shopkeeper of the stars bad anything to do with educa- country ? The work of Henri IV. and of Richelieu was sacrificed to tbe scruples of a parrow
Rouen, who had to quarter and feed in bis tion. Futile and barren enough has that and blind conscience, to the abstract concep
house four cuirassiers in order tbat the fear of position been made by the flight of a hun-tion of a power without limits, to the passion | ruin might induce bim to be converted, said: dred years. The discriminators between always been confounded with uvity by French for uniformity which (even to our day) bas
"My life, as well as my fortune, belongs to the right and wrong are just about where minds; source of errors and of faults ! Certain
King; my conscience belongs to God." Father they were in Johnson's time-except as
modern schools have preserved the brutal tra. Tixier says also: "The new converts are
ditions of Louvois, the pitiless leveller. How greater Huguenots than they were before." social evolution and scientific advance many industries ceased to fourish! Some have opened up entire kingdoms of modisappeared for ever; and it is by hundreds of
Many poor people, frightened at first, became thousands that we must reckon the French- converted, but, after a wbile, torn with re. rals then unknown. But the “innovat
men, and some of the best among them, who morse, they forsook the mass and returned to ors" have gone on watching plant and were ruined, dispersed, destroyed ! There
the prêche; then tbey were proclaimed relaps are wounds which never heal.” star, interrogating the heavens above and
and prosecuted, and if, on their death bed, they the earth beneath, until the whole mate- The Duke d'Aumale found in his rich ar- refused the sacraments, their property was rial condition and mental outlook of the chives the letters of two regular correspond confiscated. race has been changed.
ents of the Prince de Condé, who gave him It is easy to imagine what effect such inciWe are far from asserting that all is exact accounts of what was going on, one in dents produced on the mind of Condé; he could now clear sailing. The stubborn power
the west of France, the other in the south. not forget that his ancestors had been, in the
Already in 1682—three years, therefore, before bereic times of the Reformation, the great of ignorance to wrest every new scientific
the final revocation of the Edict of Toleration military leaders of the Huguenots, and that scripture to its own destruction is already-the intendants in the west were tryiug to put some of them bad died for their cause on the beginning to display itself in connection an end to the Reformed churches. M. de Mo. battlefield. His father, to be sure, bad been with the wonderful Röntgen discovery. rin, one of the correspondents, who writes from brought up a Catholic, and, after having for Quack doctors are quick to say, "Aba,, Poitou, tells of notbing but of churches shut, a time given some hopes to the Protestants, this shows that our electric rings and ministers arrested, women thrown into prison. bad finally turned against them with all the mesmeric belts and psychic brushes and Already all the inhabitants of Sables d'Olonne violence of a convert, had become their avowed combs are just what we claim them to be." bave emigrated; others are hindered by force enemy, the personal adversary of the Duke The mysterious cathode rays, invisible but
froin emigrating, and obliged to undergo con. de Rohan, the last great military leader of tbe powerful, will doubtless renew the faith of
version. Condé had among his friends a M. Huguenots. But Condé had never espoused
de Lussan, who had been wounded by his side the fervor of his father; he had been notorious many a despairing brother who carries a
in tbe wars; a brave officer, but an intolerant in his youth for his infidelity; he had surpotato in his pocket for rheumatism. What | Catbolic. Lussan is delighted when the dra- rounded himself in his earlier years with men the theological apologists will argue from goops are sent against the Protestants and who were called libertins. Many of these had the apparent need of readjusting the theory lodged in their houses, “where they are the died in the wars; when Condé came back to of light, those of our readers who are masters as in time of war." He writes to Chantilly he kept in his household those who skilled in their methods of reasoning can
Condé in 1683: “Now is the time to finish bad survived. He had around him a number guess. The Mosaic authorship of the Pen- these wretches and to destroy completely these of gentlemen and domestics who were Protateuch, the reasonableness of prayer for Huguenots and their religion; the ministers testants, and they lived in harmony and on a rain, the duty of instantly subscribing think of nothing but flight, and their churches footing of perfect equality with the Jesuits
will be razed to the ground.” From Langue. wbom Condé's father bad established in Cban. both to the creed and for the religious doc Mlle. de Portès, a relation of Condé, tilly. The Edict of Revocation, therefore, weekly of the able editor making the ar
writes to him that sbe is alarmed-the Hugue touched Condé personally. He was eminently gument, will be among the very least of
Dots are preparing for a struggle. But she is tolerant, whether deriving bis tolerance from the things conclusively proved by the new soon reassured; the times are past when Roban old traditions or from his philosopbical views. photography. But even this folly, with conducted a long war in that province. Mlle. He had studied Spinoza, he was a pbilosopher;
a which the gods themselves contend in de Portès announces in later letters that Viva. he could not bring bimself to obey the tyranni. vain, must yield in the end to the slow rais, one of the old strongholds of the Protes- cal proscriptions of the edict. He remained attrition of time, to the steady blowing of tants, has made a complete submission. passive, and took no measures against the Prothe wind by which science at last clears
The Edict of Revocation is proclaimed ; its testants established for a long time in the the densest minds of fog.
effects are terrific. Gourville, the old and barony of Montmorency, nor against those sceptical friend of Condé, writes to him: “The of Villiers-le-Bel and Écouen. An old ser.
Huguenots of Montpellier and of the diocese vant at Chantilly, named Lafont, could not CONDÉ AND THE REVOCATION OF THE
have been converted in a body; in three weeks be induced to change his religion. He was at EDICT OF NANTES.
there will not be a single Huguenot in Langue- the time with bis family at Verneuil. We
doc.” The Prince receives similar news from read in a letter addressed to the Prince: "They PARIS, January 29, 1896, Alais, from the Cévennes, from Sancerre, once put the grenadiers in his house; so he deterThe Duke d'Aumale has brought to the eod an impregnable citadel of the Reformation. mined to follow M. de Verneuil to the chapel. he bad marked for bimself the • History of the The Bisbop of Autun writes to Condé that in He knelt before the altar; the curate read him Princes de Condé.' He can say now bis * Exegi Burgundy the conversions take place without the formula of what he had to believe; he rose monumentum." The last volume of bis great the help of the dragoons; there is, however, without saying a word. The grenadiers left work is quite worthy of the great hero whose here and there, some resistance. “No progress his house, and be returned to Chantilly.” This actions he has taken so much trouble to de- has been made with M. de Jaucourt (the Jau- conversion seemed a little summary, but Con. scribe minutely, and whom be represents spend courts have remained Protestants to this day), dé, judging that Lafont had conformed to the ing the last years of a troubled life in the nor with Madame de Saint André Montbrun. edict, ordered that he should be let alone. calm of Chantilly. It will interest all those This lady has declared that, at the age of sev- We find, in the Duke d'Aumale's book, many who have visited Chantilly to read the pages enty.two, people cannot change their religion,” | dramatic episodes of the terrible persecution. descriptive of the life of the Prince de Condé From Rouen, Condé received many letters We see, for instance, bow much interest Con(“le héros," as he was called by Mme. de from a certain Father Tixier, a Benedictine dé took in the case of an old client of his Sévigné) in his splendid retreat.
charged with the mission of caring for the last bouse, M. de Morin, the son of a president of There is a chapter which gives quite un- of the Longuevilles, who had lost bis reason the Parlement of Guyenne, and of his brother, known details about Conile's conduct during and who was living in the Abbey of Saint. a councillor of the chambre de l'édit at the the period of the revocation of the Edict of Georges at Bocherville, near Rouen. Condé same Parlement. The Councillor, having re.