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The introductory essay emphasizes of the last income tax decision, but to many trade-unions. Doubtless the members of these slow and laborious growth of standards of jus- people it will seem distinctly worse than the unions, if they combine with their masters, tice in taxation, and the attempt on the part disease. We hope never again to see the States can secure many things for both parties, but of the community as a whole to realize this the fiscal beneficiaries, even in appearance, of the fate of the outside laborers, who are, even justice.” This growth involves a progressive the federal Treasury. Again, we cannot help in England, probably nine-tenths of the whole recognition of ability to pay and of benefit thinking Prof. Seligman ill-advised in his use number, deserves some consideration. A comreceived as bases, each in its place, for the of the assertion that the “single tax" cannot bination of this kind may create an invincible distribution of taxation. It involves also a raise wages. If real wages, and not mere monopoly, which is something that no begradual transition, due to the development of money wages, are intended, the assertion may liever in freedom can look forward to with novel sorts of intangible property, from posi- very plausibly be disputed ; at any rate, his gladness. tion to acquisition-that is, from property to cogent and convincing arguments against the income-as the only adequate index of ability single tax do not need the assertion even if it to pay. In the second essay the history of the is true, while they suffer from it if it be false.

Socrates, and Athenian Society in his Day: general property tax is sketched. That history Finally, in the highly technical chapter enti

A Biographical Sketch. By A, D, Godley, in Rome, France, Germany, England, and tled “The Classification of Public Revenues,"

M.A., Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. America is the same : the discussion with Bastable runs into a style

Macmillan & Co. 1896. Pp. vi, 232. which reminds us of the beginnings of a Ger

This book is not intended, its author tells us, " As soon as the idea of direct taxation bas

" Professorenzank," a kind of squabble

“ for classical scholars or professed Platonists, forced itself into recognition, it assumes the practical shape of the land tax. This soon de- which we may well leave to the universities of

but rather for the large and increasing class velops into the tax on general property, which the Fatherland. In spite of occasional ble

of students who do not wish to be debarred (meaning property, not the tax] long remains

mishes, however, Prof. Seligman's book is ca. altogether from an acquaintance with Greek the index of ability to pay. But as soon as the mass of property splits up, the property tax pable of holding its own with the best writing on

literature by their ignorance of the Greek becomes an anachronism. The various kinds taxation in the better known languages-a language." In other words, it is another of of personalty escape, until finally the general book, too, wbich legislator and citizen alike the many attempts to begin an acquaintance property tax completes the cycle of its development and reverts to its original form in the may read with alternate complacency and

with those productions which are preëminently real property tax.” mortification, but with uniform profit.

the masterpieces of form and beauty, by cast

ing away the beautiful form itself; to learn England, and Continental Europe general

what the Greeks said, leaving out how they ly, long ago recognized the injustice of the Labor in its Relations to Law. By F. J.

said it-tbat is, to learn Greek without Greek.

Stimson, Charles Scribner's Sons. 1895. general property tax as the sole or even the

Mr. Godley proposes to effect this object by chief means of raising revenue, and frankly

THIS little book consists of four lectures de a series of passages translated chiefly from turned it into a land tax, supplemented by livered at the Plymouth School of Ethics, and Plato, partly from Aristophanes and Xenotaxes on persons, on business, on house-rent, it is quite probable that the character of the phon, accompanied by some account from on incomes, etc. Only in the advanced de- audience addressed had its influence on the other sources of the position of Athens and the mocracies does the old property tax still treatment. Presumptively Mr. Stimson's hear- Athenians during the life-time of Socrates. survive, in Switzerland, Australia, and the ers were neither economists nor lawyers, and His versions are spirited and accurate, and United States. In these countries, too, its

the task of instruction and conversion must may be compared with those of Jowett, not at imperfections have finally been realized, and have been far from easy ; but it has been per- all to the advantage of the latter ; which is reeach is gradually developing the supplemen- formed with great skill and judgment. Some markable in the work of an Oxonian. The tary taxes most obviously workable under its uopalatable truths had to be administered, but principle of selection is not so commendable. conditions-the United States first introducing they have been so dexterously concealed in a There is far too much space given to the corporation taxes, and afterwards adding the vehicle of persuasive argument as to leave no myths; the Atlantis and the story of Er, inheritance taxes with wbich the Australian bitter taste behind. By frankly professing however striking in themselves and necessary colonies began, while the Swiss cantons first sympathy with laborers, Mr. Stimson disarms for a knowledge of Plato, take up much space of all developed the income tax, a late-comer opposition, and, baving complied with the first in a Life of Socrates which had far better be in Australia, and are now beginning to follow maxim of the forum—to create a favorable given to the 'Crito,' the 'Pbædrus,' and the our example in taxing corporations. To tbis impression towards the speaker in the minds 'Theætetus.' It may not be easy to decide the same question of the taxation of corporations of bis bearers-he leads them gently away exact ratio of Plato's intimacy with Socrates more than a quarter of Prof. Seligman's book from the lotos groves of sentimentalism to the to that of Xenophon; but Mr. Godley seems is devoted, and nowhere, so far as we know, sober realms of reason and common sense. yet in the fetters of the English traditional are the economic aspects of this complicated Occasionally, however, Mr. Stimson is him- belief that because Plato's Socrates bas much and difficult subject treated with such fulness self quite too mild. The barbarous legislation greater literary charm and richness of thought of knowledge and such keepdess of analysis as which prohibits the inmates of prisons from tban Xenophon's, therefore it is more correct bere. On the law of corporation taxes an productive labor draws from him only the fee as a picture. enormous amount has been written ; but, after ble complaint that “our sentimental altruism” The material of the book has been so long be. all, it is the economic ratber than the legal should not carry us so far as to object to the fore the world, and been so thoroughly thrashed factor which must ultimately determine their employment of our criminals in healthy out. over, that there is not much chance for ori. fate.

side work. Why should it carry us so far as ginal research; but the author has made one Not the least interesting chapter is that on to object to their employment in healthy in. | discovery, namely, that the attack on Socrates recent reforms in taxation, especially in Eng- side work ? And why should Mr. Stimson par- in the "Clouds” is just such scandal as arises Jish, Dutch, and Prussian taxation. Alike in ticularly recommend their employment in en- in any small town, e. g., Tennyson's LincolnSir William Harcourt's famous “democratic terprises which private capital avoids as unre. sbire village. Considering the position Athens budget" of 1894, in the reforms of Mr. N. G. munerative ? Must not the convicts be some- occupied in the civilized world in 423 B, C., and Pierson and in those of Dr. Miquel, “the same how supported ? And if they are not to be sup- the crowds that were likely to assemble at the tendency is unmistakable, the trend to greater ported by their own labor, must it not be by city Dionysia, all eager to see the comedies to justice in taxation.” The Prussian reform of the labor of free citizens? Here was an oppor- which the truce was admitting them for the 1891-1893 is further notable for bringing about tunity missed to administer a wholesome cor- first time in eight years, such a reduction of a segregation of source between state and local rective to our sentimental altruism.

Athens to the level of Chichester or Medicine revenues—a policy earnestly recommended to The statement of the law relating to the Lodge is indeed novel. There are some points our own commonwealths.

contracts between master and servant, and in Athenian society which all classical scholars We pass to mention a few points from which to such special episodes as strikes and boycotts, know can never be explained to readers of it is possible to dissent. Unquestionably some is very lucid and succinct. In fact, the book English; and Mr. Godley's reserved parapersonal property escapes taxation for want of will serve very well as a manual of wbat is phrases are as unsuccessful as bis predecessors'. uniformity in the laws determining its situs. called labor legislation. The policy of many We also are favored with the repetition of the Pending interstate agreement upon this point, of these laws is well meant, and receives suit- favorite English blunder, as follows: “In a “it may be possible,” says Prof. Seligman (p. able commendation from Mr. Stimson, while large society, abstention from politics is a mat114), "to reach intangible personalty through the futility and unconstitutionality of a con- ter of choice. No one is seriously blamed for some form of national taxation, the general siderable class of statutes are plainly exposed. being what Americans call a Mugwump.'” Government tben to apportion the proceeds to He looks forward to the attainment of peace A Mugwump, Mr. Godley is respectfully inthe States." Not only is this remedy, as Prof. in the industrial world, or at least of progress formed, is anything but an abstinent from Seligman recognizes, impracticable, in view toward peace, through the development of the 'politics.

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NEW YORK, THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 27, 1896. be worth all it cost if it led to "a truly.Chronicle, the Globe, or the St. James's,

great and widespread movement for some stoutly maintains that Mr. Smalley is in

common basis of understanding and action error, and that it has neither prepared The Week.

that shall minimize to the utmost possible nor proposed any plan. There is only one extent the possibilities-between the two way out of this imbroglio, and that is the

peoples that more than any other in all communication to more newspapers-say The resolutions adopted at the meeting in the world hold in their hands the future twelve-of the real secret of the negotiathis city last week to promote internal of a higher civilization-of the madness, tions. Delays are proverbially dangerous. tional arbitration do not commit anybody the savagery, the brutality of war.” In the multitude of newspapers there is to any particular modus operandi, but President Cleveland's expression of his safety, and no plan which has only one merely to " some wise method of arbitration." By avoiding the plan, which is that tends to the establishment of peace confidence of a great people.

"hearty sympathy with any movement newspaper behind it can command the favored by some, of a permanent high ful agencies for the adjustment of intercourt of arbitration, the coöperation may

national disputes," was certainly all that be secured of all persons who favor the

could have been expected, and we are not The venerable Jules Simon has a striksettlement of international disputes by disposed to scrutinize too narrowly the ing letter on arbitration in the February peaceful means, leaving the method to

phraseology by which this distinguished Cosmopolis. He says that war was never future negotiations and adjustment. convert gives in his adhesion.

80 likely as at the present moment, and Thore are serious obstacles to a perma

yet never so impossible--never so likely, nent high court of arbitration, the chief

on account of the many casus belli pilof which is, that a court must act under

A very striking and encouraging evi- ing up in various parts of the world; rules, and that rules for its guidance can

dence of a healthy change in public sen- never so impossible, on account of the not be fixed in advance of the disputes timent in this State towards war was fearful nature of any great war and of its which have to be adjusted. For example,

seen in the action of the Assembly at inevitable results. The improvements in the rules applicable to the Geneva arbitra- Albany on Monday evening. A resolution the art of war are such as to make it as fation (Alabama claims) would not have

was pending before it urging Congress tal to victors as to vanquished, to neutrals answered for the Paris arbitration on the to increase the navy, construct elaborate as to belligerents. The dread of war's enorBering Sea question, while neither of coast defences, form a closer alliance mous catastrophes no doubt stays many a these would have fitted the Venezuelan with other republics on this continent, rash hand, and is, in a sense, of itself a boundary dispute. Therefore the only and "acquire Cuba, preferably by guarantee of peace. But, as M. Simon practicable and safe approach to an agree. purchase." When this came up for says, is living in this state of armed ap. ment for arbitration as a rule of national consideration, Mr. Kempner offered as a prehension a tolerable way for civilized life is to treat each case as it arises. The substitute a series of resolutions saying nations to live? If all profess, as all do, important thing is to get the nation, and that the true grandeur of nations lay in a love of peace and a horror of war, why eventually the world, into a habit of mind the arts of civilization rather than in the not take prompt steps to make peace all —that of regarding international differ- wasteful, bitter violence of war, declaring but certain ? That is the question which ences as things to be settled in some that the Legislature earnestly desires Con tbe advocates of international arbitration other way than by fighting. Fortunately gress and the President to make permanent are asking to-day with redoubled empbamuch has been done to bring us to that provisions for some wise method of interna- sis, and the only answer they get from the state of mind by the two great examples tional arbitration, and requesting the Gov. Jingoos is that war is a glorious spectacle, mentioned-those of Geneva and of Paris.

ernor to forward a copy of the resolutions to and a sport worthy to be named even The former especially was an affair of im- the Governors of other States in the Union above the prize-fighting which they love menes importance, settling, as it did, a

asking them to cooperate in the move- and praise almost equally. There can be most irritating question at a cost of only ment for a national conference upon the no doubt that in this country, as in Engtwo or three days' expenses of a modern subject at Washington. This substitute land and France, the mass of the people war.

was adopted with only one dissenting are ready to accept arbitration more

vote, that of the author of the first reso-swiftly and completely than are their The meeting on Washington's Birthday lution. Members of both parties thus rulers. In this situation, as M. Simon in Independence Hall, for the same object, went upon the record against Jingoism, asserts, “ If diplomacy stumbles at tech- was a great success, and its tone and spirit, and their action gives unmistakable evi- nicalities in the presence of such perils, together with the influence of many simi-dence that the "war party” in this State let public opinion force its band." lar meetings held on the same day in dif- is a very insignificant minority. feront cities, will contribute much towards making the projected arbitration conven

The laurels gathered by Mr. Hannis tion at Washington a true demonstration During the past week a plan of settle- Taylor in the field of diplomacy have not of national sentiment. Kipling's recentment of the Venezuelan controversy,called attracted general admiration heretofore, story, “How the Ship Found Herself," "the Smalley plan,” has made its appear- and his latest exploit will not add much makes the first use of the steamer's true ance in the columns of the London Times, to his fame or that of the United States. voice to exclaim, “What a fool I have Mr. Smalley being the New York corro- A Spanish naval officer read a paper bebeen!” That is practically the confes- spondent of that paper. That the Times fore the Geographical Society of Madrid, sion which this country is making, by the should have a plan of its own naturally in which he expressed certain opinions, mouth of these eminent jurists, clergy- | irritates other papers, especially the Chro- sufficiently absurd, no doubt, of this mon, educators, and military men, who nicle. Moreover, the Times correspond- country and its inhabitants. Among unite in a public protest against the need ont, probably shrinking from this resent other things he had observed here was a lessness and barbarity of a resort to war ment, says the plan is not his, but one company of young ladies drilling for milito settle international disputes, and in a prepared by the American Government tary service, from which he drew the indemand for a "permanent system of judi- for submission at the proper time. But forence that the future defenders of the cial arbitration” between America and our State Department, doubtless foresee- republic were to be of the female sexEngland. Bishop Potter justly said that ing the consequences of an admission that the men, perhaps, supporting themselves the miserable Venezuelan imbroglio would' it has told more to the Times than to the ' by needlework or taking in washing.. He

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had probably seen some school-girls prac- immediately, the next best thing is for the to Congress from every direction, I will not tising the Delsarte system, and reached House to reject all the Senate bills and

vote to increase salaries at a ratio of 25 per

cent., or pearly that amount, in an appropriathat extraordinary conclusion. No matter the Senate to reject all the House bills tion. I warn you, gentlemen of the House of how he came by them, his comments are except the regular appropriations. The Representatives on both sides, that the people

of tbis country bave their eye on this particu. pot more extraordinary than some that special appropriations, of which there is a

lar Congress, and one of the tbings they are we are accustomed to see in the gravest formidable mass looming up, such as bills looking to is to see whether we are willing to French publications. Minister Taylor for new battle-ships, coast fortifications,

create new offices and give exaggerated salaries

to existing officers." was ruffled by this communication to the the Nicaragua Canal, the Pittsburgh and Madrid geographers, and addressed a note Lake Erie ship-canal, etc., ought to be Despite such, appeals, however, enough to the Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs. solemnly knocked in the head as fast as

Republicans joined with the Democrats There are various accounts in the newe- they show themselves. It would be a sav

to carry the increase. The Democrats, of papers of the import and tenor of this ing of time if all these measures

course, think it “good politics” to have

another "billion-dollar Congress" for a note. It is not important to anybody ex- given the coup de grâce in the House cept Mr. Taylor himself what he said, first, but the probability is that they will campaign argument against the Republi

cans, if they can get it, and there are a but that he should have taken any notice first see the light in the Senate as amendat all of a paper read at a private gather- ments to ordinary appropriation bills, in good many Republicans who do not seem

to be afraid to run the risk. ing ought to be mortifying to American which case we hope that Speaker Reed pride, and would be were we not so accus. will have a long knife whetted and ready tomed to the gaucheries of our represenfor each of them.

Fortunately, Speaker Reed is conceded tatives abroad and so hardened by them.

by everybody to stand firm on this quesIt appears that Capt. Concas, the offender

Against the protests of the chairman of tion, and while there are signs of revolt of Taylor, was not attached in an official capacity to the Spanish visitors to the Co

the House committee on agriculture, and against him, his influence is still tremen

apparently in defiance of a rule of the dous and may prove decisive on more imlumbian Exposition.

House which provides that no amendment portant issues than the one decided last to an appropriation bill shall change exist

leek. The welcome announcement is Senator Morgan “went gunning" for ing law, the agricultural bill was passed made, on what seems to be good authoriSpain in the Senate on Thursday, in comlast week, with a clause making it manda

ty, that the Republican managers of the pany with Lodge of Massachusetts. After tory upon Secretary Morton to buy and House will not let down'the bars even for

the sake of appropriating large sums for they had finished there was not much to distribute $150,000 worth of seeds. The choose between them and Capt. Concas existing statute requires that such seeds new war-ships. The Jingo element has on the score of good manners. Morgan must be "rare and uncommon," but this urged that the money for new ships need said that Spain was daily committing out is now explicitly repealed-whether legally not be appropriated this year, but all that rages on humanity itself by its treatment or not, it may yet be for the Attorney-Ge- will be necessary will be for the House to

sanction their building and appropriate of prisoners taken in Cuba. “Spain fills neral and the courts to decide. But there

the money to start the work. The House to repletion her prison in Africa,” he said, was at least debate enough to make the “with persons captured out of the army unblushing nature of the performance per

leaders reply that such legislation would

be in the nature of a promise to pay, and of the rebels. ... Spain inflicts upon fectly clear. The arguments for the Gov

that although the money in bulk should them penalties, under the name of law, ernment's going into the seed business which their crimes would not deserve even were just three. Secretary Morton is

not be appropriated this year, this Con

gress would be held responsible for the if they were individuals engaged separate against silver, and we'll make him disand apart, or in little squads, in insurrec. tribute seeds whether he wants to or not, legislation and the spending of the money.

Mr. Dingley, chairman of the ways and tion against the Government of Spain." law or no law. Secondly, Wall Street and Morgan wanted to have belligerent rights the gold-bugs have corrupted this Con

means, maintaios that the Republican accorded to them by our Government. gress and bought so many favors from it

leaders are doing the best they can, for Lodge went farther. “I should like to that we must make a show of doing some

both the country and the party, when see some more positive action taken than thing for the farmer, whether it is what they take this stand, and he is quite that,” he said. What more positive action he wants or not. Thirdly, those seeds are

right. So far as Speaker Reed is concerncould we take unless we should interfere ours, and we are going to have them alloted, economy is undoubtedly the best card in Cuban affairs by force—that is, make ted to us personally; and no usurper shall

that he can play in the game for the Rewar against Spain? We refer to these be allowed to override the majestic and publican nomination. speeches merely to point out the insigni- inalienable privilege of every Congressman ficance of the offence which called out

to have thirteen packages of turnip seed A petition addressed to members of Mr. Taylor's note to the Spanish Minister go with his seat. In the name of Jehovah Congress has been sent out for signature of Foreign Affairs in comparison with the and the Continental Congress, seeds!

by the President. of the Woman's Chrisaffronts publicly put upon a friendly gov.

tian Temperance Union, at Mansfield, O. ernment by some of the highest officials

It is in these terms:

The discussion in the House last week of our own. over the question of the proper pay of honorable body looking towards military

"The introduction of any measure in your five Indian inspectors concerned a petty training in the public schools of this country All expectation of passing the tariff bill matter, so far as the amount of money at is sincerely regretted. We believe it will prove

one of the mistakes of the century just closing in the Senate has been abandoned, and it issue went, but it involved the whole

to utilize in any way our cherished educational is now said that the free-coinage bill that matter of economy in appropriations. system for war necessities. We earnestly ask

you to work and vote against all bills and rewas sent by the Senate to the House (as The point was whether the salary of these

solutions that aim to accomplish such a pura substitute for the bond bill of the lat- five men should be made a few hundred pose." ter) will not receive the compliment of a

dollars apiece larger than it has been, but we do not believe any such petition conference committee. This is a satisfac. the chairman of the appropriations com

unaccompanied by argument will produce tory disposition of both measures. Senator

mittee and other prominent Republicans any effect on any member of Congress. Smith said the other day, with keen dis-treated it as a test of party policy on the We are in the midst of an attempt, long cernment and retrospection, that the best question of economy. Mr. Grosvenor of prepared, to convert this into a military thing Congress could do would be to ad. Ohio, for example, said:

nation, with hostility to foreigners as the journ. This sentiment was heartily ap- "I stand here for one to make a record that leading motive in its politics and in the plauded by the country, but since Con- great depression of business, in a time when

will show to mankind that in this year, in the education of its youth. This attempt gress will not take the hint and adjourn 'overybody is suffering, and appeals are coming was begun, and is continued, mainly as a

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