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those great masters of our fatherland--who book, not, however, in favor of my country, shot) a comparatively poor man. His sucpassed away unknown, neglected, who grew

but decidedly against it. Consequently, the cessor, Cerna, after being President for six old in sad poverty, or were extinguished in the desolation of exile. I remember the divine publication compiled by Mr. Caivano is the

years, retired absolutely poor, and his minis.

ters were poorer than himself. Barrios stole wisdom of Vico, the buman omniscience of result of actual spite and for revenge in not and blackmailed right and left, and in tbirteen Romagposi, tbe poetic radiance of Ugo Fos. having obtained the money he solicited. years saved about as many million dollars. colo. Those were times of Italian servitude. Now, oh youths ! see wbat prizes country and

I appeal, therefore, Mr. Editor, to your im.

Barillas did the same kind of thing and is now

wealthy. The first two and their ministers beliberty are offering to those who strive after partiality that you give equal prominence to longed to and represented the Conservative or intellectual good. This shows that Italian re- the publication of this letter in the columps of Church party; the latter two called themselves novation, even in ideal and moral arts, is ma.

your valued paper, so that the sensible public Liberals." turing. Prepare the way for the Lord who cometh ; for the genius of Italy, great, free,

may judge as to the merit which can attach to just. good, useful to humanity ; for the genius the book published by Mr. Caivano. of whose wings I hear the fluttering. In tbat Believe me, sir, with the higbest considera

WHERE WAR SHOULD ELEVATE. time, which we hope is near, the holy, pure age

TO THE EDITOR OF THE NATION: of the Italy of the future, the glory of Bologna tion, very respectfully yours, will grow ever brighter, the glory of this mo.

DR. JOAQUIN YELA, JR.,

SIR: Not enough pains have been taken by ther of study, this loving inspirer of the studi.

Acting Consul-General. ous. Let her gather the flowers and the fruits

the advocates of war as a means of endobling

NEW YORK, February 21, 1896. of the happy time, and, in the words of the

the character to set forth its advantages as poet,

tbey deserve. The case can be put in a "'E trovi uom degno poi che si l'onora.'" (We have received also the following been. Possibly something is held in reserve,

stronger and more convincing light than it has When he had finished, Carducci was swept communication from a gentleman who but so far the argument has not been illustrataway by the tumult of loving welcomes that knew Guatemala well under the elder Bar- ed as it should be; it has not been adequately surrounded bim. Then we crowded to look at

rios. We ought to add that such personal and variously presented. the gifts. His publishers presented him

I am inclined to believe that the theory is with an exquisite illuminated edition of Pe knowledge as we had of Sig. Caivano was trarch's sonnets of the fourteenth century. wholly favorable to his character and credi- capable of application in many agricultural The missives of the municipality of Bologna bility; and that the Italian edition of his communities, and of undisputed application in and Pietrasanta are real works of art. The work, on which we commented, was al. all thinly settled districts. There are usually portrait of the poet on the gold medal is like ready printed (but not published), and

fair opportunities for moral and intellectual

culture in the cities and large towns of the him, but still more resembles the Roman em- was read by us, before Sig. Caivano's arriperors. val in this country in June last.–Ed. should want to fight; but in some of the West

East-it is astonishing that anybody there If I were to narrate the tales told by his stu. Nation.]

ern States the situation is quite different, and dents (many now professors), I should never end. One Pascoli interested me most. He was

" Barrios was bad enough in fact, without this is especially true of the semi-arid regions wretchedly poor, as his father had been mur

resorting to fiction and misrepresentation of Kansas, Nebraska, and other States where

Some persons were put in the Penitenciario the widely scattered stockmen and farmers dered and his eldest brother bad to bring up a and thrashed to death-perhaps a dozen all

make slow progress, whether material or ethifamily of nine. He thought this one had told; not more. Barrundia (who was aftergenius, so sent him with a few francs to Bo- wards shot on board an American vessel) was

cal. The fine virtues need more encouragereally the author, as he was the perpetrator,

ment than they receive. There are no great logpa to compete for the six scholarships the

of these outrages. Two friends of mine were libraries, no handsome opera-houses, no collecgenerous city accords. When the lad heard he among the victims.

tions of sacred art, no beautiful church archiwas to be examined by Carducci, all his cou- “It is altogether a myth about Barrios rage waned, as Father Donati, who kept the wanting to wipe out what Sig. Caivano calls tecture. All these things are lacking. But

the creoles. There is no such class. There could not such deprivations be made tolerable poet's picture in his cell, had told him he was

are a few old families who pride themselves on “the greatest and noblest and highest being on their blue blood, all reactionaries of a Bour-bardly missed, indeed, as agencies of moral earth.” He fumbled and stumbled in his an. bon stripe; but they do not meddle with poli- inspiration—if the inhabitants had sufficient

tics, and I don't believe one of them was shot discernment to fight occasionally among themswers, and in his written theme felt he had by Barrios.

selves ? Why don't the men go to war? How not done his best; but the poet saw what was *** The story of his exposing the wives and quickly the sense of justice and honor, the in him, and, with the consent of the faculty, daughters of his enemies stark naked in cages bis vame came out first of the six. “Carducci is an astounding legend, founded on the report feeling of gentleness and pity, would revive.

that Barrios ordered two ladies of some of the No matter if they have no grievance against smiled," he said ; "just an instant bis smile old families, suspected of making clothing for

each other. The purpose is something nobler rested on me, and I would not change that the rebels during the first revolution in his memory for any other in this world.” time, to be put in a large net which is much in

than the redress of wrongs; it is the elevation J. W. M.

use in that part of the country, and swung to of the cbaracter.
the ceiling of his room until they told all they Such compensations as war offers for the
knew; but they were fully dressed, as no man
in Guatemala, of any kind, would expose a

lack of other advantages, or as an addition to woman stark naked. This reputed action of

them, have not been duly considered. They Barrios's was never authenticated, and al. are within easy reach of many whose hard lot though I knew one of the ladies, she would we are sometimes weakly disposed to commise never admit its truth. “This author is equally given to exaggera.

rate.

H. D. THE GOOD NAME OF GUATEMALA. tion in saying that Barrios had men shot for bis LAWRENCE, KAN., February 17, 1896.

amusement. For a very long time no Presi. TO THE EDITOR OF THE NATION:

dent in that country had so few of his enemies SIR: My attention has been called to an arti

shot at all. He did, however, finally resort to
tbis method of punishment, but I think an im.

THE FIRST UNITARIAN CHURCH IN cle whicb, under the hea og “A Specimen partial investigation would show that as few

AMERICA. Spanish. American Republic," appeared on the persons were shot in his time as in that of any editorial page of your valued paper of the 20th other ruler there, except Cerna perba ps. His TO THE EDITOR OF THE NATION: inst., which article contains statements deroga. things, and had three very dear old friends of successor, Barillas, did quite as many brutal

Sir: There is, of course, no doubt that the tory and false with respect to the government mine shot under very brutal circumstances.

church at Northumberland, Pa., was organized and country which I have the honor to repre. Summary shooting has been the most conve- by Dr. Priestley before that in Philadelphia. sent at this port.

nient way of quelling revolutionary move- But your correspondent, “H. D. C.," assumes

ments ever since Spanish America was freed In view of the statements therein made, it

from Spanish rule, and the rebels themselves the point at issue, namely, whether it took the becomes my duty to inform you and cause to are usually more sanguinary than the Govern- Unitarian name. As that fact does not appear be known that the assertions of the author of ment, as is actually the case in Cuba.

on the mural tablet referred to, and as the the book 'Il Guatamala,' who, it is said, is

"As to Reyna Barrios, he is since my time. He lived in New York many years, and is mar.

church records do not exist to show it, it is by named “Tommaso Caivano," are, in their enried to an American lady. My friends report

no means certain that the name, then so odious, tirety, inaccurate and advanced solely to gra- him a good man of business, a good President, was adopted by the Society, tify selfish motives. On June 20, 1895, Mr. and a man of moderate ideas.

When the Philadelphia church was founded, Caivano presented himself at the office of this

“But the name Republic applied to any of these countries is a gross libel on the word. It

there was correspondence over this very point Consulate General soliciting financial aid that is a one-man power, and the one man is always between its members and some of the Eastern he publish a book in favor of Guatemala and more or less brutal, and always surrounds him-churches which had become Unitarian in fact its Government, and on such financial aid be self with people fit for the particular work he ing denied him he took offence, became very after being President for nearly twenty years, wants done. They do not als get rich, Carrera,

-or, at least, with the most notable of these,

King's Chapel in Boston; and the rector of excited, and stated that he would publish the died (on the same day President Lincoln was the latter strongly advised the Philadelphians

Correspondence.

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against taking the Unitarian name. I give

"HIRED GIRLS."

ty copies, on Japan paper, is priced at $1,000; this on the authority of Dr. Furness, who took

$300 will secure a copy on vellum paper. mucb pride in the fact that the advice was pot TO THE EDITOR OF THE NATION :

Roberts Bros., Boston, have republished heeded, and that the founders of his church SIR: Your correspondent “F. H." inquires, Cavalry in the Waterloo Campaign,' by Genplanted themselves openly upon the unpopular "Was it the custom, prior to the War of Inde- eral Sir Evelyn Wood, V.C. This little book position. He always claimed that the Pbila pendence, to speak of hired women, hired boys, is a contribution to the argument in favor of delpbia cburch was thus the first “organized and hired maids or girls, as well as of hired the use of cavalry even in the changed condi. as I'nilarian" in the country.

men?” What may have been the custom so tions of modern warfare brought about by im. I have beard a statement that a company long ago I cannot say, but in eastern Vermont provements in infantry arms. The cavalry for of persoos in New York, at an earlier date, and the contiguous part of New Hampshire, so which he argues is the true horseman, armed called their society Unitarian, but I bave not long as I lived there, up to 1869, it was practi- with sword or lance, manæuvred in an open been able to verify it. If it is true, the move- cally the universal usage to speak of young country, and depending upon the weight of the ment probably came to nothing.

women engaged in domestic service as “bired shock, charging home against footmen. BeIt may be interesting to some of your read.girls." We read about servants in books, but sides its technical interest, the book is a lively ers to kuow that, at the approaching centen- never saw them.

sketch of the Waterloo campaign, and of the nial celebration of the Philadelphia church, a In most cases the hired girl was the daugh- previous career of the noted cavalry leaders of bust of Priestley will be placed upon the poble | ter of a farmer of small means. She often took the different nations who met on the famous monumen erected to bim there, some years her meals with the family, and mingled with field. ago, by the Unitarians of America. J. M. them on terms of equality. The species is now A novel work has just made its appearance PHILADELPHIA, February 21, 1896.

pretty much extinct. I do not suppose the in Germany under the title of "Fürstliche custom was by any means confined to that Schriftsteller des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts,'

region. It is my impression that it prevailed by Georg Zimmermann. Selections from the CARRY."

in a place in eastern New York where I once writings of thirty-six royal personages, with a

spent a winter; but my memory is not definite biography of each, are presented. The book TO THE EDITOR OF THE NATION:

on that point.

W. L. WORCESTER, is richly illustrated and handsomely bound. Sir: In a recent English review of an AmeASYLUM STATION, MASS., February 24, 1848.

Emperor William's 'Sang an Aegir' is the rican work, the critic asked: “What can be

first selection, and after his name come the the meaning of a 'carry,' which is certainly

others in alphabetical order. Among those not found in any accepted author?! That an

Notes.

who have won especial renown in letters may Englisbman should be unfamiliar with a word

be mentioned Prince George of Prussia, Prinwhich is found only in books (whether by Bri

cess Therese of Bavaria, and Duke Elimar of D. APPLETON & Co.'s immediate announcetish or by American writers) dealing with ex.

Oldenburg; Alexander III. of Russia, too, bas plorations or with outdoor life in America, is

ments include 'A History of the Warfare of made a very promising beginning. not surprising; but it is of course well known

Science with Theology in Christendom,' by * Die Gescbichte des Erstlingswerkes' (Beramong us that, in navigating rivers and

Andrew D. White ; Teaching the Language lin: Concordia Verlag) is a series of autobiostreams in America, obstructions are often

Arts,' by B. A. Hipsdale ; 'Greenland Ice- graphical essays describing the circumstances encountered which render it necessary to

fields, and Life in the North Atlantic,' by attending the production of the first really im. take the canoe or bateau out of the water

Prof. G. Frederick Wright and Warren Up- portant work of several of the leading conand “carry” round the obstruction, or to an

ham ; 'Voice-Building and Tone Placing,' by temporary writers of Germany. These essays other stream or lake near by. Several terms H. Holbrook Curtis, M.D.; and “The Reds of have been coming out from time to time in

Deutsche Dichtung, and now appear in book have been employed to designate the place the Midi,' by Félix Gras. thus carried over, but chiefly these three:

A series of bandbooks in classical archæology form, edited and supplied with an introducCarry, carrying-place, and portage. Of these,

and antiquities, beginning with Greek Sculp- tion by Karl Emil Franzos, editor of that pethe second has been in use since early in the ture,' by Ernest A. Gardner; an annotated riodical. The authors here represented are eighteenth century, the third for certainly edition of Hood's Poems by Canon Ainger ; Baumbach, Dahn, Ebers, Ebner-Eschenbach, a century and a half, wbile carry seems to

‘Browning and the Christian Faith,' by Dr. Eckstein, Fontane, Franzos, Fulda, Heyse, have originated in Maine about sixty years

Edward Berdoe ; 'The Coming Individualism,' Hopfen, Jensen, Lingg, Meyer, Schubin, Spielago. Attention was first called to the term by by A. Egmont Hake ; and "The Pilgrim, and bagen, Sudermann, Voss, Wichert, and Wolff. Lowell in the Atlantic Monthly for November,

Other Poems,' by “Ellen Burroughs" (Miss Each essay is accompanied by a portrait of the 1859; but the only examples which seem to Sophie Jewett), are further spring announce. author as he appeared about the time of his have been yet adduced are from All the Year ments by Macmillan & Co.

first important production; in the case of Round (1860) and T. W. Higginson (1884) in the

Frederick Warne & Co. have nearly ready Lingg, Meyer, Jensen, and Franzos, however, "Oxford Dictionary'; from J. C. Abbott (1860),

'The Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain,' by S. one of a later period had to be used, as an early in De Vere's 'Americanisms'; and from T. G.

H. Jeyes, editor of the “Public Men of To- one was not to be had. Similar essays are Appleton (1878) in the Standard Dictionary.' day" series, and 'Sport in Ashanti; or, Mo- still being continued in Deutsche Dichtung, Those which follow are of an earlier date:

linda the Caboceer,' a tale of the Gold Coast, and they will probably furnish material for a by J. A. Skertcbly.

future volume. “Having determined to visit Moosehead 'Studies in Historical Method,' by Mary Moulin-Eckart's ‘Bayern unter dem Minis Lake, before proceeding to the St. John

Sheldon Barnes, of Leland Stanford Junior terium Montgelas,' recently published in Muwaters, I continued up the west branch to the lower carry into that lake.

The upper

University, is in the press of D. C. Heath & nich, is an excellent historical work, though carry is about eight miles above the lower, Co., Boston.

hardly of world-wide interest, and we mention and between them are rapids and falls.” 1838, Way & Williams will issue 'The Lamp of it merely on account of the author's statement J. T. Hodge, in C. T. Jackson's Second Report Gold,' a sequence of forty-nine sonnets in seven that he was obliged to make his researches in on the Geology of the Public Lands of Massa. chusetts and Maine, 53, 54.

parts, by Miss Florence L. Snow, president of Berlin and Paris, because in the Bavarian "Tbis portage probably followed the trail of the Kansas Academy of Language and Litera- State Archives no one is permitted to examan ancient Indian carry round these falls." ture; a reprint, worked over, of Williamine any political document of the nineteenth 1848, H. D. Thoreau, Maine Woods (1894), 39. ** The end of the Carry was reached 'at last Sharp's Portfolio monograph, 'Fair Women’; | century. As Montgelas died in 1938, the

The birch, it seems, was strained at the and a new Irish novel, “The Wood of the sources of information concerning the most Carry.” 1853, J. R. Lowell, A Moosehead Brambles,' by Frank Mathew, grand nephew important part of his life were rendered inacJournal, Prose Works (1890), i., 30, 35. “The fourth morning you will make the

of Father Mathew, the “ Apostle of Tempecessible by this illiberal bureaucratic regula. carry of two miles to Mud Pond (Allegash rance."

tion. It is just such a measure, however, as Water)--and a very wet carry it is--and reach "The Story of Turkey and Armenia' is to be might have originated with the narrowChamberlain Lake by poon, and Heron Lake, published, with illustrations, by the H. Wood- minded and reactionary Montgelas himself. perbaps, that nigbt, after a couple of short

ward Co. of Baltimore. carries at the outlet of Chamberlain.” 1858,

During the last five months of 1895 some H. D. Thoreau, in Familiar Letters (1894), 382 Benziger Bros., No. 36 Barclay Street, are sixty persons were condemned to imprison.

the American agents for the costly folio · Vie ment in Germany for leze-majesty, without Since 1860 the term has been in frequent use, de Notre Seigneur Jésus-Christ,' consisting of counting those who were tried for the same of. but, so far as the writer is aware, it is confined 365 compositions (aquarelles) by J. J. Tissot, fence and acquitted, Nearly every speech of to New Eogland and the Adirondack region. based on the four evangels (Tours: Alfred the Emperor is followed by a large increase of

ALBERT MATTHEWS. Mame & Fils). The artist's work represents criminal suits instituted for the protection of Boston, February 20, 1896.

the labor of ten years. Each of the first twen-' his royal and imperial dignity. Thus, bis de

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nunciation of the Socialists as a "rabble un. which was reported by the judiciary commit- profession, industrious patience, common sense, worthy to be called Germans," on account of tee in 1894, but defeated, and urges the pass. and high aims, which are essential, not for the their attitude towards the Sedan festivities, led age of a bill regulating the returning and re. winning of great wealth, of which “the bar to numerous prosecutions in November, twenty- cording of births, marriages, and deaths now does not hold out promise," but of honorable six of wbich resulted in the condemnation of before the General Court. Mr. Swan states success. To this he regards "university culthe accused. The courts w rest the letter of the incidentally that still-born children are re. ture as almost indispensable," closing a very law to secure conviction, as, for example, wben corded either as births, deaths, or both, stimulating paper with a noble appeal to the the judge admitted that in Liebknecht's criti- the clerk considers most sensible."

young lawyer to remember “that he is encism of certain views there was no direct The laborious task of reducing to order the gaged in a profession which may well engage allusion to the utterances of the Emperor, chaos of stored public documents at Washing. | the noblest faculties of heart and of mind," but added that some persons in the audience | top; of checking wasteful publications; of sup- and that there are higher interests than those might have interpreted his words as referring plying the designated depositories; of com- of his client to be fought for, "the interests of to bis Imperial Majesty, and therefore found pleting collections by exchange; of filling cash truth and of honor." The main point of the him guilty and sentenced him to imprison- orders; of cataloguing current documents and article by Judge 0. W. Holmes, of the Supreme ment. Dr. Förster, a man of excellent cha- of working backward in this department.-is Judicial Court of Massachusetts, is to show racter, and editor of a journal devoted to going on under the new law creating a Super- that for a “fighting success" a university edu. ethical culture, was also condemned to in- intendent of Documents with headquarters at cation is not essential-there is almost a hint carceration in a fortress for asserting that the the Government Printing-Office. The progress that it may be an impediment; but that if a Socialists are not all a wretched rabble, but made is evidenced by three pamphlets: the young man can afford “two or even three" that there are many good and patriotic men Superintendent's first annual report; the re- years in a law school be “will not regret a among them, who act with the Socialists as a port of Mr. John G. Ames, clerk in charge of month of it when he comes to practice." There protest against the tyranny of the police in documents, Interior Department, regarding can be no doubt of the truth of this assertion suppressing free discussion. The insult to Wil- the receipt, distribution, and sale of public in view of the following significant figures: liam II. consisted in daring to doubt bis ipfal- documents by that department on the Govern. Of the 287 lawyers in Congress not one-half libility. Prof. Delbrück expressed in the Octo- ment's behalf; and the second edition of Mr. have been through college-129 only are colber number of the Preussiche Jahrbücher the Ames's 'Check-list,' enumerating the volumes lege graduates; 50 bave spent some time at a same opinion, but, as he is a man of high posi. which constitute the set of Congressional docu- college or a professional school; 108 have retion and considerable influence, the Govern. ments from the Fifteenth to the Fifty-third ceived only a common-school education. ment deemed it best to withdraw the indict- Congresses, inclusive. Mr. Ames bas bad the

-It becomes evident that the question of the ment preferred against him. happy thought to number these documents con

hour at both Oxford and Cambridge is the adNo. 3 of the second series of “Rhode Island secutively, thus greatly abbreviating the trou

mission of women to degrees. At Oxford a Historical Tracts" (Providence: Sidney S. ble of describing when ordering. Mr. F. A.

memorial in favor of the movement is backed Rider) has for its theme 'A Century of Lotte-Crandall, the Superintendent of Documents,

by the Vice Chancellor, the president of Magries in Rhode Island, 1744-1844,' and for author bas added some valuable features, as, lists of

dalen College, and one of the two proctors, John H. Stiness. It is one of the most curious explorations and surveys, of Government cata

and has been largely signed by resident graduand valuable of the series, being a chapter in logues and indexes, of the parts and plates of

ates. Among the siguers are the masters of the evolution of morals; and, as all classes, the Rebellion-Record Atlas, etc.

Balliol and University Colleges; the principrofessions, learned and religious and pbilan. On February 10th the past and present edi.

pals of Jesus and Brasepose Colleges and of thropic institutions (along with many purely tors of the Harvard Lampoon celebrated the

St. Mary's Hall; the censor of non collegiate secular enterprises) were implicated as benefi- | twentieth anniversary of the founding of that ciaries or chance-takers in the lottery till it comic journal. The event seems worthy of re

students; Bodley's Librarian; the keepers of

the Ashmolean and University Museums; the was made unlawful and therefore suddenly be- cord, not only because the Lampoon was the

Radcliffe Librarian and Observer; and Profs. came "wrong" or "sinful,” the story well re. earliest and has steadily been the best of illus- Dicey, Legge, Max Müller, Pollock, York Powel, pays reading. It is illustrated by a great num. trated student publications, but also because it Burden-Sanderson, Poulton, Wallace, Green, ber of facsimiles of lottery tickets; and tbe is older than any other surviving periodical of

and Elliott. At Cambridge a similar memonames and autograph signatures of owners and the kind in America. It preceded Puck; and officers among the first families in Rhode Life was, in a way, its offshoot. Of the origi: 2,200 members of the Senate, including seventy

rial has received the signatures of no less than Island give this part of the tract a bigb gepea- nators and early editors of the Lampoon, J. logical interest.

professors, readers, and university lecturers T. Wheelwright, Robert Grant, F. J. Stimson, Mr. A. P. C. Griffin's Bibliography of the

and more than one hundred M. A.'s in resiand E. S. Martin have long been well known

dence. The Cambridge promoters have also Historical Publications issued by the New among the younger school of American wits;

circulated the memorial among England States' is satisfactorily minute as far and a survey of the entire list of editors would distinction” outside the university, and some

"persons of as it goes, but is too limited in its scope. The show the names of other men who have al.

of those who have signed are the Right Hon. title to the contrary, the republished “re- ready won distinction in letters or in art. cords" of each State only are included; even In the February number of the Geographical cretary for Ireland; the Bishops of Manchester,

Arthur J. Balfour, Gerald Balfour, Chief Se the original issues of the various "journals" | Journal the Rev. W. Weston describes the Ja

Sodor and Man, Gloucester and Bristol, Baror " yotes are passed over as if they did not panese Alps, a most attractive region on the exist. A list such as the title led us to expect west coast of the main island, very rarely visit- sant, Sir Edward Thornton, Sir Robert Ball;

row in Furness, and Argyll; Sir Walter Be. is a distinct need. The careful table of con- ed by travellers. It is now one of the few

Mr. Justice Kennedy and Mr. Justice Barnes. tents of each work described is the valuable places in the empire almost uninfluenced by part of the present work. We do not see why

The opponents of the measure have so far done modern ideas, and the account of the moun

nothing except to protest against the wording Slade's Vermont State Papers' and the 'Con- taineers' customs and superstitious rites, now

of the memorial, wbich, they say, assumes necticut Military Record' were not included, fast dying out, is therefore peculiarly interest

that the admission of women is a foregone for tbey certainly fall within the narrow class ing. Mr. H. 8. Cowper gives some notes on a

conclusion. But it has been pointed out that included in the bibliography.

journey in the hill country of Tripoli, remarkaThe eighth report of Mr. Robert T. Swan,

the wording is really happy, because, taken ble for the numerous Phænician and Roman Massachusetts Commissioner of Public Re- ruins which it contains. Both of these papers

together with the number and the character

of the signers, it will give the council a better cords, recurs to the still discreditable condition have route-maps and illustrations. The con

idea of the state of public opinion than they of these records in the State at large, and pro- clusion of Captain Vaughan's account of his

could otherwise have obtained. Graduates of poses the establishment of a public-record of. travels in Persia contains a description of the fice, after the pattern of the English, to which Daria.i-Nimak, "a solid sheet of rock salt of Cambridge in the opposition are reminded all the records to a fixed date shall be sent.

that, during the fifteen years since women varying, but in places doubtless immense,

were first admitted by that university to its On the subject of the neglected Proprietors' | thickness. Its area we estimated at 440 square

honor examinations, 659 women have been records, be speaks of the confusion caused by miles, and its elevation was 2,700 feet.” the names of plantations (which were not con

classed in the honor lists, securing distinction

The difference between English and Ameri tinued as the town name) having been adopted

in such varied lines of study as mathematics, can ways of looking at the same subject is for other towns, and prints a useful list of strikingly shown in two articles in the Boston

classics, natural and moral sciences, theology, changes from the original designation, in two

law, history, and Oriental, mediæval, and mo Youth's Companion on “The Bar as a Profesalphabets. He also suggests anew an act to

dern languages. sion." The Lord Chief Justice, Lord Russell provide for the custody of church records after of Killowen, describes in a singularly clear and -Until a few years ago, Murray's 'Hand. a society has ceased to hold religious meetings, attractive manner the qualities, love of the book for Travellers in Japan' (New York: Scribpers) as written by Satow and Hawes, not only before 1453, when it was captured by Moham. brary of Urbino, "antiquissimum Aristophawas by far the best work of its kind, but was med II., Sultan of the Ottoman (not the Sel- pis exemplar.” That this Ms. was identical tolerably up to date. The gradual growth of jukian) Turks. Mustapha II. was not the im- with the Ravenna can hardly be doubted from the railway system, by changing the routes mediate successor of Mohammed II , but

reign- Mr. Clark's report, who, in carefully examinof travel, made it, bowever, antiquated. The ed from 1695-1703. We may remark, too, that ing the Ravenna, observed faint pencil marks publishers, in this emergency, were so wise Jerusalem was taken by the Crusaders in 1099, drawn across the text and corresponding with and lucky-as to secure the services of Prof. which is bardly the middle of the eleventh the pagination of the Juntine edition. These Chamberlain and Mr. W. B. Mason for the century (p: 110), that the remark about the were evidently for the convenience of the task of revising it. The new edition, combin. battle of Platæa would seem to suggest that priater. The manuscript, once borrowed, was ing the labors of four experts, was a model Aristides commanded the Persians there (p. probably never restored to the library of the book, for which there was such a brisk demand 142), and that the statements, “The kingdom Duke, but wandered off to be recaptured that the editors felt impelled to go over the of Naples was separated from Sicily by Charles later for the monastery of Classe. The reason ground once more and complete what was left of Anjou, in 1272, and the city became the capi- of such oversight is easily discovered. On undone before. As a result the fourth edition tal. The kingdom was ruled by the Spanish the 30th of May the troops of Pope Leo in. (1896) is a work which must make any one who Bourbons, with occasional stormy intervals, vaded the Duchy; on August 18 Lorenzo, the visited Japan a few years ago sigh that he until the unification of Italy took place, in Pope's nephew, was made Duke in place of the could not bave bad such a guide in hand when very recent years” (p. 186), are, to say the deposed Francesco Maria. In the midst of he was there. The new edition has about sev. least, misleading.

these changes and troubles the MS. was epty pages more than the third, with fifteen

probably neither reclaimed nor returned. At new routes, in which the whole empire is, for :-The recent request made by Harvard Uni- any rate it was not one of the 165 Greek MSS. the first time, included. The modest preface versity to the municipality of Ravenna for which were in the library of Urbino when it does not call special attention to all the im. permission to make a photograpbic reproduc- was transferred to the Vatican by Alexander provements, but they are apparent at a glance. tion of the famous manuscript of Aristophanes, VII, io 1658. This is especially true of the maps and plans, recalls a little history which was published by some of which are printed on the thin Japanese Mr. W. G. Clark more than twenty years ago. _*The Journal of a Spy in Paris during the

a paper wbich ought to be used for all guide It is not quite so romantic as the story of the Reign of Terror, January-July, 1794,' by Raoul books, to reduce bulk. The general map of the Sinaiticus, but it affords a curious illustration Hesdin (Harpers), presents internal evidence of empire shows that the main railway is now of vagabond fortunes and of the slender chances its authenticity, but the editor has omitted to completed north to Aomori, thus making Yezo by which such treasures are preserved for us. state in his preface how he came into posses. more accessible than beretofore. Among the The handwriting of the Ravenna MS. resem. sion of the manuscript, or where the manunew plans is one of the tombs and temples of bles the minuscule of the Florentine Æschylus script is preserved. It is possible for an expert Nikko, another of the Matsushima islands, and Demosthenes. Bekker dates it as of the in the history of the French Revolution to while a third, specially valuable one gives a eleventh century; but other excellent experts make out a case for the non-authenticity of bird's-eye view of Tokyo, colored, showing the refer it to the tenth. It is quite likely that it the Journal on the strength of a few passages canals, bridges, parks, public buildings, botels, was a copy made for some rich monastery un. here and there, and the editor could blame no etc.—a map which every tourist will specially der the patronage of the later Basilian dynasty critic for doing this, since he has deliberately welcome in this vast and most confusing city of Constantinople, at a time when classical withheld his own name and all information Altogether there are pine new maps and plans. learning was fashionable, and when the monas- about the manuscript. It would take, howThe guide is printed in Japan, and its English teries were, as Finlay says, rather like clubs ever, too much space here to balance the pros origin is emphasized by a new introductory for the accommodation of younger sons of noble and cons. If the Journal proves to be a superchapter beginning with the words that "the families than the lodging-place of ascetics. Such cherie littéraire, it has certainly been made up shortest and most enjoyable way from Europe a club of luxurious bachelors might naturally with considerable skill, and the author deto Japan is by the Canadian Pacific Railway interest itself in the comedies of Aristophanes. serves to be complimented for his ingenuity. Line," of which a seven-page itinerary is The municipality of Ravenna received the Apart from its suspected origin, it contains no added.

manuscript from the monastery of Classe, information of importance for students of the

within the walls, when the monastery was dis. French Revolution. No new light is thrown – The Mediterranean Trip,' by Noah solved by the French and the edifice and library upon the characters of the members of the Brooks (Scribners), is, as it professes to be, a were made over to the city. The library was great Committee of Public Safety or upon "short guide to the principal points on the founded, probably before 1600, by Cardioal the methods employed in the government of shores of the western Mediterranean and the Giulio della Rovere, Archbishop of Ravenna. France during the Terror. The condition of Lavant." It is obviously intended for tourists The manuscript of Aristophanes may have been things in Paris, however, is reflected with conon the excursion steamers from New York, acquired by a certain Padre Canneti, who siderable fidelity, and the scarcity of food in and for such other travellers as mean to visit flourished in the beginning of the last century, particular is well illustrated. The editor's several places without remaining long in any, and is said in the annals of the Camaldolite notes show a competent knowledge of recent and are too lazy to spend more than fifteen order to have enriched the library “selectis et books on the French Revolution, but he is minutes in reading up about each. As books copiosissimis codicibus.” The exact date and rather hard on Brissot, whom he terms a prig, of its sort go, it is fairly satisfactory, for it manner in which this manuscript was added in a note on page 29, and tbere is no excuse for has much simple information succinctly put. there is no record to show; but there is a tra- his bringing into the same note an allusion to This information is usually correct, but on dition banded down by the librarians that it the late Prof. Freeman's famous “ Perish Inpage 126 we find the following sentences: was bought for a very small sum at a book- dia” remark, which has notbing whatever to ** During the Crusades, the power of the Byzan- stall in Rome.

do with the subject, and which Freeman to the tine empire having greatly decayed, the throne

last day of his life always avowed had been was occupied by a Frank, and the region was -How came so precious & manuscript to be misinterpreted. overrun by Genoese, Venetians, and Flemings. such a vagrant? There is practically no After a half-century of great turbulence, the doubt that a little later than the year 1500 it - Perhaps the most curious manifestation of Seljukian Turks, who had gradually developed was in the library of the Duke of Urbino, the current Napoleon craze is the publication their power in Asia Minor, captured the city Guidobaldo I. It was not made use of by Al. of "A Metrical History of the Life and Times in May, 1453, when Constantine XI., the last dus in his editio princeps, printed in 1498. of Napoleon Bonaparte,' by William J. Hillis of the emperors of the East, perished in the That edition does not contain the “Lysis. (G. P. Putnam's Sons). The compiler is an enfinal fight, and Mobammed Il. (the great con- trata" or the “Thesmophoriazusä," both of thusiastic but badly informed admirer of Naqueror) established in Constantinople the seat which are given in the Ravenna MS.; nor poleon and all his works, and his admiration of Osmanli power. Most of the important does it appear that Aldus had ever heard of has led him to collect as much verse as possiworks of modern Constantinople date from tbe the latter comedy. But in 1515 Bernard Junta ble, good, bad, and indifferent, relating to era of the conqueror and his immediate suc. publisbed at Florence the second edition, which events in the life and career of his chosen bero. cessors-Mustapha II., Bayezid II., Soliman contains only the nine Aldine plays, and in A perusal of the balderdash wbieb Mr. Hillis the Magnificent, and Acbmet I.” It is hardly the preface to it be promised the other two, bas collected together is sufficient proof that worth pointing out that "the throne was oc This promise he fulfilled next year in an the most dramatic subjects do not necessarily cupied by a Frank" (after the storming of the edition of the " Lysistrata" and the “Thes- produce dramatic poetry. There are, of city by the French and Venetians) in 1204, and mophoriazusae," which appeared January 28, course, in this collection a few famous poems, that the Greeks recovered Constantinople in 1516. In the preface be mentions that he has sucb as “The Burial of Sir Jobn Moore," 121, which is rather more than half a century' availed himself of a manuscript from the li- Campbell's "Battle of Hohenlinden," Byron's

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stadzas on Waterloo from "Childe Harold,” the physical contours of France is in strange within the present limits, far exceeded that of mixed with translations from Béranger, Victor contrast with the absence of orographic details any city (including suburbs) in the Union exHugo, Körner, and Arndt; but the vast majori- presented by the article on Italy, or the dry cept New York. In the article on Paris the ty of the so-called poems were not worth draw- enumeration of the geographical features of latitude and longitude have been overlooked, ing from obscurity, and it is depressing even the German Empire. The fine lines which and there is no mention of the famous observato glance at the feeble productions of Southey, mark the description of the Carpathians are tory. The latitude and longitude of AmsterCroly, Huddesford, and the irrepressible “Mr. absent in that of the Alps, whose picturesque dam are likewise omitted. In the description Anon.” It is curious to note that the one poem and pbysiographic aspects (lakes, glaciers, etc.) of Frankfort-on-the-Main the new railway stawhich of all poems best represents the feelings are sadly neglected, although the article is a tion, the largest in the world, is ignored. of the veterans of the “Grande Armée” for the scholarly presentation in other respects. Nor In a gazetteer, every topic should as far as general who had so often led them to victory, is the description of the Nile as full as it should possible be treated individually under its own Heine's “Two Grenadiers,” is omitted, and be even within the limited scope of such a head. The substitution of cross-references to that Thackeray's “ Chronicle of the Drum" work. There is a lack of consistency with re- general articles for separate notices, if too finds no place in Mr. Hillis's anthology. Orgard to the range of the topics discussed under freely indulged in, is sure to lead to serious inthe editor's introductory remarks prefixed to similar heads. Thus, the subject of emigra- adequacies and omissions. This fault is conthe different poems, it is only necessary to say tion is treated under Italy and ignored under spicuous in the work before us. Thus Matterthat for the earlier periods dealing with the German Empire. The former article has a horn and Jungfrau are referred to Alps, in French Revolution they exhibit a stupendous considerable section devoted to education, which article the reader finds only a more ignorance of the subject, and that for the later while in the latter the author has not found mention of these peaks. Again, the plan of period they are marked by an ill-informed space for an enumeration of the universities. this gazetteer embraces the description of peohero-worship which is rather amusing and Our sense of proportion is not unfrequently ples as well as of places, but there appear to be wholly ridiculous.

shocked, as, for instance, by the inordinate many serious omissions in this department. amount of space in the description of Italy Thus wbile we find Slovaks, Slovenes, Wends, taken up with the subject of malaria.

Bashkirs, Ostyaks, etc., we fail to discover LONGMANS' GAZETTEER.

The volume bears throughout the appear. Czechs, Wallachs, Letts, Livs, Cumans, or

ance of being up to date; the character of the Tekke-Turkomans. A valuable feature might, Longmans' Gazetteer of the World. Edited articles, the statistical matter, and the frequent in our judgment, have been added to this volby George G. Chisholm. London and New

references to geographical magazines showing ume by the insertion (as separate titles) of the York: Longmans, Green & Co. 1895.

that recourse has been had to the latest sources Latin names, mediæval as well as classical, of THERE is no department of knowledge the pre- of information. Especial attention has been modern towns, with a reference or explanasentation of which becomes more rapidly an- bestowed in many cases upon parts of the tion, such names being frequently encountered tiquated than that of geograpby, and the ap- globe respecting which our knowledge has on title-pages, documents, medals, and coins. pearance of a new and comprehensive cyclo- been recently enlarged, or which have become the laudable example set in this respect by Guipædia of geography, containing the latest in. prominent in our day in connection with the bert's ‘Dictionnaire Géographique about hall formation, must at all times be regarded as a colonial policy of European states, as may be a century ago bas been ignored by the Eoglish subject of gratulation. Such a work we have seen by turning to such titles as Pamirs, and American gazetteers and cyclopædias. before us in Longmans' Gazetteer of the Tongking, and South African Republic. Geolo- In the field of history (a feature which, we World.' It forms a ponderous volume of gy claims a share which has not been accord allow, may be regarded as a very minor one in 1,796 pages, containing on an average abouted to it in similar publications, and indeed it a gazetteer) the volume before us is very de57 titles, so that the total number of no is in places perhaps too prominent at the ex- fective and untrustworthy. Under Marathon tices is about 100,000, or about three-fourths pense of more pragmatic features. The natural we read of the victory of Miltiades over the as many as in . Lippincott's Gazetteer.' Mak- resources and industries of the various coun.army of “Xerxes." The massacre of the Briers of cyclopædias depend so largely upon tries are minutely discussed, and foreign com tisb at Khurd-Kabul did not take place in what their predecessors in the same field merce receives special attention, the salient 1841, but in January, 1842, and they were not have wrought that the structure is generally facts being given without recourse to formal retreating from Jalalabad to Kabul, but the weighted down with a prodigious amount statistical tables. A most attractive feature reverse. Calais was not recovered from the of dead matter carried to meet imaginary of this gazetteer is the amount of precise cli- French in 1557, but in 1558. Under Plassey requirements. Every cyclopædia is defective matological information which it affords, con- there is no allusion to Clive's victory other for want of space, and yet most cyclopæ- cerning not only regions, but also individual than the statement that the place is a "battle. dias are senselessly prodigal with the space cities. In the case of important towns as well field." Under Wahlstatt we find a singularly at their command. No end of wortbless in- as of countries the statistics of population at lame mention of the battle which arrested the formation is heaped up about insignificant various censuses are introduced. Thus, we tide of Mongol invasion in Europe, and Szi. places and administrative subdivisions in ac- are informed what the population of Frank-getvár figures without the Leonidas of Hun. cordance with a scheme dictated by custom fort-on-the-Main was in 1817, 1871, 1880, and gary. Attila and his Huns should still receive instead of by intelligent needs. Longmans' | 1890; that of Vienna in 1754, 1820, 1840, 1880, and a mention under Châlons-sur Marne even if Gazetteer of the World,' on the whole, is 1890; of Berlin in 1648, 1688, 1788, 1850, 1870, modern scholarship is disposed to doubt wbeconstructed on broad and independent lines | 1880, and 1890; of Boston in 1790, 1820, 1850, ther the great battle was fought in the immeand on a high plane of scientific treatment. It | 1870, and 1890; and of Paris according to twelve diate vicinity. The "bistorical notes" with is conspicuous for its vigorous presentation of enumerations or estimates reaching back to which the articles on the principal countries topics and for the fresbness of its information, 1292.

close are often as full as the generous lines on as well as for its enlightened emancipation In its descriptions of cities the work before wbich the work is planned would appear to from traditional methods, as manifested es- us is far from satisfactory. The notice of demand. In the case of Turkey the historical pecially in the exclusion of that mass of in- Berlin, for example, is beneath criticism. Flo. sketch is strangely inadequate. In the survey significant details to which we have referred.

rence is rudely treated by the side of Venice. of the territorial development of France no A great deal of trained scholarsbip has been We cannot approve of the omission, in the mention is made of the acquisition of Provence brought to bear upon the work, and a wise article on Philadelphia, of the national mint in 1481. The bistory of Courland and Livonia is economy of space bas made it possible to deal

and Independence Hall. The statement that ignored, although these interesting corners of generously even with the less important sub. Philadelphia has a greater area than any other Europe deserve to have some light thrown upjects. We need only point to the full descrip- city in America is erroneous and is contradict. on their past even in the prosaic pages of a tions of the governmental divisions of Russia ed under Chicago. The city is not situated 103 gazetteer. The few words given under Sicily and the Prussian provinces. Unfortunately, miles from the mouth of the Delaware, geo- and Naples on the subject will not satisfy the the many shortcomings which obtrude them

graphers not having agreed to regard Dela reader who asks to be enlightened as to the selves even upon a not hypercritical eye show ware Bay as part of the course of that river. precise meaning and the origin of the designathat much of the matter has been assigned to It is ridiculous to assert that in 1830 Philadel. tion “Two Sicilies.” The writer of the notice incompetent hands, and that the individual phia ranked after Baltimore in point of popu Calabrie forgets to state that the Calabria of topics have not been subjected to that rigidlation, after both Baltimore and New Orleans the Romans designated the heel and not the editorial scrutiny without which every cyclo in 1840, and after Boston in 1850, without the toe of Italy. pædia is bound to be faulty.

qualifying statement that at each of these cen. Special prominence has been given in this A bigh standard of execution is by no means sus enumerations the actual population, in volume to the United States, the criterion of apparent in many even of the most important cluding those who resided without the limits inclusion adopted being such that the reader is articles. Thus, the masterly delineation of' of the municipality as then constituted, but' enabled to locate all but the very smallest

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