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day and the English language, the buying ther disadvantage in the Senate, where its his waiting for some European nation to of our newspapers in enormous editions, representatives are already in a minority. blunder, would all have been in vain had and the acceptance of many other of our The next thing to be expected is a strong not the blunder come from the great Chris. peculiar institutions. When you begin to movement for the admission of Arizona, tian nation of the West. Just after proargue about what other people are bound New Mexico, and Oklahoma, and the con- testing and appealing in the name of huto do in the interests of your peace and sequent strengthening of the free-coinage manity, just after holding great public safety, you never know where you may element in the upper branch by six more meetings and organizing associations in votes.

behalf of the smitten Armenians, we

struck at their stoutest protector and An analysis of the occupations of mem

The newly elected Legislature of Mas- strongest hope, and left them, so far as in

us lay, helpless. Mr. Cleveland's war bers of the new Congress shows that sachusetts has begun the new year brilmore than one-half of the Senators and liantly. A caucus of Republican members message could nowhere have been greeted

was held, in which all the other officers of with such rapture as when, done into Representatives are lawyers. This does

the last General Court were renominated choice Turkish, it was read in the Yildiz not vary materially from the usual pro

We are glad to see that a sense portion. A great preponderance of law. by acclamation except the Clerk, Mr. Ed. Palace.

ward McLaughlin, who has served fifteen of the enormous mischief thus wrought is yers is also the rule in the State legislatures, except in the purely agricultural years—longer than any of his predecessors, beginning to get into the American mind. commonwealths. In other words, our le

and to the entire satisfaction of overy. The Baptist preachers of this city have gislation is largely, as it always has been, body. He was defeated for renomination resolved that, if we must have a war, we in the hands of lawyers. The character by some ten votes, in favor of an unknown should cut a much better figure fighting of the legal profession is therefore a mat

and inexperienced person. The operation to save the Armenians than to kill Eng. ter of vital importance as regards the

was understood to be conducted by A. P. A. lishmen. Of all the hollow petitions ever character of our law-making bodies. Is influence, Mr. McLaughlin being a Demo- laid before Congress, those praying for the standard among lawyers rising or

crat and a Catholic. Some of the most prompt interposition in behalf of the Arfalling ? Is the tone of the profession distinguished Republicans protested in menians are the hollowest. The Amerihigher or lower now than it used to be ?

the caucus, but others declared that the can Congress has already acted on the Chief Justice Field of the Massachusetts

whole country had its eyes fixed on the Armenian question, and its unanimous Supreme Court made some remarks be- Massachusetts Legislature, to see if the vote has been that the Turkish butcheries fore the alumni of the Boston Institute Republicans would stand true. One mem- may go on. of Technology, the other day, which an

ber declared he needed time to rub his

eyes, as it seemed that he was not in a swered these questions, and answered

The Cuban insurgents are evidently do. them in a discouraging way. Among

Republican caucus, but one controlled by ing some pretty effective raiding, and the other things he said :

Democrats or Mugwumps ; and another Spanish troops are active, but neither

characterized those who proposed to keep side is waging war with anything like the *. When I look upon this audience and think of the great progress wbich has been made in

Mr. McLaughlin in office by the elegant fury of the newspaper correspondents. the sciences and arts in this generation, I can- pame of "snivel-service reformers." The

How much their rivalry (which is often not but feel some shame to confess tbat no similar triumph or progress has been made in attempt barely succeeded in the House

little more than a rivalry in lying) tends the profession to wbren I belong. The cause itself, the raw recruit having only 122

to befog all foreign news, especially any of legal education has been advanced; the votes out of 232. Mr. McLaughlin him- news connected with war or rumors of mode of the profession in Massachusetts has been improved; but the leaders in the protes

self pointed out that, if the dominant par- war, the general public is but dimly aware. sion of the present generation, I should besi- ty were bound to make a change, they Some three weeks ago one of the associatate to say, were much in advance of the lead: might have promoted the Assistant Clerk, ers of the last generation or of the generation

tions had Havana all but captured, and on before that. I doubt whether tbere bas been who was of the right party. But no; the Saturday its fall was only a question of inucb advance in civil goveroment in Mas-&- same influence that trampled on all law days. But on Monday that news agency chusetts in the last generation or two. I sball 000 inquire into the causes

I doubt very

and decency in the veterans’-preference withdrew for a time from the war, admucb in the men in public lite to-day are bill of last year, prevailed to violate pre-mitting that there was no likelihood of wiser tbau our fathers or grandfathers."

cedent, reason, sense, and good feeling to the insurgents making a serious attack The “doubt” and “hesitation” here ex

turn out a fit man from a place with upon Havana. This left its competitor a pressed seem plainly to be only a cour

which politics, race, and religion have no clear field, and accordingly it, in its turn, teous method of expressing a conviction thing on earth to do, and put in an uptried that peither the legal profossion nor the

was undertaking on Tuesday to capture man of the right sort. When Massachu- Havana out of hand. Now it may be that standard of public life in New England setts is determined to disgrace herself, she the Spanish generals have gone utterly now is as high as it was a generation or certainly knows how.

daft, or that their men won't fight, or two ago. Considering the inbred repug

that the insurgents have invented a new nance of every lawyer to making an admission which reflects upon his brethren, the

Mr. Olney informed Lord Salisbury that art of war. But if not, the chances that

it would be “preposterous " for any Ame- Havana will be taken, in the present stage opinions expressed by the Massachusetts

rican state to involve itself in a contest of the conflict, are too small to be worthy Chief Justice seem very significant.

“the fate of Turkey." Nothing can of consideration. Admitting the highest

be more certain, however, than that his claims of the insurgents, the Spanish Utah is now a State in the Union. The threatening letter and the President's talk troops outnumber them three or five to State officers were installed on Monday, of war bave involved us most closely with one. The one great aim of the Spanish and the Legislature met, its most impor- the Turkish question. We may not have generals has been to protect commerce, to tant duty being the choice of two United meant to have anything to do with the hold the cities, especially the sea ports, States Senators. The Republicans con fate of Turkey, but we have, the best Eu- meanwhile praying heaven that the elutrol the body by a vote of more than two ropean authorities agree, sealed the fate of sive insurgents might be caught where to one, but, so far as the financial issue is the Armenians. Their rescue and salva- they would have to deliver battle. To concerned, the partisan complexion of the tion depended upon a perfect concert guess, therefore, from what is probably Legislature is a matter of no consequence. among the Powers and an unyielding and only a daring raid of flying guerillas near The two Republican Senators will be "red threatening front all along the line, espe- Havana, that a regular and successful ashot" for free coinage ; and if the men cially on the part of England. These sault is to be made upon that city, only chosen were Democrats, they would be of things we have done our best to destroy, betrays the nervous strain to which the the same mind on this question. The and have, in a measure, already destroyed. nows-gatherers are subjected in their sound-money causo will th us be put atafur. The Sultan's desperate play against time, determination to let no "scoop” escape,




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THE VENEZUELAN COMMISSION. show that they prove something in their Spain was occupying that territory, and JUDGE BREWER of the Supreme Court is a favor ; but the result falls lamentably for such occupation not a tittle of evidence

has been produced. man of solid reputation for learning and short of a demonstration that the Veneimpartiality. It is believed by those who zuela claim is good. Their argument The other treaty on which Venezuelans know him that Judge Alvey possesses si-rests on an assumption for which they place chief reliance, the one which they milar qualifications. President Gilman

can hardly expect much favor in the say has “insuperable probatory force " of Johns Hopkins University and ex-Pre-United States-the assumption that the in their favor, is that of Aranjuez, made sident White of Cornell are too well known whole continent of South America belong between Spain and Holland in 1791. This to need description. Mr. Coudert was ed to the Spaniards, and that no other was simply an extradition treaty in which one of the American counsel in the Bering people could acquire a legitimate title to mutual return of fugitives is agreed on, Sea arbitration, and is understood to be a

any part of it except by cession from between the Spanish settlements on the supporter of the President's contentions Spain. By a constant use of this assump- Orinoco and the Dutch settlement on the in the Venezuela dispute. Looking at the tion, they ask us to hold that Venezuela, Essequibo. But it tells us nothing as character of the commission as a whole,

as the heir of Spain, has a just title to to boundary between these settlements. it seems to portend peace.

everything in the region of the Essequibo The Venezuelans profess to see in it inThese commissioners are to “investi- and the Orinoco which Spain cannot be superable proof that the Essequibo was gate and report upon the true divisional shown to have ceded to the Dutch. Strike the boundary; and in this their patron, line between the republic of Venezuela out this fundamental assumption, and Senator Lodge, seems disposed to follow and British Guiana." They are not to be their whole case is gone. If the contes- them. But the treaty is quite as favoraenviod. The task set for them is not to tants stand on equal terms, if we adopt ble to the conclusion that the Orinoco was consider the actual condition of affairs, the just principle that proof of occupation the boundary. A case that needs such past and present, and suggest a fair and is as necessary for Venezuela as it is for inferences for its support must be in desreasonable boundary, with a view to re

British Guiana, in order to make good a perate need of materials. conciling the conflicting interests of the claim, then we are forced to the conclu- One important piece of evidence as to British colonists and the Venezuelans. sion that Venezuela's contention is as actual boundary seems to have escaped They are to find the “true divisional line." empty as it well could be.

both the Venezuelans, who offer it, and They might as well search for the true Evidence of occupation by Spain of any Sppator Lodge, who avows his impartial boundaries of Liliput; for there never has post or place between the Orinoco and the study of the whole matter. It is found at been such a line. If they could go as me- Essequibo is wholly lacking in their vo

page 26 of the Venezuelan case, as pubdiators, for the purpose of bringing both luminous case. Such evidence of occupa- lished in volume ii., Senate documents for sides to agree on a compromise, their go- tion as this supplies goes in favor of the 1888. We will add that it is the only clear ing would at least have a humane and ra- Dutch. Their papers make it clear that bit of evidence aş to the old boundary that tional motive. Unfortunately, our. Gov- the Dutch had a fort on the Pomeroon, a

is to be found in the whole mass of papers ernment, by its mismanagement of the small river of the disputed coast, and that submitted. The document in which it whole matter, has condemned them to go they used the interior passages between

occurs is a Spavish royal order of the with an attitude of threatening and hos- that point and the Orinoco. Further, it year 1780, “in which were established tility towards one of the parties, and has is pretty clear, even from the Venezuelan rules to people the province of Guiana and limited their function to a very narrow evidence, that the Dutch had a hold of to occupy lands." Here is the opening всоре. some sort on the mouth of the Orinoco.

sentence of the Venezuelan account of As regards the basin of the Essequibo The Venezuelans endeavor to meet these

this royal order: and its tributaries, an impartial commis- facts by asserting that whatever the Dutch “It is there declared, in the first place, that sion would probably have no hesitation held between the Essequibo and the Ori- it was of the most importance to secure the in pronouncing the English claim well noco was “usurped"; that their occupa

limits of the said province, wbich commenced

at the wind ward of the fall of the river Ori. founded. The old and generally accepted tion therefore gave no title in the ab- noco into the sea, on the border of the Dutch rule that, in the occupation of new resence of cession by the original owners,

colony of Essequibo." gions, possession of a river at its lower the Spanish. Fancy the smile of an old This, we repeat, is the only clear bit of course carries with it the sovereignty of Dutch skipper at the suggestion that the evidence as to the old boundary between its upper waters and tributaries, gives a Dutch must humbly ask leave of Spain Dutch and Spanish that can be found in clear principle for the decision of the before occupying wild lands in America. the whole collection of papers. It is Cuyuni question. So conscious are the If the English and the Dutch had pro- therefore somewhat precious, both as to Venezuelans of the weakness of their case ceeded on that principle, America would its date and the source from which it at this point, that they have felt them have been a very different country to-day.

İt leaves no doubt that in 1780 selves compelled to maintain the obvious

The two treaties on which the Venezue. the Spanish Government admitted the exly untenable contention that the Dutch lans rest so much have simply nothing to tension of the Dutch possessions to the did not really hold the Essequibo—that help our commissioners in fixing the “true mouth of the Orinoco. We commend the they only held “up to it.” Now nothing divisional line,” because neither of them extract to Mr. Lodge's attention. can be clearer than that the Dutch held says anything about a line. The treaty of There is one trick of the Venezuelan both sides of the river. No reasonable Munster of 1648 was primarily a very tardy spokesmen in which Mr. Olney and Mr. man can read even the Venezuelan case acknowledgment by Spain that her rebel. Lodge diligently copy them. This is the without seeing that very clearly. As to lious Dutch subjects had made themselves device of representing every offer of comthe title to the wilderness of the Esse- an independent nation. It further pro- promise made by England at any time as quibo basin, then, there can hardly be vided that both parties should keep what her “extreme claim." We are not at all much difficulty. A boundary based on ever territories they possessed in America concerned to justify England, but we this principle would undoubtedly be awk- at the date of the treaty. But it makes think she is entitled to have her case ward for Venezuela; but that our com- no mention of the limits between their truthfully represented. We owe it to ourmissioners are not to consider.

possessions, has not a word about bounda-selves, if not to her, to state the case Unfortunately, the possession of the up-ries. It pledges Holland not to take any as it actually stands and has stood. Eng. per basin of the 'Essequibo is not the more land from Spain, but it leaves Holland's claim, as a claim, bas always been burning part of the controversy. The land free to acquire any lands not occupied just what it is now. Her claim as of right real difficulty arises as to the line of divi- by Spain. To say that it binds Holland has always been that she was entitled to sion on the coast. The Venezuelans ad- not to extend over the wild lands between the basin of the Essequibo and to the duce a variety of treaties and records, the Essequibo and the Orinoco is to beg coast as far as the Orinoco. Lord Aber. with a labored and declamatory effort to the whole question, for it is to assume that 'deen appears to have stated it so to For

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tique in 1844. It is true that, in his effort Turkey is a doctrinal government, that is, to say that it contains in it the seeds of to make a peaceful settlement with Vone. is ruled by a “sacred law," which makes endless misery and turmoil for the Amerizuela, he offered concessions in order to all reforms in the state impossible and can people ? As now used and interpretfix a boundary of mutual convenience. has led to the ruin of the Ottoman Em-ed, it might do for a conquering horde His offer was open to Venezuela for six pire. Doctrinal government, too, was like the Ottomans, or a strictly pastoral years, and, not having been accepted, was tried by the Puritans in England and here, people like the Paraguayans, but for a withdrawn in 1850. At the time of and perforce abandoned as unsuitable to people with vast commerce and a huge making it, notice was given that it implied modern societies. Its leading character. | edifice of credit, it contains the sure seeds no abandonment of the larger claim of istic is an à-priori rule of conduct which of decline and destruction, right. The same was true of every later leaves no room for the play of convenience Daniel Webster's test of the necessity of offer of a compromise line. To represent or policy, or considerations of time or place, interference in Spanish-American affairs these offers as identical with the whole and takes no note of facts. The Monroe was “manifest and imminent danger to claim, and to say that “the claim" has Doctrine, for instance, assumes that now, our essential rights and our essential inbeen enlarged, or “developed” from as in 1823, the Spanish-American states terests." The notion that we cannot perstage to stage, is only the trick of the are in imminent danger of conquest at the ceive this when it arises, and act accordpettifogger. Mr. Olney ought to have hands of European Powers. The changes ingly, without a “doctrine" behind us, left it to the Venezuelans.

of seventy years both here and abroad would be diverting if its consequences make no more impression upon it than on were not likely to be so grave. What these

the Koran. When the President hears of consequences are likely to be, was well DE DOCTRINÂ AND DE FACTO.

a dispute between a European Power and pointed out by Calhoun, in speaking of We have no doubt many a simple-minded

a Spanish-American state, it com pels him the interpretation then (1848) put on the Jingo will be surprised to hear that in the

to assume sinister designs on the part of Doctrine by some, and now adopted by negotiations for the only application of

the former, and make his preparations for many of us, when he said : the Monroe Doctrine to Spanish-American

war accordingly in advance of any inquiry affairs which we have ever made-the ex. as to facts. Under de.facto government, extent to which these declarations have been

"And if it should ever become so to the wide pulsion of the French from Mexico-there the first thing he would do would be to interpreted to go, our peace would ever be dewas no mention of the Monroe Doctrine at ascertain the facts and be guided by the stroyed; the gates of our Janus would ever

stand open. Wars would never cease.” all. Neither Mr. Seward, who was in the result in his subsequent action. Under State Department, nor Mr. John Bigelow, the Doctrine, Great Britain is a giaour, who conducted the correspondence in

whose designs are always, under the sa Paris, said a word about the Doctrine. cred law, open to suspicion, and he pro

THE AFRICAN TROUBLE. They approached the situation from the nounces her guilty before investigation. ALTHOUGH the news of Dr. Jameson's fili. de-facto side solely. A foreign army was

The Doctrine in like manner produced bustering expedition against the Boers of imposing on the Mexican people a foreign Secretary Olney's despatch, which was the South African Republic has taken the ruler and a new form of government by really a sermon, not treating of actual world by surprise, it is very much what force. Mr. Seward said he did not under:

facts-in truth, full of statements which one might have expected from the history take to dictate to the Mexican people what

were not facts at all, but developments of of that region during the past six or kind of government they should have.

a sort of divine law, such as one hears in seven years. The Boers have a restricted They might have Maximilian if they pleas- the pulpit, and which, while full of edifi- suffrage—that is, it is confined to males ed, but they must be free to choose, and cation, is totally unsuited to the needs resident in the Republic before 1876, or therefore the French troops should be and risks of actual life.

who took an active part in the war of withdrawn. In this Mr. Seward was ad- If any one thinks we are overstating, in 1881 with the British, and their children hering strictly to the ground taken by this description of the position which the from the age of sixteen. These form a Calhoun in 1818 in the Senate, when, con

Monroe Doctrine has come to occupy in class apart, of " first-class burghers," and testing the very use now made of the Mon. the mental furniture of the average Jingo, elect the President and the commandant roe Doctrine, he said:

we advise him to read the articles in of the militia. The “second-class burgh.

the country papers, and the occasional ers" are a class composed of naturalized " It goes infinitely and dangerously beyond speeches of politicians, and the resolutions | aliers, who can become first-class burghMr. Monroe's declaration. It puts it in the power of other countries on this continent to of Jingo clubs called out by the presenters only by a special resolution of the make us a party to all their wars; and hence I

crisis. He will find the Monroe Doctrine Chamber after twelve years' residence. say, if tbis broad interpretation be given to these declarations, we sball for ever be in- treated very much like the Ten Com. Two years' residence and the payment of volved in war. But no general rule can be mandments, as part of the foundation of $10 are necessary to naturalization. The laid down to guide us in such a question. national life, behind which no one can go Every case must speak for itself. Every case

total population, native and naturalized, must be decided on its own merits. Whether in tracing out our foreign policy. Not in 1894 was 370,148, about equally divided you will resist or not, and the measure of your one in one hundred knows what it is, or between the sexes; but no very reliable resistance-whether it shall be by negotiation, remopstrance, or some intermediat measure,

what it means, or how or where it should census has been taken. Now, these firstor by a resort to arms-all this must be deter

be applied. But all agree that it imposes class burghers being mainly Dutch Calmined and decided on the merits of the question itself. This is the only wise course.


on all rulers an attitude of hostility to vinists, and excellent fighting men of the are not to have quoted on us on every occa. foreign Powers and calls for what is term- type of Joshua and Gideon, it can be sion general declarations to which any and

ed "a vigorous foreign policy.” Asking readily imagined that they do not smile every meaning may be attached."

a Jingo whether the Monroe Doctrine was upon the 30,000 or 40,000 adventurers, This is exactly what is now happening a good thing to live under, and whether mostly English, who have swarmed into Everybody who has the handling of the it would not be better to live under the the gold and diamond fields which, unDoctrine is " developing” it to suit him- facts of each year, would be very like fortunately for the Boers, have been disself.

asking the Sheik-ul-Islam whether the covered in the territory of the Republic. Now there is nothing more dangerous, English common law would not be a good These men, who have done great work in not to say disastrous, for any nation than substitute for the Koran. It marks you developing the resources of the country, attempting to live de doctrinâ instead of as a "bad American,” a paid emissary of and have filled its treasury to overflowing de facto. Doctrinal government has all some foreign Power. And yet, seeing the with their taxes, are, however, shut out the inconveniences of theocratic govern- use that has been made of it by one of the from all share in the government, and are ment, because doctrines do not change most conservative of our Presidents and not provided by it with polico, schools, with circumstances or make allowance for by a corporation lawyer from Boston, ono roads, or any of the ordinary instrumenhuman necessities. The Government of l of the most cautious of types, is it rash I talities of civilization. Moreover, they are


regarded by the Boers with great con- ment, attempts like Jameson's will be re- ly. She is never such a dangerous enemy tempt, which is but ill concealed.

peated on a greater scale than ever, and as in the face of a combination against The case is, in fact, somewhat like our the Boer domination be certainly over- her. settlement of Texas-a sudden influx of thrown. If, on the other hand, the Boers foreigners into a state held by a weak admit the foreigners to the franchise on LAUREATES AND POETS. government, and which the foreigners equal terms, they will soon be outvoted

The general sense of disappointment at after a while determine to seize, and fight and ousted from the administration of

the choice of Mr. Alfred Austin as Poet for it, as their numbers increase and their their own country, and annexation to the discontent grows. Moreover, the ante- Cape Colony would speedily follow. In

Laureate is not wholly personal to him

self. If better men were passed over, it cedents of the foreigners are distinctly fact, there is only too much reason for be

must be remembered that some of them bellicose. Dr. Jameson, the leader, or- lieving that Jameson's attempt was seganized and successfully led the first cretly instigated by Rhodes. It is diffi

at least were not eligible to the office. armed expedition against the colored na- cult to account for his making it in any

Swinburne and Morris are not the sort of tives of the South African Company, other way. This attempt was probably

men to be moved to lyrics by a Queen's wbose organization and operation up to made only by the more adventurous great-grandchild; certainly neither of them

could be expected to burst into unpremethis point recall the early history of the spirits. In the next a large number of East India Company, the only other the more sober - minded “uitlanders”

ditated song, as Mr. Eric Mackay did, over

the Duke of York's marriage, apropos of fighting corporation Great Britain has would probably participate. The disap

which heroic feat he wrote: ever sent out. The members of this ex- pearance of the Boers as a community pedition were very proud of their ex- would be very regrettable, for they are a

“ He has fufilled new duties, not set down,

But done for pride of Country and of Crown!" ploits, and they have naturally fired the race with great qualities and a splendid imagination of the more recent arrivals, history, though archaic and non-progres

Among the eligibles, Mr. Austin was perwho are generally adventurous spirits ; so sive in their ways; but their doom was

haps as well qualified as any. He had se. that it might almost be said to be “on sealed when gold was discovered in their rious disqualifications in his political and the cards" that the “ Jameson crowd,” territory. Neither thrones, principalities, journalistic relations to Lord Salisbury as we should say, would eventually swal- nor powers can stand up againt a rush of (he is the principal leader-writer of the low up the Republic. Indeed, in the or- Anglo-Saxon gold-hunters.

Standard), but the impropriety of overdinary course of events nothing was more The German Emperor has sent a de

looking these is the Premier's, not Mr. certain than the ousting of the Dutch spatch to the Boers over the heads of the

Austin's. The slight shock of surprise from power by the mere growth of the British authorities, who, by the conven

which his appointment caused was partly aliens, so that there has been no excuse tion of 1884, are the sole representatives of

due to the rude ending of the hope which for fighting But the truth is, that the Transvaal in foreign affairs, congratu

had come to be generally cherished that Jameson has been reinforced during the lating them on the repulse of a bund of

no appointment at all would be made. It past two years by a very large number of British malefactors. This in England is,

was partly due, no doubt, to the revived younger sons and scions of aristocratic excusably enough, considered insulting, of a new Laureate will make vivid in many

sense of Tennyson's loss, which the choice families, who find nothing to do at home, and might cause a war between him and and much prefer fighting to mining and his grandmother, in which he would un

minds. But this is not the whole of it, agriculture. They were as eager for an

not that Mr. Austin takes the laurel questionably get the worst of it. In the encounter with somebody as our Jingoes first place, his little pavy would either

greener from the brows of him who utterhere, with this difference, that they were have to venture out to sea and fight-in

ed nothing banal. A good part of the disready to serve in the field, while our Jin which case, it would be promptly destroyed satisfaction arises from an enlarged congoes mostly intended to confine them

-or it would have to shut itself upin port. ception of poetry in the modern world, selves, in case of war, to reading the “ex- In either case the German ports would be

from the more exacting demands made tras." The imagination of this class in

upon it, and from a feeling that a man all blockaded, and their foreign commerce England is kept in a blaze from childhood destroyed, except what could reach the

who might bave done well enough as Lauup by the stories of Clive and Rajah

reate fifty or a hundred years ago is no sea through other countries. In the next Brooke, and the exploits of Wellington and place, he could not bring a regiment of his

longer of the stature required. If Scott other Indian heroes against inferior races. fine army into play against the British

lived to say that it was lucky for him that If they could have ousted the Boers, they anywhere, and could not get within two

he had written his poetry in a time when would all have become rulers of the Re

thousand miles of the Boers. In the third, poetical taste was unformed, if Southey public, and their fame, like that of Rhodes he would promptly lose all the German

and N. P. Willis could be ranked among and Jameson, would have filled all the colonies abroad, including the principal

the immortals on the strength of poems land at home, and especially the football

which are now almost absolutely unreadaone, New Guinea, which the Australians teams in the public schools. The Boers are only too ready to seize. He would be

ble, it can scarcely be denied that the were an unfortunate selection, however, unable to defend his colonies in Africa,

standards have become higher, the deas materials for fame and dominion.

mands severer. which Rhodes and his men would be too

That we should demand the best in They are probably as tough fighting-men happy to appropriate. The only continas ever took the field, and will probably gency in which he could make even a de

poetry, and be content with nothing less, be hereafter avoided by amateur empire-cent struggle would be through an alli

was Matthew Arnold's frequent word of builders.

exhortation. But what it meant, as a poet, ance with France, but to get this he would The latest advices show that the expe- have to surrender Alsace and Lorraine.

to produce his best, he tells us in a strikdition has been defeated and the survivors France is the only Power in Europe which

ing passage in his • Letters.' locked up. They will probably be treated has a navy that could successfully stand “People do not understand," he writes to bis leniently or kindly, for it would be very up against that of Great Britain, but in sister, . what a temptation tbere is, if you

cannot bear anything not rery good, to transfoolish for so small a community as the the next naval war most of the ships on

fer your operations to a region where form is Boers to embitter the rising foreign host gaged will probably be sunk on the spot, everything. Perfection of a certain kind may which stands behind these men. Their leaving the Power with most ships mistress

there be attained, or at least approached, with.

out knocking yourself to pieces; but to attain only salvation would lie in the prohibition of the seas, and that Power will probably or approach perfection in tbe region of thought of immigration, but this is no longer pos- be Great Britain, who would, after a gene

and feeling, and to unite this with perfection sible. The flood of English adventurers ral war, in all likelihood occupy the posi- labor, but an actual tearing of one's sell to

of form, demands not merely an effort and a is rising higher every day in the Transvaal. tion in Europe she occupied after Trafal- pieces, which one does not readily consent to (alIf the Boers continue to deny them repre- gar. All persons proposing to attack her

though one is sometimes forced to it) unless one

can devote one's whole life to poetry. Wordssentation and a fair share in the govern- | ought to consider all these things serious. I worth could give his whole life to it, Shelley

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and Byron both could, and were besides driven tion of form, of being “happy in the toillions of Christians in Turkey, whose only hope by their demon to do so. Teonyson, a far inferior natural power to either of the three,

that ends with song," of poetry as a criti- was in the ethicacy of English intervention. I can; but, of the moderns, Goethe is the only cism of life, he appears to be innocent. It could not believe that Cleveland could so far one, I think, of those who bave had an eris is something, then, to find from his ap- of the shallow-pated crowd whose highest am

melt into the Jingo as to join in the hullabaloo tence assujettie, who bas thrown bimself with a great result into poetry.”

pointment as Laureate that the public bition seems to be to "twist the lion's tail." Now, it is altogether certain that such a taste has advanced so far as to see that

It seems that I was mistakes, and now I restandard, accepted as it is doubtless comthe appointment should not have been

cur to an earlier letter of the same respected ing more and more to re, is giving a new made.

correspondent, written in November, in which meaning to the phrase," poésie oblige,”

occurs the following passage: and is proving fatal to at least two types THE EASTERN QUESTION.

“If you will read attentively the latter part of poetry and poets. One of them is what

of the speech of Lord Salisbury at the Man. we may call the business poet, who pro

ROME, December 22, 1895. sion House, you will see that in his own mind

be bas doomed the Ottoman Empire, and be duces his poems in the spirit of the Eng.

The sudden halt in the English action in the has a majority of 152. I dare say you know, lish man who said to Canova's son that he

Armenian redemption has surprised every one, better than I do, that the confidential reports and irritated some of the political agencies

to this Government represent the massacres in supposed he would carry on his father's which had hoped, for various and different

a much worse light than the papers do.* The “business." Southey is perhaps the best

Sultan bas resolved on the extermination of reasons, to see England plunge into the solu- the Armenian people. I expect some *inciexample of the plodding, industrious poet,

tion of the interminable and insoluble Eastern dent' hourly which will bring matters to a doing his daily stint with the conscien-question, and are correspondingly either dis

head-perbaps a great massacre of American

missionaries, in which case we should act intiousness and set face of a bicycler com- mayed or disappointed by the sudden and stantaneously, even if all Europe opposed and pleting his "century." He always gave bitherto unaccountable recoil from the ad- threatened us. Inferior Turks know nothing good measure-not a line scam amped, his vanced position Lord Salisbury had taken. It of America, and are furious with the missiona

ries." butter-woman's jog trot never easing down

is well known that Russia had at all times op. into a walk for twelve thousand verses.

posed the English plans, because they promised The writer of the above is an eminent LibeHe would lay out his Roderick the Goth a solution of the problem of what to do with ral, not a partisan of Salisbury, a consistent

and devoted Christian, and, like the greater or his Madoc the Celt with the precision the Sick Man, by eliminating the cause of

the malady, viz., the gangrene of Mussulman part of the English people, interested in the of a military engineer, and would plough

misrule-deposing the Sultan and imposing a work of our missionaries and in the pure buhis way through to the bitter end without ruler who would have to admit the right of manity of the Turkish problem. The position remorse. Seizing his ped before break- Europe to dictate the conditions of govern- of the English nation was greatly controlled fast (as if, as Bagebot says, any man could ment where it had the duty and the charge of by this sentiment, and perhaps, of all the late write poetry before breakfast?), he would protection; or of finally dividing the country great movements of English public opinion, go on for hours turning out a good, sound, according to the general interests of the pro- this was the least selfisb and profoundest in its honest, perfectly business-like, and deadly tecting Powers and of the populations. I sup- appeal to the best part of the English nature. dull article of poetry. If we have not

pose tbat it may be taken as indisputable that Adequately supported, it must have settled the changed all that, we have at least made it there were those among the powerful, if not question of how long Christian Europe would impossible that such a man should longer should precipitate the eternally impending carried on by a fanatic Sultan, served by a

among the Powers, who desired that England let the slaughter of unoffending Christians be. be called a great poet. Not of such a poet

conflict in Europe, to give them a chance to bloodthirsty mob and an equally bloodthirsty or such poetry was Matthew Arnold think

settle some outstanding accounts of their own; and fanatical soldiery, under the protection of ing when he asserted that the future of and others who really desired the final regula the Christian Powers. From Russia notbing was poetry is immense.

tion of the Eastern question in the real inte- to be hoped for, as the Russian (people or Gov. Nor was he thinking of another and rests of European tranquillity. Others there ernment) detests the Armenian only less than larger class of poets, more numerously and were wbo fully expected, without any especial does the Turk; and as the Armenian is the assertively with us. We mean those of a

interest, that England, having put her hand to most civilized and teachable of the many races certain natural poetic sensitiveness, who

the plough, would go through the furrow. in Asia Minor, he is that one who will most

All were alike surprised at the sudden halt. easily be brought to the work of putting in often charm us in their youth with their

Writing to an esteemed correspondent in Lon- order the reformed Empire-which does not fine perception, their responsiveness to na

don, one of the oldest and best informed jour. suit the schemes of Russia. ture and art, and who lure us on to expect nalists of England, I had expressed some of

Thanks to President Cleveland and his fire great things of their maturer powers. But these feelings as entertained here and by my. in the rear, England has been stopped in her this early promise they never fulfil. They self, as warmly interested, through past expe

benefaction, and it is Christianity, not English remain at forty or fifty essentially imma- riences, in the Turkish problem, and was sur. interests, which must pay the bill; for, with ture, always in search of external sensa- prised to receive from him the following reply: this nefarious attack at such a critical mo. tions, of novel and taking themes, singing "It is never of much use to prophesy in poli

ment, it is out of the question that England not because they must, but because they ties, but I venture to differ with you about

could allow berself to be engaged in any diffiwant to. Now here in their verse do we

Turkey. It is the old story. England is always culty on the other side of the Atlantic. Eng.

defeated, as she was about Egypt, until sud. land has only to do her best that the attempted find the “breath and finer spirit of know- denly she strikes some tremendous stroke, and ledge." All too seriously as they take then the world says, Who would have thought

solution shall not lose ground and buman init? Of course if Mr. Cleveland is seeking war

terests go backward, and hope in the spring to themselves, they fail because they do not with us, all calculations are voin; but if not, 1 be able to resume the action where it was left take the poetic calling seriously enough. venture to say that nothing but the remoral off, with the tide perbaps at the ebb, while it

of this Sultan can save Turkey from partition. They imagine that good intentions may do Very slowly and very silently the English are

was before at the flood, with Russia thoroughly in place of strenuous thought and self- getting to their wbite heat. However, it is prepared and her ascendency over the Sultan discipline, tbat poems to uplift and sustain useless arguing about the future. At present assured beyond any contest. The missionaries

the ouly thing certain is that we are going to may be struck off extempore, or in the in- add two millions a year to the grant for the

are not murdered because the Power tbat could tervals of restless activities, professional, pavy."

have protected the Armenians, and would not,

would have the missionaries protected for fear social, or philanthropic.

Not baving been looking westward for some of the intervention becoming more prompt and Mr. Austio appears to be a union of time, absorbed in Eastern questions, I had no

effectual; but the murdering and outrage go both types. He has written a lot of long knowledge of the controversy, rather than ne.

on as steadily if not as multitudinously as bepoems of good marketable texture, but gotiations, going on between the United States

fore, and the extermination of a Christian you bave to rummage the dictionary, not of America and England with regard to Vene

people goes on from day to day systematically your memory, to find even their titles. In zuela, and I replied, supposing I knew some

and deliberately, though in such a way as to the course of a long existence assujettie thing of public opinion in America, tbat there

permit the great Powers put to be driven, de he has produced much descriptive and

could be no danger of such a fire in the rear, spite themselves, to recognize the fact ihut no

and that nothing in the Venezuelan question mildly exclamatory veree. Of the tearing justified a fear tbat the United States would

thing has been done to redeem the situation, bimself to pieces in order to unite perfec- provoke a quarrel when this so important * This I did know, tion of thought and feeling with perfec- question was pending of the existence of mil- lowed to appear in print.

The confidential reports red in Rome far exceed all that the overnments teve al.

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