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attention distracted from the making of their the newspaper El Nacional publishes an arti- of those who took part in the expedition anworld-famous sugar, the "Demerara crystals,"cle strongly advocating the establishment of from cutting their splendid timber, the “green. States regarding Venezuela, arguing that an entente between Spain and the United

“ This yeare (1665) the English could boast of beart," and from the working of their gold- Venezuela's claims against British Guiana are the possession of all that part of Guiana abutfields, by learning that they stand charged identical with the ancient ones of Spain ting on the Atlantick Ocean, from Cayan on witb putting themselves in contravention of against England.

the South East to Oronoque on the North

"" The London Standard publishes a despatch West (except a small colonie on the River the Monroe Doctrine, which, it appears, gives from Madrid in which it asserts that the arti- Berbisbees), which is noe lesse than six huna mysterious power to the people of the Unitedcle appearing in El Nacional is an inspired one dred miles." States to take away from British colonists and is causing considerable sensation." territory to which they consider themselves as

The colony in Berbice remained in possesrightfully entitled as were the British colonists

Now, here we have the Spanish statement, sion of the Dutch. France joined Holland in of North America to the colony of New York

one clearly hostile to England in motive, and the war against England, and it is specifically in the old days before the Revolution of 1776. made with the intention of currying favor with mentioned by the same authority that the Having been carefully taught the ten com

the United States; with self-interest at the bot. settlements of Essequibo, Pomeroon, and Mo mandments in their youth, those colonists are

tom of it, as regards possible intervention by ruca, “indured great misery, in a long siege much shocked by the pronounced determina- America on behalf of Cuba. And what is the by the French.” The manuscript account of tion of Brother Jonathan to outrage the effect of this unfriendly pronouncement of the the expedition by Major Scott is preserved in eighth, for “Thou shalt not steal !” would “inspiredNacional? This, that Venezuela's the British Museum (Sloane MSS. 3662). seem to apply to lands as well as to goods. Of claims against British Guiana "are identical In the end, the Dutch recaptured their setcourse, the colonists know that Americans

with the ancient ones of Spain against Eng. tlements, and also took the colony of Surinam, have been led to take up a hostile position land.” Surely, this statement of the case, which up to that time had been an English upon the question of the Venezuelan boundary given with all the weight of the evidence of a colony. By the third article of the Treaty of by the importunacy with which it has been hostile witness, does not support the allegation Breda, in 1667, it was provided that misrepresented to them that, in this matter,

of Representative Livingston, that Great Bri. the colonists of British Guiana have not themtain “is continually acquiring additional terri

"each party shall hold for time to come, in selves observed the eighth commandment, tory in South America." The Spanish state

full right of sovereignty, propriety, and pos.

session, all such countries, isles, towns, forts, despite their early instruction. But here we ment shows that the "claims" are "ancient"

places, and colonies as, whether during this bave the case that Victor Hugo pithily de

ones; that the “claims" are "identical”; and war or before, have been taken and kept from scribed, wbere an unfounded charge is taken to that, wbile Great Britain was in possession,

the other by force of arms and in what manbe true if repeated often enough. “If some which used to be regarded as being nine points joyed them the 10th day of May last."

ner soever, and that as they possessed and enone accused me of stealing the towers of Notre

of the law, the Spanish nation “claimed " Dame, and repeated the accusation often, I against Great Britain's possession. The alleged In this manner were the Dutch confirmed in sbould have to run away from Paris, even

“claims” of Spain were never asserted against their rights to their ancient settlements bethough the towers were to be seen standing; Great Britain except on Spanish maps. But, tween the Corentyne and the Orinoco. Neither for," added Victor Hugo, “no one would be long years before Great Britain possessed the France nor England dreamed of asking for the lieve in my innocence.” So it is that, after land now known as British Guiana, the Dutch assent of Spain to these transactions. Spanish lustily crying “Stop thief !” for some years,

had owned it, and there had been international claims had not been asserted during the milithe Venezuelans have led the Americans to be

contests over its possession between Francetary operations between the contending nalieve that British colonists have been robting and England, of which further notice will be tions, in those settlements in Guiana. How that pation of part of its territory.

taken later on in these notes. Meanwhile, let it solemnly England felt herself bound by the That there must be two sides to this question be noted that, so far from Great Britain merely terms of article 3 of the Treaty of Breda, hiscan easily be seen by two items relating to it acting in this matter the cowardly part of a tory attests. Sir John Harman, the English that appeared in the Daily Chronicle, a news

bully towards a weak nation, the British Gov. admiral, and Gen. Willoughby not being at paper of Georgetown, the capital of British

ernment enjoyed its right to the possession of the time aware of the fact that a treaty had Guiana, in December last. On the 24th of

the territory of British Guiana unquestioned, been entered into, had actually retaken Surithat month was published a cutting from diplomatically, by a powerful nation such as nam from the Dutch, and that colony had an American Journal, in which, telegraph Spain then was, with her then vast dependen- again come under an English governor. On ing from Washington, on the 4th, to New

cies in the New World, and at a time when the news of this reaching England, the King sent York, a correspondent reported the brave Spaniards had the power of the great Napo- out orders to restore Surinam to the Dutch, words of Representative Livingston of Geor

leon at their back. To enforce these claims, and this was promptly done. England, having gia upon the situation in the terms follow

with all their "ancient and fish-like smell,” | acted with such scrupulous good faith in her ing:

the Venezuelans would bully the colony of observance of the rights in Guiana acquired by

British Guiana, but that the whole power of the Dutcb under the Treaty of Breda, cannot "Representative Livingston of Georgia, the British empire is at the back of the colony. be expected to ignore those rights now that by who introduced the joint resolution yesterday | The Venezuelans assert “claims” that Spain the chances of war she has herself succeeded to looking to the formation of a Congressional committee to investigate the boundary ques

never made against Great Britain when wbat the enjoyment of a share in them. tion, was asked to-day what the United States is now Venezuela belonged to Spain.

Nor must we lose sight of tbe important fact ought to do if Great Britain declines to arbi. The British Government has expressed its that, while the Dutch were confirmed in the trate. Wby, fight her, of course,' was the willingness to submit to arbitration the ques possession of their colonies in Guiana by the emphatic reply. No otber course will com. port with our dignity and self respect. Vene

tion of the boundary of British Guiana, out- Treaty of Breda, the Euglish, under the same zuela is not to be considered in this matter. side of the Schomburgk line; and to this deci-treaty, were confirmed in the possession of Great Britain has violated the Monroe Doc.sion the colonists willingly bow. To give up New Netherlands, which became, thereupon, trine. She is continually acquiring addition territory within the Schomburgk line would al territory in South America. We cannot

the colony of New York. One of the events and must not permit this. We should go to

lead, step by step, to a demand for the surren- of the war bad been the capture of New Netherwar first."

der of the whole colony, as the application of lands by the English. It is illustrative of the

the Monroe Doctrine might from time to time point of view from which colonies were then There you have in the words italicized the be capriciously stretched. To make clear to regarded in England, that the keeping of New result of Venezuelan misrepresentations. Rep the world how just is the title of Great Britain York, in place of Surinam, "at that time was resentative Livingston says : “Great Britain to territory in its possession, it will be well to looked upon by many as a bad exchange" has violated the Monroe Doctrine. She is conti-take note of the several occasions on wbich (European Settlements in America,' London, pually acquiring additional territory in South those territories were captured from the 1757, vol. ii., p. 179). The Dutch had not obAmerica." Representative Livingston has been Dutch,

tained the sanction of the Spaniards for their misioformed.

On four several occasions did England take settlement at New York. The English did The second item that has been referred to from the Dutch that part of the territory now not think, for a moment, of asking Spain to appeared in the Georgetown daily paper al claimed by Venezuela. In 1665 England and ratify the exchange. The original title by ready mentioned, on the 27th of December Holland being at war, Lord Willoughby, the which New York formed part of the United last, and took the form of a public news tele-Governor of Barbados, sent an expedition Colonies was, in fact, exactly the same as that gram from New York to British Guiana, as against the Dutch colonies in Guiapa. The under which the old Dutch settlements between follows:

success of the English was at first complete. Surinam and the Amacura pow form part of “New York, December 28. What, at that time, was regarded as the boun. the British Empire. Has the Government at "Intelligence from Madrid announces that dary on the left side of the Essequibo? Let one Washington ever doubled the validity of the

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title by which the United States hold the Em- in 1782-83, they no doubt knew what the Dutch as a settlement would be understood among pire State ? Papal bulls and Spanish “claims" | boundaries were. Is it not reasonable to nations ? On the other hand, the Portuguese, notwithstanding, Americans possess tbemselves conclude that, had they been able to question French, Dutch, and the English all had coloin peace, assured, as to their right, that Pope the correctness of the claim, they would bave nies and settlements in some part or otber of and Spaniard could not trouble it.

procured that the King of Spain, wbom they Guiana. And yet, among the grounds of The second occasion on which the Dutch set- were forcing into the war, should specifically “claim" set forth for the information of the tlements were captured by the English was in resent an invasion of his territorial rights ? world by the Venezuelan Government is the February, 1781, wben Great Britain was at war The advantageous position of the Dutch set- following fatuous declaration, in a despatch with Holland, Spain, France, and the Nortb tlements to which the King of Spain referred written on the 26th of January, 1887, by their American colonies. In 1782 the colonies were was, no doubt, their proximity to the Orinoco. Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Señor Urbataken from the English by a strong expedi. The posts still more important were, in all neja, to the British Minister at Carácas: tion sent from France for the express purpose reason, the Orinoco and its neighborhood.

"According to the order issued by the King of tbeir capture. On the peace of 1783 France The colonies remained in British possession of Spain in 1768, the province of Guiana was restored the colonies to Holland. As the Evg from 1796 until 1802, when they were given up bounded on the south by the Amazon and on lisb had again been turned out of the Dutcb to the Dutcb, in accordance with the terms of

the east by the Atlantic Ocean; so that the colonies, the evidence of an English official as

acquisitions of other Powers within those limits the Peace of Amiens. During the British occu

were not valid until they were made lawful by to the boundary on the Essequibo side of the pation the Spaniards had sent a military expe- the consent of said moparcb." Dutch possessions in Guiana might be regarded dition against that part of the Dutch settleas being that of a not too friendly witness. ments called Moruca, where, for many years

How one would like to have the opportunity

of reading the orders of his most Catholic Ma. Such evidence is to be found in a cbart pub-previously, the Dutch had established a fort. lished in London, on the 6th of October,

jesty as to the boundaries of Mexico and FloThe Spaniards, having at that time but the 1783, by William Faden, Geographer to the scantiest of population in any part of the right

rida in 1768! How far would those regarding King. The chart is one of "tbe coast of Guy bank, collected their force on the left bank of

Mexico be respected by the United States ? apa from the Oronoko to the River of Ama

A great deal still remains to be said as to the that river when the expedition set out. They zons.” It was executed by De la Rochette, landed at night on the 19th of January, 1797.

history of the European settlements in Guiana, from the observations of Captain Edward | They were received by Dutch troops who, on

and of the Dutch and English settlements espeThompson of the Royal Navy, made in his

cially, but that boundaries of the space in an the surrender of the colonies, had taken ser

American Journal may not be transgressed Majesty's vessel Hyæna, when Captain Thomp-vice under the British Government. The son “commanded in the Rivers Berbice, Esse- Spaniards were completely defeated, and but

any more than those of a British colony, under quebo and Demerari, and governed those colo few escaped.

the Pax Britannica. Capt. Rochelle, the brave com

Perbaps the cogency of the British case may nies after their conquest from the Dutch.” The mander of the Dutch soldiers, died of wounds boundary live given in this chart includes the received in this engagement.

be best put to Americans by setting forth the On account of

bistorical fact that the Pilgrim Fathers acAmacura River, which is that set down by his services, the Legislature of the then United Schomburgk. There is a curious error in this Colony of Demerara and Essequibo voted pen.

tually contemplated making their settlement

in the New World in Guiana rather than in and in at all events one other chart of the sions for the support of bis children.

North America. These forefatbers of the Guiana coast published about this time. It is For the fourth time the colonies with their this: that the Barima River is given as the ex- dependencies (en onderhoorige districten) came

great republic would, to Spaniards of that treme northern line of tbe Dutch settlements,

period, bave been regarded as fit objects for into the possession of Great Britain on the 17th within which the Amacura is placed, wrongly, of September, 1803, and their cession by the

the application of the system de hæretico comto the south of the Barima. As is well kpown,

burendo. Will any reasonable man say that, Dutch was completed by the convention of the the Burima runs soutberly of the Amacura.

seeking a place where they might worship God 13th of August, 1814. Some time after the This lapse shows the ignorance of the draughts-capture of the colonies in 1803, and before their according to conscience, those persecuted exiles man, but strongly testifies that the Amacura cession in 1814, a chart of the colony was pub

would have contemplated settling in any was within the Dutch possessions. It is well lished. It was prepared by an officer of engi

country under the dominion of Spain or witb

in measurable distance of Spanish dominion ? to repeat that the Dutch boundaries in 1665 neers named Walker. Having no copy of this

Let an old writer of the history of the settleand 1783, as testified to by Englishmen, were chart at hand, one can only say, from memory, held to be such by persons who bad been in au

ments in New England be heard. Prince, unthat it gives the Amacura as within the Dutch

der the year 1617, and between the dates Septhority in the expeditions that captured those limits. The Schomburgk boundary line was

tember 15 and November 4, makes the follow. colonies, and that their testimony was given not evolved out of Sir Robert Schomburgk's

ing statements : after the English had suffered the mortifica- imagination. tion of expulsion from those possessions, and From the foregoing statements it will be seen “This year, Master Robinson and his Church when there could not be any prospect of re- that, for 230 years, Englishmen have borne begin to tbink of a remove to America, for

several weighty reasons, as 1.. covering them. public testimony to the fact that the Dutch

2. It was in 1796 that England became, for the were in possession of territory as far as the

3. third time, possessed of the Dutch colonies. On Amacura. It should be clearly understood Upon their talk of removing, sundry of note this occasion the British Government is said to that Great Britain does not claim up to the

among the Dutch would have them go under

them, and make them large offers; but, choos. have informed the Government of Spain, in a point

ing to go under the English Government, friendly manner, what the Dutch held to be

“Where Orinoco, in his pride,

where they might enjoy their religious pri

Rolls to the main no tribute tide." the boundaries of their possessions bordering

vileges without molestation, after humble

prayers to God, they first debate, whetber upon those of Spain. No protest was made by It is said that the Orinoco receives the waters

to go to Guiana, or Virginia ?' And though Spain against that representation, in any of its of 436 rivers, and of more than 2,000 rivulets some, and none of the meapest, are earnest details. On the 5th of October of the same and streams. It does not. however, receive for the former, they at length.determine for year the King of Spain declared war against one drop of water from the little Amacura.

the latter: so as to settle in a distinct body,

but under the General Government of Virthe King of England, his kingdom, and vas- But, it will be asked, where were the Span. ginia.” sals. Among the many reasons for war alleg. iards all this time? The answer is simple ed by his Majesty-wbo, be it remembered, was

"And the young and strong Republic was by these in They had some petty settlements high up the virrue bred, forced into this war by bis French allies(?)- was Orinoco. Being men capable of taking extend

She was cradled in adventure, she was nursed in good

men's dread, the following: ed views, they “took possession" of Guiana, The young and strong Republic that has filled the

world w.th fame, “The conquest which she (Great Britain) has

tbat vast country of 800,000 or 900,000 square And with great praise and marvel of the Anglo-Saxon made of the Colony of Demerary, belonging to miles, between the Orinoco and the Amazon,

N. DARNELL DAVIS. the Dutch, and whose advantageous position by saying they did so, when they first made a puts her in a position to get possession of posts tiny settlement up thu Orinoco. The Portustill more important." guese, the French, and the Dutch, being prac

LAFENESTRE'S LA FONTAINE, It will be observed tbat the name Demerary tical people, entered upon the land and posis here used to include the colonies of Berbice sessed themselves of it, while Spain asserted

Paris, January 2, 1896. and Essequibo, wbieb had been captured by its "claims" to Guiana by making maps that He who writes for children is assured, it be the English at the same time. Not a word is included tbe vast regions occupied by the na- does his work well, of a longer immortality (if said tberein of any offence taken at the Eng. tions mentioned. Will any one be bold enough the two words admit of collocation) than any lisb representation of the boundaries of the to assert that the Spaniards ever had a colony other writers. The Fables' of La Fontaine Dutch settlements ! As tbe French bad tbem- on any part of the coast of Guiana, or that and the Contes' of Perrault will be read as selves been in possession of those very colonies 'the Spaniards ever bad any settlement there, ' long as the French language is spoken and un

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Amour, ce tyrat de ma vie,

Il faut contenter son envie:

derstood. Victor Hugo, who had an inordi- wife obtained in 1659 a separation of property. tioned. In 1664 La Fontaine had returned to nate vanity, said that he was not jealous of Tallemant des Réaux, speaking of this strange Paris, and he spent his time between the capiany French poet, but confessed that he was union, says: “His wife says that he dreams so tal and the house of the Duchess of Bouillon at envious of La Fontaine. No French poet ever that be sometimes remains for three weeks Château-Thierry. The Duchess was one of the attained the extraordinary fluidity and ease without believing bimself married "; and this celebrated nieces of Mazarid, Marie Anne of style cbaracteristic of La Fontaine's - Fables' applies to the first period of his marriage. Mancini. During this period he wrote • Psyché' and 'Contes,' except, perbaps, Molière in his | Mme. de la Fontaine was lettered-too much and the "Quinquina" (after an illness of the “Amphitryon." M. George Lafedestre, who so for the taste of her husband, who objected Duchess, wbo had been cured by quipide). He is a distinguished art critic, has been chosen, I to her criticisms. The only letters of La Fon- also wrote his “Joconde," the first of his fado not know for what reason, to write the vol. taine to his wife wbich we possess were writ- mous 'Contes'; and, after “Joconde," seven ume on La Fontaine in the “Grands Écrivains ten to her during a journey which he made in other contes in verse on subjects taken from Français," and has acquitted himself very well 1663 to Limoges. They are very characteristic Boccaccio. The volume of the “Nouvelles en of his task.

of the state of their relations after fifteen vers tirées de l'Arioste et de Boccace,” without I enter my protest, however, as I have done years of marriage, and sound more like the any signature, bad an immense success. A before on other occasions, against the cut and- letters which a gay companion would write to new edition came out with otber contes. On dried method adopted in these essays on our one of his gay friends than like the letters of a March 31, 1668, appeared the first six parts of French writers, wbich consists in making a busband to his wife. They show, at the same the 'Fables,' dedicated to the Daupbin. From sort of scientific analysis comparable to a time, that Mme. de La Fontaine was not a that date La Fontaine may be said to have enchemical analysis. I cannot help finding prude nor a bégueule, to use the words of M. tered into immortality. His bookseller, Barsomething artificial as well as monotonous in Lafenestre, and allowed ber busband all pos- bin, had to print immediately new editions, a method wbich induces the critic to give sucb sible liberties.

and soon afterwards published another series headings to the successive chapters of his book. The famous surintendant Fouquet, who was of Fables. In speaking of La Fontaine as "l'écrivain" a great patron of letters, offered a pension to La Fontaine was at this time in a very pro. after having spoken of him as “ l'homme,” | La Fontaine, who became one of the visitors ductive vein, for be published also the 'Amours M. Lafenestre subdivides bis subject into and parasites of the little court of Saint Mandé de Psyché et de Cupidon.' He bad announced "læuvre," "l'imagination," "la sensibilité,” and of Vaux. He wrote for Fouquet the ‘Ado- this work in the second series of Fables'in "la pensée," "le style," " l'influence." Taine nis,' a poem in wbich is found a tender love

this way: is answerable for this new metbod of criti- for nature's beauties quite unknown in the se

"Bornons icl notre carrière; cism. I need not, I suppose, show that it is venteenth century. In it occurs this verse,

Les longs ouvrages me font peur.

Loin d'épuiser une matière impossible thus to decompose the human mind which bas become proverbial:

On n'en doit prendre que la fleur. as the molecule is decomposed into its compo“Ni la grâce, plus belle encor que la beauté."

Un peu de forces et d'balelne

Pour fournir à d'autres projets. nent atoms. It seems to me a pity that this analytical criticism should have become a André Chénier used to say that · Adopis' was

Veut que je change de sujets; fashion in the new generation, wbich bas been the poem which he bad read with the greatest

Retournons à Psyché." greatly inspired by the teachings of Taide. profit. It is singular to find the man who The collection of “Grands Écrivains Français”

was at times so Rabelaisan, writing sucb deli. With tbe versatility of his character and of would gain much in variety and in interest if cate and almost melancholy verses as these on

bis talent, he wrote, in 1691, a psalm in verse

(a very feeble production, by the by) in a Janthe same pattern was not applied to its critical voluptuousness:

senist · Receuil de Poésies Chrétiennes,' and at essays.

"O vous, tristes plaisirs où leur âme se nole, There is little to be said about La Fontaine Vains et derniers efforts d'une imparfaite Jole."

the same moment some new · Fables’and some

new 'Contes.' Two years afterwards, be writes as a writer, and he peed bardly be explained The friends of Fouquet, even the Marquise

at the same time a poem on chastity, Saintas such ; there is more to be said about his de Sévigné, liked something lighter and gayer

Malo,' and a new series of Contes,' the most life and the relations of his life to his writings. tban · Adonis,' and La Fontaine was quite able licentious of the whole series. The two books In this respect, M. Lafenestre's volume be- to satisfy them. One of his great successes in

were interdicted at the same moment,the first comes very interesting, and will be found very the salon of Fouquet was a very light epistle because La Fontaine bad imprudently called readable. The bouse wbere La Fontaine was on an adventure of a nun, a gay badinage

the Cardinal de Bouillon "Altesse sérénissime" born at Château-Thierry on July 8, 1621, is which charmed Madame de Sévigné so much still in existence. His father was a King's that she placed La Fontaine at once “ among and the second on account of its bold immo

(a title to wbich the Cardinal had no right), councillor, master of woods and forests, and tbe gods.” Every tbree months La Fontaine

rality. La Fontaine always needed some procapitaine des chasses in the Duchy of Cha- had to give a quittance for his pension in the

tection and some material belp; he found, at teau Thierry. At the age of nineteed, he shape of some madrigal. We do not under.

this period, a new Providence in Madame de studied law, spent a little time at the Palais, stand such relations in our time, but they la Sablière, an amiable woman, who was famiand, feeling no vocation for chicanery, return- seemed quite natural in the seventeenth cen

liarly called “La Tourterelle" (the Dove), the ed to Château-Thierry towards 1644. For ten tury; all poets were the pensioners of some

wife of a rich fermier-général. She was the years he led the easy and lazy life of the pro-king, prince, or great lord. It seemed as navince, hunting, riding (he was still a bard rider tural to La Fontaine to flatter Fouquet as it de la Fare. La Fontaine spent seven or eight

friend (I use a mild expression) of the Marquis at the age of seventy), dreaming, reading, and seemed natural afterwards for him to flatter

years in the house of this amiable woman, making at times a visit to his friends in Paris. Madame de Montespan, Louis XIV., Colbert,

which was called the Folie-Rambouillet; he He wrote verses, and paid court to the ladies the Dauphin. It ought to be said, also, that remained there in a state of complete freedom, of bis neigbborhood ; his love affairs were be really liked Fouquet, who was able to in more in the style of Boccaccio and of Rabelais spire great friendships, and who was a very

writing as he pleased and when he pleased.

La Fontaine was elected a member of the than in the dramatic and sentimental style. intelligent and able man. It was in Fouquet's French Academy after Boileau. He followed His only real passion was poetical. He was a bouse that he became acquainted with Chape

Madame de la Sablière to Paris, where she said great dreamer, and La Bruyère said of him lain, Mademoiselle de Scudéry, and Molière, of

she had taken with her "only her dog, her afterwards : “ The man seems coarse, heavy, whom he said at once, “C'est mon bomme."

cat, aud La Fontaine.” He led to the end the stupid ; be cannot speak nor tell you what he La Fontaine spent lazily three years of his

life of a parasite and of an epicurean, and he has just seen. When he begins to write, how. life on the ‘Songe de Vaux,' a work written

remained also to the end a sort of Polyphile, over, he becomes the model of good story-tell- in honor of his patron and his magnificence, writing on the most various subjects, always ers; there is nothing but lightness, elegance, wbich was left unfinished and ought never to

with the same ease and graceful fluidity of fine delicacy in his works." His first work was bave been begun, though here and there you a translation of Terence's “Eunuchus.” He may find in it some fine verses. There is style, at times with a curious vein of sadness studied all the great writers of antiquity, and not much more to be said about 'Ely mène.' time. In 1892 be fell ill. Madame de la Sa

and melancholy, which was very rare in his delighted also in the conteurs, French and Ita When Fouquet was arrested and thrown in

blière was in a convent, but he found a new lian, of the Middle Ages and of the Renaissance. to prison, La Fontaine had the courage to

protector in the person of M. d'Hervart, a His father left bim his office and chose a stand by him and to make an eloquent appeal maitre des requêtes, who had a large and wife for him, Marie Héricart, daughter of the to the clemency of the King. “Et c'est être splendid bötel. He lived there till he died, on lieutenant criminel of La Ferté-Milon. He ac- innocent que d'être malheureux," one of the April 13, 1695, at the age of seventy-four. cepted the office and the wife, to please bis verses of his fine ode, has become proverbial. father; but he neglected the wife as well as the La Fontaine was exiled to Limoges, with bis office, and very openly. He conducted the uncle, and it was from there that he wrote to affairs of the community so badly that his ' his wife the letters which I have already men.

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lecturing on economics, felt it his duty to book, but I understand that it is elaborately point out the fallacies of protection or free illustrated. Now it is perfectly understood by silver, he would be squelched by McKinley or artists, engravers, printers, and publishers Teller.

that decent printing of text cuts is possible ENEMIES OF MANKIND.

The truth is, that most of the most impor- only on this highly calendered paper to wbich TO THE EDITOR OF THE NATION :

tant topics would be ruled out. Political eco- your critic objects; and if such cuts are to be SIR: In connection with the “late unplea

nomy could not, for reasons just suggested, be used at all, they must be printed on such paper santness" it may interest some of your readers taught; nor the history of the Reformation, or ruined in the printing. To me it seems that to recall the opinion expressed some fifty years

because that would offend the Catholics; nor the publisher is praiseworthy rather than ago by such a distinguished writer as the late the history of England, which would rouse the blameworthy for determining to print his cuts Judge Haliburton ("Sam Slick") in bis Wise Jingoes; nor criminology, for that would bring properly, but this is the judgment of an artist. Saws' (c. 26), as to the relations which ought out some unpleasant statistics about the Irish, A literary critic may be of the opposite opi. to exist between the two greatest branches of land so alienate the “ Irish vote"; nor the his-pion, but ought be not to recognize the reason the English people, and the punishment that tory of the United States, for if the Mexican for the publisher's choice, even in blaming it, ought to be meted out to wilful disturbers of war were truly narrated, it would anger the and not leave it to be understood by the public the peace. If so, here it is:

present disciples of President Polk; and the that it is a mere matter of whim, or worse, of

Rebellion could not be taught so as to satisfy economy? The rougb, hand made paper which “Now we are two great nations, the greatest both Northerners and Southerners; nor could is the delight of bibliophiles is the despair of by a long chalk of any in the world-speak the same language, have the same religion, Evolution, because all the orthodox would cry the poor designer of illustrations, and its use and our constitutions don't differ no great out against a doctrine which deprives them of would probably lead to the abandonment of all odds. We ought to draw closer than we do. We are big enough, equal enough, and strong

the pleasure of believing that unbaptized in- illustration, or its restriction to such purely enough not to be jealous of each other. United fants are damned.

archaic adornment as Mr. Morris uses in the we are more than a match for all the other Perfect freedom is the indispensable condi- publications of the Kelmscott Press. nations put together, and can defy their fleets, tion for the discovery and imparting of truth;

KENYON Cox. armies, and willions. Single we couldn't stand against all, and if one was to fall where would

and at Washington that condition could not NEW YORK, January 19, 1896. the otber be? Mourning over the grave that exist. The advocates of tbe scheme, wbich covers a relative whose place can never be would give easy berths to a good many office- [We were perfectly aware of the cause of filled. It is authors of silly books, editors of

the use of glazed paper. The abuse we owe silly papers, and demagogues of silly parties seekers, protest, of course, that care would be that helps to estrange us. wish there was a

taken to maintain freedom of speech. But partly to the change in the mode of woodgibbet high enough and strong enough to there are many ways, besides gagging, of si. engraving in the quest for tint and halfhang up all these enemies of mankind on." lencing the preacher of unpopular doctrines, tone, and especially to the advent of cheap Yours, etc., J. M. GELDERT, JR. and we cannot, doubt that they would all be

process.” Often, for the sake of a small used. Probably no self-respecting professor number of cuts in the text, the entire HALIFAX, N. S., January 17, 1896.

would accept such a position of servitude; cer

tainly the most eminent professors, to whom readability of a book (hygienically speakA NATIONAL UNIVERSITY AT WASH- free speech is dearer than preferment, could ing) is destroyed. The effect on text-books INGTON. never be enticed into such a trap.


for the young in particular is deplorable

when we consider all the temptations of TO THE EDITOR OF THE NATION:

JANUARY 11, 1896.

that age to overtax the eyes.-ED. NASIR: There are many objections to estab.

TION.] lishing a national university at Washington,

THE COLORS OF MARYLAND. but the strongest of all is the incompatibility TO TAE EDITOR OF THE NATION:

SCHOOLS IN FRANCE BEFORE THE of the pursuit of truth with responsibility to SIR: I see by the morning's papers that the

REVOLUTION. politicians. During the past few weeks we have bad a striking indication of what would medal recently presented to the Long Island

TO THE EDITOR OF THE NATION: happen at a national university. Many emi. Historical Society is garnished with a special

SIR: The sweeping conclusion, impliedly ennent professors, exercising their right as citi

ly prepared ribbon, combining the colors of zens, bave spoken and written on the VenezueBrooklyn with the colors of the State of dorsed by you in your recent note on public

instruction in ante-Revolutionary France, to lan question, and immediately Jingoes in the Maryland-orange and black.”

the effect that the French peasantry of the press and elsew bere have assailed those pro

The colors of the State of Maryland are not

ancien régime were in the full enjoyment of fessors as if they were traitors, idiots, or flun.

orange and black, but gold (or yellow) and keys. It makes no difference that Prof. von black. They are the colors of the Calvert

an excellent system of primary education,

needs much qualification. arms, which have been used in the seal and on Holst of Chicago, or Prof. Moore of Columbia, or Profs C. E. Norton and Wm. James of the flag of Maryland from early colonial times.

The number and quality of rural schools vaHarvard, happen to plead for a sober consider

They can be seen on the original exemplifica ried widely from province to province—Mr. ation of the Venezuelan quarrel and to de

tion of arms to George Calvert (1622) in the Stanley Weyman's low view of the mental nounce war as uncivilized, up jump the Jinpossession of the Maryland Historical Society,

condition of the peasant being perfectly correct in Gwillim or any manual of heraldry, or on

as to Brittany and the central provinces, and goes, led by the loquacious Theodore Roosevelt, and scream, “What business have these the State flag in the City Hall, Baltimore. approximately so as to Gascony and the Tou

lousian; while your reviewer's opinion holds college professors to meddle, anyway? They Orange is not a heraldic color.

good as to the northern and northeastern prodon't know anything about the subject, and if

The colors of the Baltimore Baseball Club

vinces, where simple primary schools were tbey did they ought to hold their tongues." are, I believe, orange and black; but that is

abundant. Of course, only editors, or other persons with not the State of Maryland.--I am, sir, etc.,

You point to the fact, as confirmatory of

WM. HAND BROWNE. a magnified sense of their own importance

your general position, that in the districts now and a lack of humor, who print three articles


forming the department of the Meurthe-et-Moa month in the magazines and grant inter

selle there were, in 1789, 599 communes, in 566 views to newspaper reporters every day, on


of which were one or more schools.

As an any subject, would poob-pooh the opinions of

offset to this, permit me to say that records of men like Norton, and Von Holst, and Wm. TO THE EDITOR OF THE NATION:

the time (cited by M. Taide) show that in GasJames, who think more than they talk. But Sir: In your review of Grosvenor's 'Con- cony “most of the rural districts are without should not this episode serve as a warning stantinople,' in No. 1594, I find this sentence: schoolmasters," while in the Toulousian only against any proposed national university, “Unfortunately the paper is so highly glazed “ten parishes out of fifty have schools." And whose teachers would be at the mercy of every that the print cannot be read, especially by in Brittany and the central provinces matters crank in Congress or out of it-for they would artificial light, without crying even the strong. were even worse than in the south. M. Albe regarded as public servants, unpermitted to est and most youthful eyes." This is no new bert Babeau, whom you cite approvingly, gasay their souls were their own? If one of them complaint, but one frequently heard in your thers, from an inspection of marriage registers dared to affirm that war is a crime, how quick-columns, and many readers of the Nation must of the period, that in the Nivernois only “13 ly would Senator Lodge-wbom Milton, with be left in a state of wonder at the obstinacy of per cent. of the men and nearly 6 per cent. of propbetic genius, described so admirably in publishers in using such paper in spite of re- the women" could sign their names. Taking,

Paradise Lost,' Book II., 109-112–have him peated protests. Yet the reason for so doing then, the average of these extremes, considerimpeached or arrested. And if another, in 'is simple. I have not seen Prof. Grosvenor's 'ing the kind of instruction likely to be doled

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out to the lower classes by the French clergy As to the nature of the education given (Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Macin Poltaire's century, and not forgetting the in the village schools, it is true that it did millan), Mr. W. M. Lindsay presents a book bestial use made by Jacques Bonhomme of bis not much exceed reading, writing, arith-based upon his large work called "The Latin newly acquired liberty in 1789, it would seem metic, singing, and the catechism; but Language? (lately reviewed in these columns); that the conclusions of your reviewer on the universality and efficiency of village schools in even this amount of education must have

work without the detail of evidence upon France under the ancien régime” need revisal. raised the French poasants, and did raise which they are founded. It is a convenient

W. R. K.

them, from the condition of absolute little volume of some 200 pages; the matter is MILWAUKEE, Wis., January 5, 1896.

savages, which still remains the legendary well arranged and clearly expounded. It is

belief and is endorsed by Weyman in his intended for beginners in the study of the de(We cannot prolong this discussion. No latest novel. “Bestial” is an absurdly velopment of Latin declension and conjugation. monograph on the history of primary edu- strong word to apply to the action of the The language of it is simple, avoiding all but cation in Brittany exists, to our know- French peasants in 1789 in attacking the the most necessary technical terins, and the

book may be highly recommended to those for ledge, but M. Allain quotes M. Léon châteaux of the nobility.--Ed. Nation.]

whom it was compiled. Maitre for the district of Nantes, in which

In April, 1892, Mr. Timothy Hopkins of the sixty-four out of eighty-one parishes had

Southern Pacific Company (of Kentucky) preschools in the eighteenth century. We


sented bis railway books to Stanford Uni. have further knowledge of the fact that

versity, and made generous provision for their La Chalotais, the famous Breton procu

increase. In order that the collection, which, reur-général of the Parlement of Rennes,

An elaborate 'Dictionary of Philosophy and by September, 1895, bad grown to 9,245 books published his Essai d'éducation nation Psychology,' edited by Prof. J. Mark Baldwin and pamphlets, might be made immediately ale'in 1763, in which he complained, pre-Co., together with a treatise on 'The Architec- they be railroad men they may get passes to

of Princeton, will be issued by Macmillan & useful to those interested in the subject-if sumably from acquaintance with the con

ture of Europe: An Historical Study,' by Rus- California—and that the increase of the col. dition of things in his own province, that sell Sturgis; «The Anatomy of the Human lection might be facilitated, the library of the “the Brothers of Christian Doctrine, who Body,' by Drs. Jobn Cleland and John Yule Stanford University recently put forth, as are termed ignorantins, teach reading Mackay, of Glasgow and Dundee; 'The Princi. number one of its publications, a 'Catalogue and writing to people who ought only to ples of the Transformer,' an electrical work, of the Hopkins Railway Library,' by Fredelearn how to draw plans and to handle by Dr. Frederick Bedell of Cornell; and 'Stu- rick J. Teggart, A.B. It is a quarto of 241 the file and the plane, but who will no dies in Structure and Style, by W. T. Brew.double-columned pages, arranged on a simple longer do so.

The laborers and ster of Columbia. The same publishers’ spring classification with an index of personal names. artisans send their children to the local list embraces 'The United States of America, It appears to be accurately made. The most colleges.” An echo to the complaints of "The Child and Childhood in Folk-Thought,' cursory examination of the catalogue are the

1765–1865,' by Edward Chanding of Harvard; striking features of the library evident upon La Chalotais is found in the complaints by Alexander F. Chamberlain of Clark Uni. large pamphlet collections on the Erie and on made to the Bishop of St.-Dié in 1779 :

versity; Vocal Culture in its Relation to Lite- the Pacific Railways, and the lamentable in“ There will never be any good popular edu- rary and General Culture,' by Prof. Hiram completeness of the sets of periodicals and recation until the country schoolmasters, who Corson of Cornell; “A Brief History of Eng- ports. On page 191 curiosity is piqued by the depopulate alike the fields and workshops, are driven away. The complaints that the fields

lish,' by Prof. Oliver F. Emerson of Cornell; entry, s. v. Southern Pacific Company, of “A are left without workers, that the number of

*Woman under Monasticism: Chapters in collection of 740 pieces of stationery in use by artisans is diminishing, and that the class of Convent Life and Saint Worship,' by Lina the company. Album, folio." vagabonds is increasing, are due to the fact Eckenstein; "The Empire of the Ptolemies,' by that our towns and villages are filled to over.

The eighth biennial report of the Bureau of flowing with a multitude of schools. There is

Prof. J.P. Mahaffy; Dante's ‘Divine Comedy,' Labor Statistics of Illinois, on the subject of Do hamlet without its grammairien."

rendered in the nine-line metre of Spenser by taxation, has been recently issued. It is a With regard to central and southern Ratzels · History of Mankind,' translated by void of any new ideas on the subject; but it

George Musgrave, M.A., Oxford; Friedrich thoroughgoing single-tax document, and de. France it may be allowed that in sparsely A. J. Butler; the Works of Friedrich Nietzsche, contains elaborate statistics of land and buildpopulated districts, like the mountains of in eleven volumes, edited in English by Alex-ing values and assessments in Chicago, which Auvergne and the sandy wastes of the ander Tille; Georg Brandes's “William Shak- are not without value. The method by which Landes, schools were few and far between spere: A Critical Study,' translated by Wil- the figures were ascertained for all the tables in the last century, as they are at the pre- liam Archer; a posthumous volume of New is described with praiseworthy fulness. sent time; but even in the Landes there Poems' by Christina Rossetti; and a 'History The ultra-conservative spirit of M. Ferdiwere, before the Revolution, 235 schools, of Nineteenth-Century Literature,' by Prof. nand Brunetière's treatise, Éducation et In

Saintsbury. though unequally distributed, in 330 com

struction' (Paris: Firmin-Didot), will be a sur

G. P. Putnam's Sons announce 'The Histori. prise even to those long familiar with the aumunes. These statements of facts are

cal Development of Modern Europe from 1815 thor's stanch adberence to the Latin tradition mainly derived from the work of M. Allain down to 1880,' by Prof. Charles M. Andrews of in French literature and education. In a field on primary education in France before the Bryn Mawr; "The West Indies and the Span- where, though not a stranger, be is evidently Revolution, cited in the Nation for De-ish Main,' a history of settlements, by James not as much at home as in his own, the less cember 26, 1895.

Rodway; “The Nicaragua Canal: its History agreeable traits of the great literary critic are M. Albert Babeau treats the whole and its Future,' by Prof. Lindley M. Keasbey; so strongly marked as to become repellent. We question briefly, with references to au- "A History of Modern Banks of Issue,' by cannot imagine that his acrimony and “terri. thorities, in the first chapter of his · Écoles Charles A. Conant; 'Early Long Island,' by ble assurance” will change the opinions of de village pendant la Révolution,' in which Martha Bocbée Flint; “The Perambulation of many as to the relative educational value of

Latin and the sciences, or aid his colleagues in he shows that he had formed a higher the Forest of Dartmoor,' by Samuel Rowe, with opinion of the extent of rural education Dasent's Tales of the Fjeld,' with 100 illustra-work. The subject of the treatise itself is im.

numerous illustrations; and a new edition of strengthening the educative influence of their in ante-Revolutionary France than in his tions by Moyr Smith.

portant enough, and M. Brunetière's contribuearlier works, "Le Village sous l'ancien Charles Scribner's Sons have nearly ready tion to it will interest members of the faculties régime' and 'La Ville rurale dans l'an

* The Love Affairs of a Bibliomaniac,' by the of our higher institutions. ciepne France.' He arrived at the conclu- late Eugene Field. We should have mentioned Müller's “Vademecum für Studierende' will sion endorsed by our correspondent, that last week that they are the American publishers prove attractive to all interested in German primary education was more widely dif

of the “Warwick Library of English Litera- student life, and especially so to those who ex. fused in the north and east than in central ture," of which we gave some account.

pect to become students in Germany. The first and southern France, but his conclusions

T. Y. Crowell & Co. have in preparation part of the book is devoted to fraternities, and

a brief historical sketch is given of the four Deed to be modified in a more favorable Shakspere's Heroes on the Stage,' by Charles E. L. Wingate.

general classes into which these fraternities sense since the publication of numerous

Ginn & Co. will publish next month.Selecnaturally group themselves: the Corps, the local monographs by Fayet, Combariou, tions from Keats's Poems,' by Prof. Arlo Bates. Landsmannschaft, the Burschenschaft, and the Allain, and others.

In his “Short Historical Latin Grammar' 'new or free Burschenschaft, wbich dates from

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