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1883, and whose aim is to counteract some of fascicules. But of gazetteers there cannot be charts on which they are marked. The Harthe apparently degenerating influences of the too many, if good, and each will supplement vard Observatory is preparing to publish older fraternities, e. g., duelling, court of all the rest by its peculiar copiousness.

charts of this kind, and meantime marked honor, etc. Besides this historical sketch, From the same firm we have received the photographs will be sent to astronomers dethe characteristics of each class at the present fifth issue of the Spruner-Sieglin Hand-At- siring to study them. time are also set forth, with statistical tables las for the history, of antiquity, the Middle We learn from Science that a new star bas showing at wbat universities the various fra- | Ages, and of modern times, in its first division, been found by Mrs. Fleming in the constellatervities are represented, the colors, date of containing maps of the Persian Empire and of tion Centaurus, from a comparison with the founding, and motto of each. Another chap- the Macedonians in Alexander's time, the Par- Draper Memorial photographs. Its spectrum ter exhibits all the scientific societies connect- tbian dominions, the north African seacoast, is monochromatic, and closely resembles that ed with the universities; another is devoted to and the Roman Empire in the second and third of tbe adjacent nebula. Like the new stars in fraternities and societies of all kinds conject-centuries A.D.

Cygnus, Auriga, and Norma, it appears to ed with technical schools. A chapter on duel. Dr. Harrison Allen's article, of forty pages have changed into a gaseous nebula. It is alling shows how tbis practice has arisen in the and four plates, “On the Embryos of Bats," ready beginniog to fade. universities, describes the instruments used, is No. 2 of vol. i. of the Contributions from As an indication of the recognition which gives the regulations governing it, and demon- the Zoological Laboratory of the University of women are beginning to receive in German. strates how little the laws have succeeded in Pennsylvania.' About a dozen genera are rep-speaking countries, it may be mentioned that restraining it. The drinking customs are ex- resented, in more than thirty figures. The upon the occasion of the discussion of the bill plained somewhat in detail, and a number of material was not all that was desired, but, ac- for the admission of women to universities, a student sports or games are elucidated. Final. cording to the author, it shows the differences member of the Austrian Parliament said of ly, a collection of students' songs makes the between fætal and adult stages in bats to be Frau von Gizycki (whose husband was the wellbook serviceable for the “Commers."

greater in kind and degree than in other mam- known writer on ethics and professor at the After a very deliberate and careful piece.mals, and that the numerous contrasts between University of Berlin), referring to ber recent meal publication, Dr. Moriz Heyne's ‘Deutsch-embryonic and adult forms may be accepted speeches in Vienna, that she would be an honor es Wörterbuch' has been brought to a con- as evidence of the relatively low grade of the to any parliament in the world, and tbat of clusion (Leipzig: S. Hirzel ; New York : entire order, the high degree of specialization the three hundred and fifty-three members Lemcke & Buechner). It is attractively print notwithstanding.

then present there were not many who could ed, and employs the Gothic letter for the In a November extra from the American measure themselves against her for eloquence, editorial definition, etc., and the Roman Journal of Science, vol. 1., Prof. O C. Marsh culture, or learning. (without substantive capitalization) for the treats of “Restorations of some European A significant enterprise has just been illustrative quotations which lend the work Dinosaurs, with suggestions as to their place launched in Vienna by the Archæological Comits special distinction. The alphabetical se. among the Reptilia.” The plates contain re- mittee for the gymnasia in that capital. A quence is interfered with by an arrangement storations of Compsognathus, Scelidosaurus, series of permanent photographic prints from of which the method is not clear, as witness Hypsilophodon, and Iguanodon. In a second approved plaster casts of sculpture that has these examples : Trauen introduces a para- paper from the same volume, December, he come down to us from antiquity, will be issued graph, of nearly two columns, ending with considers the “ Affivities and Classification of for school use in connection with Greek and RoTraualtar (which should have preceded not the Dinosaurian Reptiles.” On the plate, man history and mythology, at a price averag. only Trauen, but Traube), Traugebühr ... twelve restorations are figured for comparison. ing fifteen cents a folio plate. The first of six Trauzeuge; the next paragraph is jntroduced The Dinosaurs are placed as a sub-class of the instalments is now before us (Vienna: Carl by Trauer. So Tropfen (sub.) must be sought Reptilia and distributed among three orders, Graeser; New York: Westermann), consisting under Tropfbar, together with a series of com- Theropoda, Sauropoda, and Predentata, with of the well-known Augustus from Prima pounds closed by Tropfenweise; the next twenty-six families and sixty-eight genera. Porta, Zeus from Otricoli, Laokoön group paragraph reverts to Tropfen (verb). The The affinities of the exceptional genus Cera- (Vatican), Pericles (British Museum), Homer literary quotations are, as we have heretofore tosaurus on the one hand and Archæopteryx on Sanssouci), and a less familiar bas relief of pointed out, very rich in drafts upon Goethe the other bring these Saurians and the birds Orpheus, Eurydice, and Hermes (Villa Al. and Schiller, and also upon such recent near together. Remoter affinities are traced bani). The prints share the inferiority of the sources as Ravke, Moltke, and Bismarck in through the Hallopoda, Zanclodon, Aëtosaurus material they counterfeit, but on the other particular. The first page of the final volume and Belodon to the Crocodilia, by way of com- band it has been possible to control the lightcites not less than sixteen authors ; the last mon ancestry. The same volume of the Jour. ing so as to bring out the details of the statu. (and it is a short page) some twenty About nal contains a notice, by Prof. J. B. Wood-ary. Though some retouching is inevitable in thirty-five quotations are found under Strom worth, of his discovery in the Newark Group, all these mechanical reproductions, the present (to choose an instance at random). This fea- at Avondale, New Jersey, of foot-prints simi- series is on the whole very satisfactory as well ture, with the shades of meaning implied, lar to those of the Dinosaurs of the Connecti- as cheap. There would appear to be no limit makes Heyne a very desirable companion for cut valley.

to it. A text-book of moderate compass will students bent on something more than bare In a recent circular sent out by Prof. Pick-accompany the complete portfolio. translation, and interesting browsing ering, we learn that an interesting examina- Mr. Unwin's new venture, the monthly Cos. ground for those who have mastered the lan- tion of variable stars bas been in progress. mopolis (New York: International News Co.), guage. The etymologies are compact yet not Prof. 8. I. Bailey, in charge of the Harvard is a handsome large octavo, and justifies its substinted.

station at Arequipa, Peru, has made nume- title, "an international review," by printing Lemcke & Buecbner send us also the con. rous photographs of globular clusters, which tbree tiers of articles in as many languages, cluding parts of the eighth edition of “Ritter's have proved, upon examination, to contain an English, French, and German Stevenson's Geographisch-Statistisches Lexikon,' edited by extraordinary number of variable stars-not a posthumous “Weir of Hermiston” leads the J. Penzler. The two volumes number 1,084 general condition of stellar clusters. The pho- table of contents, and is bracketed with arti. and 1,202 pages respectively, in condensed buttographs used in this discussion were taken at cles by Sir Charles Dilke, Henry James, and clear typography, displayed in double columns Arequipa with the 13-inch Boyden telescope. Edmund Gosse. Paul Bourget ushers in the in the Roman letter. This gazetteer bas a In one cluster (Canes Venatici), no less than French section, followed by Anatole France, solid reputation for accuracy, and its range of eighty-seven stars have been found to be varia. Édouard Rod, Georg Brandes, and Francisque inclusion is very great, especially for Ger- ble. That this is unmistakable is proved by an Sarcey. Ernest von Wildenbruch, Mommsen, many, where every place baving a hundred in- independent examination of the plates by Prof. Erich Schmidt, Spielhagen, and Helferich form habitants is admitted ; for Austria and Swit- Pickering and Mrs. Fleming as well as Prof. the German contingent, and these nationalities zerland the lowest limit is 150, and for the rest Bailey. Another cluster shows forty-six varia- reappear among the editors of the concluding of Europe, 300 to 500. Abundant details as to bles, while others show three, four, or five chronicles. This, as will be seen, is a brave postal, telegraphic, railway, and industrial fa- each. In general, no variables have been showing of names, and it would be a narrow cilities are given, and the claim is not rashly found within about one minute of the centre intellect that could not find interesting readmade that for every place in the world of of the clusters, on account of the closeness of ing in each division. Perhaps a first number commercial significance this work valuable the stars; and none of those found are more calls for no further remark. for reference. It is finished just as an Eog. than ten minutes distant from the centres of The London music balls, to which we owe, if lish work of large dimensions, Longmans the clusters. Some of the variable stars have not the invention, the suggestion, of the subGazetteer of the World,' makes its appearance, short periods, of not more than a few hours. stantive “Jingo," some time ago undertook to and as Levasseur's 'Lexique Géographique du The individual stars in close clusters can be fix the pronunciation of “Rhodesia," the name Monde Entier' is beginning to put out its readily found only from photographic or other of the ambitious South African premier's vi.

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sionary domain, uncomfortably adjacent to the fag the nègre of the French art ateliers. Finally, tional bandicap match of polyhistoric scholarTransvaal. The mute e proving troublesome to bave done with bis Majesty, we remark that ship. The new Pauly, like the old, is without for geographic rhyming, it was boldly sounded, deviltry, an Americanism for derilry, is sup- illustrations, although volume i. contains a map as follows:

ported by dialectal English. Another vocable of the Lacus Albanus region, a plan of Alex"The boom, the boom, the boom, boys,

possessing an obvious interest, in this instal- andria, and a map of the Oropian Sanctuary of

ment, is Dictionary, 'a repertory of dictiones, Amphiaraos. Unlike the old, it is printed in Hurrah for Cecil Rhodes, boys, The friend of Zambesla!

phrases or words.' The word is traced (circa two-column large octavo pages in Latin type, A che r for Willie Regan, boys, And one for Jameson !

1225) to Joannes de Garlandia, a native of and on good paper. Unlike Daremberg Saglio's But a tiger for Barnato, boys,

England, who adopted the form dictionarius, Dictionnaire des antiquités grecques et roAnd the lands of Livingstone."

while Petrus Berchorius, who died in Paris in maines,' its strongest point is pomenclature, so A correspondent writes: "In two different 1362, preferred dictionarium. Sir Thomas that it conflicts neither with its French rival editions of the one-rolume edition of Lowell's Elyot arrived with bis dictionary in 1538, as,

nor with Iwan von Müller's great 'Handbuch Poems I find a singular misreading of a word.

across the Channel, R. Estienne with diction- der philologischen Wissenschaften.' Its editThe verses "To a Pine-Tree,' stanza four, read

aire in 1539. The earliest works of this kind or's reputation as a critical scholar in the do. in the first line, were bilingual or polyglot.

main of Latinity, of Roman mythology and "To the slumberer asleep 'neath thy glooming';

archæology is well established. He occupies certainly a damnable iteration.' The early - Much curiosity attaches to the substantive the chair of classical philology in the Unieditions have lumberer.!" The error has devoir, which in Middle English was spelt versity of Marburg, and is an industrious con. happily not been perpetuated in the ten dever, and stressed on the last syllable (de tributor to Roscher's uncompleted 'Lexikon volume Riverside Edition of Lowell's Works. vair), then on the penult (devi-ver), with the der griechischen und römischen Mythologie.'

The Department of State has, as our readers spellings devour, devor, deavour, and presently, A characteristic article of the first semi-volknow, hopefully begun a series of calendars by Caxton's powerful aid, devoir as in French, ume, which stops in the middle of the article which will help to extend the proper basing of though retaining the penultimate stress. The Alexandros, is the multiple one under Aelius. American bistory on documents. An agency English traditional form completely died out Including Aelia, it embraces no less than one like the English Historical Manuscripts Com. after 1600, and by degrees the French pronun- hundred and eighty-four individual subjects, mission, formed to deal with historical mate ciation got and retained the upper hand. The down to Aelia Verripa, wife of Emperor Leo I. rials not possessed by the Department, was Song of Roland' (circa 1400) has: “Trist us

The chief of all the Ae'in is of course Emperor still needed, and the establishment of such a neuer, If we in this mater do not our deuour"; Hadrian, whose biography is given under No. commission was, as we have already announced,

and Tom Hood in 1845 revived this archaism 64. Nothing more convincingly proves the the most important step taken by the Ameri- for the sake of a pun—"He went to pay her enormous setback in civilization which the can Historical Association at its late meeting his devours, When he'd devoured bis pay." Orient bas labored under since the days of the in Washington. We are now able to report Dicker, too, has a singular history, as coming Roman Empire than Von Rohden's rehearsal of the Commission constituted, and ready to be- from the Latin decuria, 'a parcel of 10,' and Hadrian's journeyings from Rome to Athens, gin its inquiries. It consists of Prof. J. F. being in vogue among our Teutonic ancestors from Athens by way of Ephesus, Lycia, and Jameson of Brown University as chairman;

in their skin tributes to the Roman conquer. Cilicia to Antiocb, thence to Palmyra, DaDr. Douglas Brymner, arcbivist of the Domi- ors, just as later in this country in our fur mascus, Gaza, and back from Antioch by nion of Canada; Mr. Talcott Williams of Pbi. dealings with the Indians. The most Protean way of Jerusalem and Arabia to Egypt, ladelphia; Prof. Wm. P. Trent of the Universi- of all words in the present section, as respects up and down the Nile with the Empress, ty of the South; and Prof. Frederick J. Turner meanings, is perhaps dicky, which denotes thence into Libya, where he hunts lions, of the University of Wisconsin.

seven distinct articles of apparel, as, a de back to Antioch, north again to Adrianople,

tachable shirt-front, a collar, a bib, a petti- Mosia (now Bulgaria), and Dacia (now Ru- We call attention to the communication, coat, an apron, an oil-skin suit, besides a mania), through the Vale of Tempe to Dodoon another page, from British Guiana. It is rag-bag, a driver's seat, and a naval officer. na, swiftly again, at the news of the rebellion from the pen of the Hon. N. Darnell Davis, Diaper has notbing to do, etymologically, with of Barcocheba, to Jerusalem, and home by sea C.M.G., Collector of the Port of Georgetown,"d’Ypres,” in spite of all that town's napery. to Rome–for such is the abundantly verified and a well-known historical student and writer. The verb dictate, we are told, is now usually itinerary of one of his fifteen-thousand-mile Mr. Davis possesses a strong affection for the accented on the last syllable in England, but journeys. In his ascents of Mts. Casius and United States, and is unusually well.informed Byron and Shelley consistently accented the Aetna, " to see the sunrise,” in bis artistic di. as to its earlier and later history. He has for first, as does certainly the best American usage. lettanteism, and in bis constant professions of many years been a contributor to the Nation. Pope, Thomson, Young, Cowper, Keats, and

unselfish devotion to the good of his people, Tennyson to the contrary notwithstanding, the first Reisekaiser is indeed quite up to the -The Devil cannot complain that he bas pot diamond tends to become trisyllabic, as Shak

last. Kaerst's account of Alexander the Great bis due in the current issue of the Oxford Eng. spere made it; but metrical license will doubt- leaves something to be desired in the absence lish Dictionary (Development. Diffluency). Six

less keep the pronunciation from “crystalliz- of any allusion to his physical appearance, or pages, or eighteen columus, are allotted to him ing.” With different “ the usual construction to his important relation to Greek art as a subunder his proper rubric, to say nothing of the is now with from; that with to (after unlike, ject of portraiture; also in the manner in which derivatives from the Latin and French roots. dissimilar to) is found in writers of all ages,

the lasting effects of his conquests on the In. His elusive and metamorphic character is evi. and is frequent colloquially, but is by many

dian frontier are ignored. denced by the long catalogue of spellings of considered incorrect. The construction with his name, from diobul to del, and his alias the

than (after other than) is found in Fuller," etc., -Specialists cannot afford to ignore the dickens ; by his vacillating gender in Old High

to Dasent, as Dr. Fitzedward Hall has shown. data collected under Aberglaube by Dr. Ernst German and Old English-from masculine to A euphemistic American sense of difficulty, a Riess, now a resident of Philadelpbia, under neuter ; and by the numerous shapes popular- quarrel, assault, homicide,' is unnoticed under Achaia by Brandis, who takes little note of ly ascribed to him over and above the conven

this word. Longfellow's “diapason of the the archæological evidence of the bigh civili. tional likeness to Pan and the satyrs. Even in cannonade” is, we venture to think, misappor-zation of the Achæans before the Dorian the Scriptures, Jerome must needs restore the tioned under the strictly musical definition; it conquest, under Aera by Kubitschek, who Hebrew Satan in place of the dáßodos of the belongs rather under the more or less vague gives a six-page synchronistic table of astroSeptuagint and the diabolus of the Old Latin ly extended, with the idea of all the tones or nomical and Julian years compared with the version. Wyclif, with bis Sathan, followed notes.'” The poet chose it for its polysyllabic Greek Olympiads and supplemented by the the Vulgate except in one of the Psalms, where diguity, beightened in effect by its infrequent Byzantine indictions, and under Arithmetica be let in the deuell.” The Devil's proverbial

use and consequent obscurity of meaning- by Hultsch. The latest and fullest informaaversion to holy water was recognized as early omne ignotum pro magnifico.

tion on Aphrodite has been collected by as 1570; he was not so black as painted in 1596;

Gümpel, who favors a purely Hellenic origin he made his appearance wben talked of in 1672; - The coincident progress towards comple. of the cult and Kretschmer's etymology and be was " to pay" in 1711. A “poor devil" tion of Pottier's Daremberg.Saglio and of Wis- á pólitn - foam traveller, “an epithet deriv. excited pity in 1898. Moxon, etymologizing in sowa's rewritten edition of Pauly's classical ing from Greek hymnology," rather than Prel. 1683, explained the name "printer's devil” by encyclopædia in ten volumes (Stuttgart : ler's from a hypothetical Phænician aph'ruthe fact that “these Boys ... in'a Print. Metzler), which has maintained its ascendency det

the dove. The immense antiquity and ing House commonly black and Dawb them.

as the standard work of reference of classical the continuous use throughout Graeco-Italic selves.” An anfeed junior-counsel, however, is philologians and antiquarians for more than antiquity of nude images not destitute of sexu. a "devil" irrespective of color, like his brother half a century, wears the aspect of an interna- ' al significance, as the imagination of a Haw.

reserve:

a

thorne conceived the Venus of the Medici and --An article in the International Journal of cbase it. As to works of sculpture of all sorts, her congeners to be, is clearly shown. In two Ethics on “ National Prejudices” is of a time. and inscriptions, they are to be divided evenly long articles of the third semi. volume, on ly interest, which its author, an Englishman, between the two Governments, but the French Apollo and Arterris, Wernicke takes the ad. could not have anticipated when he wrote it. delegates are to have the right of making vanced ground of denying the primary con. Whatever the amount of slumbering dislike sketches or models of whatever may be found. nection of either deity with solar and lunar and misconception that may exist between Finally, “in recognition of the preference worship. His Apollo is an earth spirit, and European nations now, it is nothing like the which the Persian Government accords to it, his Artemis a sort of apsara, or dew fairy, out brutal ignorance and the harsh hatred which the Government of the Republic will make to of which aspects the vegetal, pastoral, genital, the best of men felt only a few generations ago his Majesty the Shah a present of 10,000 tribal, purificatory, and other sides of the cult for people of a different race from themselves. francs.” It cannot be said that, as diggings of both originally unconnected deities develop The quotations which this writer gives are in. go, the French have paid an undue price for plausibly under his hands. The last semi- teresting landmarks, from which one can infer their privilege. Everybody will wish them volume is especially rich in important subjects how much brotherly love between nations will good luck in the exercise of it, and many disco pertaining to the history of Greek literature, surpass its present development fifty years veries in this relatively new and certainly most criticism, and science: Arcbilochus, Archi- from now. For instance, Coleridge writes interesting and promising field. medes, Aristarchus, Aristophanes, Aristotle. that he had never met a German clergyman In Crusius's article on Archilochus and in who was a Christian; the Russians he pro. Kaibel's on Aristophanes, as in Kaerst's on nounced brutal; the Dutch, he said, were ani- SHERMAN'S RECOLLECTIONS. Alexander, no allusion is made to the extant mals; and the Belgians, as impudent as they antique portraits, or to the silver cup lately were iniquitous, consisted of four million res.

John Sherman's Recollections of Forty Years exhumed near Pompeii on which the skele- tive asses. For the French he bad this in

in the House, Senate, and Cabinet. An Autoton of the Parian poet, with the inscription

“Frenchmen are like grains of gun.

biography. Two volumes, illustrated. Chi. APXIAOXoz, appears in company with those of powder-each by itself smutty and contempti

cago: The Werner Co. 1895. the foremost other poets du temps jadis. The ble, but mass them together and they are ter- MR. SHERMAN's recollections derive interest revised edition of Pauly, comprising 14,400 rible indeed.” Dr. Johnson said of the Ame. from two sources-first, the importance of the pages, will appear in twenty semi-volumes ricans in 1769 : "Sir, they are a race of convicts, events in which he has played a part; second, at the uniform price of 15 marks, and also and ought to be thankful for anything we allow from their presenting a picture of the man in 150 numbers of 6 signatures at 2 marks them short of hanging.” Of the French he himself. As a literary performance the book each.

says: “What do you expect, dear sir, from has no character whatever, but as the picture

fellows that eat frogs ?" When asked whether, of a successful politician drawn by his own - The Journal of the Society of Arts (Lon- after all, God had not made Scotland, he re

hand it is instructive. No doubt the success don: George Bell & Sons) of December 6 gives plied: “Certainly he did, but be made it for

would have been more marked if the great an account of a paper and discussion on a re

Scotchmen; and we must remember tbat God ambition of Mr. Sherman's life, the Presivival of the water-glass method of mural

made hell.” When in particularly good humor, dency, bad been attained (we infer from these painting which has been used by Mrs. Lea he was willing to love all mankind, except an

volumes that he has given it up); but, compared Merritt in the decoration of the little church American. Swift wrote: “The greatest In

with that of most of his contemporaries, it has of St. Martin's, Wonersh. This method, which ventions were produced in times of Ignorance; been very remarkable. In the world of polidepends on the fixing of the colors by spraying

as the use of the Compass, Gunpowder, and tics success means remaining in office, and the with certain “soluble silicates and metallic Printing; and by the dullest Nation, as the Ger- question which has interested us in reading oxides" (water-colors being used), was invented mans." And the prototype for all this is the

these volumes has been to make out the sort of in Germany, and was in great favor at the yet earlier proverbial saying, “Can any good character and mind required for the task durtime of the decoration of the Houses of Parlia- thing come out of Nazareth ?" A Franco. ing the past forty years. The answer is clearment. Maclise's enormous pictures of Waterloo English alliance has been formed for the ex

ly that the first requisite bas been a conviction and Trafalgar were painted in this manner,

press purpose of removing the false views of that, no matter wbat one's party decides, the but he does not seem to have been much the manners, customs, feelings, and history of first duty of a statesman is to vote with it, and pleased with the process or its results, and we

each of those two nations which prevail in the not set up his individual judgment against it; believe it has not been used since his time until other. Such an organization may easily be

the second, that all differences of opinion, no now. Permanence and resistance to climate, come a powerful means for good.

matter whether they involve moral questions even in exterior decoration, are the merits

or not, can be compromised in some way; the claimed for it. It seems characteristically - A bit of archæological news of some im- third, that a public measure, no matter how English that the discussion should have portance was announced on December 21 by good in If, is worthless unless it satisfies the brought out the expression of great hopes for M. Paul Delombre, in his report on the crédits popular demand for the time being; the fourth, the enlarged use of decorative painting in supplémentaires asked for by the French Gov. that when a statesman does not know in which England based upon the revival of a process. ernment. Among these is an item of 50,000 of two opposite directions the popular current Here, we should be likely to consider a process francs to pay for the exclusive privilege of is moving, the thing for him to do is to "hedge"; of little importance, and to think that a de- making archæological diggings in Persia. M. the fifth, that speech is capable of many uses sire for painted decoration on the part of the Delombre gives the hitherto unpublished text besides the bald and childish one of expressing public and an ability to design it on the part of the agreement which has been made between one's thoughts. Mr. Sherman is a brilliant ex. of the artists were the essentials. It may be the French Government and the Shab. The ample of what would be called in France an doubted whether, in the epochs when art was chief points in this agreement are these: On " opportunist," and that he does not mind at really living, any one bas cared much for account of the scientific eminence of the least being criticised as such, seems a fair de permanence. The external walls of Venice Frencb, and the friendly relations which for duction from his quoting in extenso (pp. 810, were covered with frescoes by Titian and so long a time have bappily existed between 811) an article, by Don Piatt, in which he is Giorgione as we cover ours with red paint and Iran and France, the Persian Government complimented on a symmetry of intellect which white “pointing"--because it suited the taste grants to the French the exclusive privilege of “ leaves notbing to regret except the thought of the Venetians; and the work was as little making diggings throughout the whole extent that its perfection excludes the blemish of a expected to last for ever. The English sense of the empire. All sacred places, like mosques soul.” We shall not attempt to review Mr. of “commercial integrity,” as Sizeranne calls and cemeteries, however, are to be exempt Sherman's career in detail, but shall merely it, places great stress upon permanence, and from disturbance; and the French excavating endeavor to show how his "recollections” of English painters make their work distressipgly parties are held to respect the habits and cus- some of the leading events in it illustrate his ugly with a glowing sense of virtue in the toms of the country, and to do nothing to vex character. knowledge that it will always remain so. them. All expenses of whatsoever sort are to A marked feature of Mr. Sherman's personWhen we really want art we can have it even be at the charge of the Government of the Re- al recollections is their insipidity, and this is in so ephemeral a thing as the poster. Wby public. If valuable objects in gold or silver evidently due to his disinclination to recollect should we not paint our walls in the same are found, or if any jewels, these are to be the anything unpleasant or anything which might spirit, leaving our successors to treat theirs in private property of the Persian Government; give offence. The stormy period of Grant's their own way? The permanence of bad art yet, in consideration of the cost and trouble of first term, for instance, ending in the revolt of and bad decoration is one of the melancholy the diggings, one-half of such objects will be 1872 and the nomination of Horace Greeley by things in this world, and for one lost master. yielded to the French at a fair price; and, the Democrats, is passed over almost in si. piece that we regret there are thousands of whenever the rest shall be sold, if ever, the lence. We are told of the deposition of Mr. daubs that we cannot get rid of.

French shall be given the first chance to pur-'Sumner from the Foreign Relations Committee; we are told that it was “a period of Congress in dealing with antiquated claims the act was merely a sop to the free-silver slander and scandal," and that in the course against the Goverpment.” He mentions that men, and would no doubt have ultimately led of it the author himself was falsely accused of they were “referred to the Court of Claims,” to free coinage if the total collapse of the having made money corruptly ; also, that he but seems to have wholly forgotten that this scheme to buoy up the price of silver by went to California and saw the Yosemite and court-the Government's own court-bad the Government purchases had not brougbt the the big trees--but this is pretty much all. whole case before it, and solemnly decided that Government to the verge of bankruptcy. But, of course, in the personal recollections of a the Government ought to pay the claims, and apart from this, how can a man with any real financier, it is unfair to expect a full history that the money thus far paid has been paid convictions on the subject advocate and fatber of his times; and this may account for the under this decision.

a bill which he holds to be radically vicious, fact that there seems to be no mention of the Again, his account of the legal-tender acts is because sometbing worse is proposed by some long controversy over the distribution of the most peculiar. In a speech made in 1876 we one else ? On this priociple, the candid patriot Alabama claims money, as well as for the find him laying down in the most positive may advocate anything he pleases, provided statement that the only reason for the defeat terms, as a “universal law of political econo- he announces that he is opposed to it. Suppose of Blaine's nomination in 1876 was “antago- my,” that “whenever two metals or two mo- the majority of the House are in favor of an nisms ” between him and Conkling (p. 550), neys are in circulation, the least valuable will act for the immediate murder of all adult And that in 1880 he was defeated because nine drive out the most valuable ; the latter will be Chinamen or Indians, while tbe Senate is in delegates from Obio voted for him instead of exported” (p. 541). But when Mr. Sherman ex- favor of killing all tbe children as well. The for the author—this desertion preventing a plains his action with regard to the law by first is obviously the lesser evil; but Mr. Shersubsequent unanimous transfer of the delega. which Government notes were made legal- man would hardly like to report it from a contion from Sherman to Blaine (p. 773). The tender (pp. 255, 288), he forgets all about this ference committee and favor its adoption. Belkoap and Schenck affairs are not discussed, "universal law," and lays down a quite differ. On these priociples we might be called upon por is the Crédit Mobilier scandal, which at ent one-that the disappearance of coin is "the to listen to arguments in favor of an act legaltbe time convulsed the country.

universal result of great wars long protracted,” |izing burglary as a lesser evil than an act Mr. Sherman's first political contest of im- and that “gold and silver flee from a state of permitting murder, or of an act authorizing portance was that for Speaker of the House in war"; tbat consequently what had to be done larceny as preferable on the whole to bur1859. 60. His attitude in it was cbaracteristic was to provide some currency in advance to glary. The matter is clear enough where acts of the man. Helper's 'Impending Crisis' bad take its place when it should go. Hence it universally recognized as wicked are concern. appeared, and a pamphlet bad been made was necessary to make the new currency a le. ed; but to an experienced financier (the whole from it by F. P. Blair. Mr. Sberman bad been gal-tender between individuals. But Mr. Sher book emphasizes this) inflation is only a dis. asked during the previous Congress by a friend man is altogether too cautious to state such a guised species of wickedness, designed to ena. of his, Mr. E. D. Morgan, to sign a recom non sequitur baldly; the legal tender act also ble tbe debtor to cheat his creditor. And now mendation for the circulation of such a pam. provided that the bonds should be paid in gold, mark the result. The compromise," once phlet. Mr. Sherman warily replied that he and that the customs revenue should, for this made, immediately becomes a good and wise " had not time to examine the book," but that purpose, be collected in gold. This of course measure, and although now Mr. Sherman “if there was not bing offensive in it” he (Mr. strengthened the public credit, and consequent tbinks that "the day it became a law” he was Morgan) might use bis dame. So far from ly the greenbacks; and Mr. Sherman is able to "ready to repeal it” (p. 1070), this is one of there being nothing offensive in it to the say, “The legal-tender act, with its provision those points on which his recollection is at Southern half of the country, from which for coin receipts to pay interest on bonds, fault, for what he actually thought at the the “incendiary” work emanated, the mo- whatever may be said to the contrary by the time, as appears by a prepared speech which ment Mr. Sherman was put in nomination for rists, was the only me sure that could have he prints (p. 1112), was this: Speaker, a Missourian introduced a resolution enabled the Government to carry on successdenouncing the book, and declaring that no fully the vast operations of the war.” This

" What we ought to do, and wbat we now

do under the silver law of the last Congress, member of the House who had recommended it confuses a very simple question - Did the

a conservative Republican measure, is to buy was fit to be Speaker (p. 169). The candidate Government's declaration that the greenback the entire product of silver mined in the was at once able to say that he bad never read should be a legal-tender for a dollar make it

United States at its market value, and, upon tbe book, nor the compendium founded upon worth a cent more in the market than if it had

the security of that silver deposited in the

Treasury, issue Treasury notes to the full it ; that he bad authorized his name to be used been simply a promise to pay? On this point

amount of the cost of the bullion” (p. 1116). only in case there was nothing “offensive" in Mr. Sherman brings forward po proof. It is the book; that if there was anything offensive very significant that he makes nu argument to It must not be supposed that we have the in it, he repudiated it, and tbat his attitude on show that the legal.tender quality of the silver slightest desire to belittle the reputation the slavery question was a matter of record. dollar increases its value in any way.

which Mr. Sberman gained by means of the His manly, straightforward speech on the sub- It is the vice of a mind given to compromise operations that led to the resumption of speject brought him within three votes of an elec- that it generally ends in thinking that com. cie payments. His career as Secretary of the tion. Strange to say, there are people to this promise is an end in itself; and men having Treasury is the brilliant page in his life. His day ill-natured enough to think that Mr. Sber.this bent will generally plume themselves on country no doubt owes him a debt of gratitude man avoided reading the •Impending Crisis'advocating some evil at war with all their on that score, while for cleverness, ingenuity, in order to be prepared to stand by his signa- professions and calculated to produce the tact, and adroitness there is probably not his ture or repudiate all knowledge of the book, as greatest public disasters, because, as they equal in Washington ; but his passion for arthe cat might jump. But the air at the time maintain, they have by this means averted rangement of difficulties by way of compro. was full of suspicion and distrust. Thaddeus some other evil, which they of course insist mise has unfortunately ended in connecting Stevens, Mr. Sherman tells us, said he would would bave been far worse. They do not his name with the measure just referred to, never vote for any other candidate until the seem to perceive that, though they may passed by inflationists, and which has ever crack of doom, and afterwards explained his acquiesce in and submit to such evils, they ad- since made the possibility of the honest paychange of mind by saying that he thought he vocate them at the risk of their reputation not ment of its debts by the Government an open "heard it cracking."

only for consistency but for sincerity. Mr. question. His whole discussion of the curOne great advantage of Recollections is that Sherman's attitude with regard to the “Sher. rency question shows that he wishes to per. the author can recollect things pretty much man silver law” of 1890 is an illustration of suade us that it may be settled by means of a as be pleases, provided, at least, that he bas this. Mr. Sherman is opposed to inflation, perfectly honest compromise between those Mr. Sherman's caution of statement. For in. and yet reported this bill authorizing the pur- who want to cheat the creditors of the Gov. stance, what he recollects about Johnson's im-chase of 4,500,000 ounces of silver every month; ernment and their own, and those who want peachment is that the latter was simply guilty how does he reconcile his action with his pro-Government and private debts honestly paid. of a plain violation of a pedal statute, and fessions ? By showing that a large majority He is consequently opposed to all contraction that no substantial constitutional question was of the Senate favored free coinage, that it was of the currency and retirement of tbe greeninvolved (pp. 430, 431); consequently he “ felt feared that the House migbt yield and agree backs, and even thinks that the volume of the bound" to vote guilty, but " was entirely sa- to it, that if a bill for free coinage should have currency may be increased as the volume of tisfied with the result of the vote, brought passed both houses, Harrison might have business increases (pp. 755-756). To the fact about by the action of several Republican signed it, and that free coinage was a worse that a Government currency keeps alive a per. Senators." At page 144 he gives what he calls evil than the silver-purchase scheme. Conse- petual political agitation for dishonest intlatbs **wbole case" as to the French Spoliation quently, Mr. Sherman did what he could to tion Mr. Sherman seems totally blind, though Claims, and declares their payment to be “the pass the latter. The difficulty with this view for thirty years, in one form or other, such an most striking evidence of the improvidence of ' is that instead of being a genuine compromise, agitation has existed.

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One thing we miss sadly in these volumes, get better ones. Mr. Sherman's potion of giv. canoes, usually hollowed from a single tree. and that is some account of the actual means ing satisfaction, as already explained, is, rough. In the primitive stage of his existence man by which, through all the difficulties which ly, in all cases of division of opinion within the was scarcely distinguishable from the brute have surrounded him, Mr. Sherman has ma- | party, to arrange some compromise on which creation, and in Ireland very little advance naged to retain bis foothold at Washington for the Democrats can be voted down; this, if it was made until after the Christian era. Mr. forty years. In any country it would be an involves a sacrifice of conviction, makes it all Wood-Martin finds it impossible not to accuse enormously long term of service-in America the more creditable. The great advantage of the aboriginal inhabitants of habitual canniespecially 90—(he mentions with pride that his this view of political duty is that under it the balism, and thinks that a careful analysis of Senatorial career is the longest on record); and successful retention of place becomes proof of obscure customs still extant in Ireland throws behind his action on tbe public stage which devotion to the good cause; it is only selfish or some light on this subject. Regarding the exhibits him rather as an adroit manipulator obstinate or dull people who think themselves fabled early civilization of the island he reof legislation than anything else, there must called upon to set up their “conscience" marks: have been forty years of management of the against their party.

"We possess many assertions as to the past local politics of Ohio no less adroit, to prevent When Augustus was about to die, be asked glories of the land, but these assertions are not his younger and bolder rivals from ousting those about him whether he bad “played bis supported by material remains. It is clear bim. In this sort of mancuvring Mr. Sherman part well"; and on their replying that he bad,

that when the East was at the height of its

civilization our ancestors were mere savages, is no doubt a master, but of himself as asked them to give him their applause. It is

and were but little better in later times, when nager he does not give us a fair view, for he becoming the fashion for modern statesmen to Rome was at the zenith of her glory. generally represents himself as avoiding as far anticipate a deathbed or posthumous verdict

The description of the ancient glories of Erin, as possible all dealings with the offices. An by the aid of a contemporary publisher. When

as given by enthusiastic historians, may be

compared to the mirage of the desert, the mere anecdote of the impression which bis arts made the statesman feels that the fiat has gone

reflection of distant scenes and the phantasmaupon Lincoln is curious. It seems that Mr. forth; that the great Prize for wbich be has so goria of Roman and Eastern civilization, which Sherman wisbed to dissuade Lincoln from long struggled is not to be his; that the time is

the writers, imagining it ought to bave existmaking too many Whig appointments in Ohio, rapidly drawing nigh when all place must be ed, finally depicted as if actually existing.” and requested an interview. He found the given up, he displays no emotion, but prepares Our author does not agree with the few antiPresident in excellent humor, but when he himself calmly to meet the inevitable end.quarians who hold that the Ogbam inscripbegan to complain about appointments, the Wrapping his toga about him, with a firm voice tions indicated "alpbabetical knowledge." expression of Lincoln's face "changed to one and unruffled front he dictates his Recollec- For this, as for other moot topics, one way of extreme sadness." He did not say a word, tiops to his typewriter. The plan bas much to consult the bibliography at the end of the but placed his feet on the table and began to recommend it, though from what we have volume. The number of authorities quoted look the picture of despair." Mr. Sberman said, it will be seen that we hardly think that and referred to in the text is enormous. Al“took" at once. He began to reproach bim- in the long run the Recollections of Mr. Sher- though Irish archæology has been at a stand. self for bringing up so unimportant a subject man will-if we may venture upon a financial still for years, there is a vast amount of me. as local offices when the country was in the metaphor-pass current at their face value. terial to be found in the journals of learned throes of revolution, and finally he apologized All the more reason, he would reply, that he societies, pamphlets, and uncollected notes and for it, and declared that “he would not bother should do what he could to keep them at par letters, and this handbook, certainly one of him again with them." Mr. Lincoln's face now by declaring that they are to be received the best in Irish antiquities, can hardly fail to brightened, “his whole manner changed, until and circulated by everybody with full faith give a fresh impetus to research. finally he almost embraced me" (p. 269). It and credit. This helps to float them, and The first of the Spanish Armada tracts conappears that in 1888 Mr. Sherman lost the though there is no Gresham's law under which taios a graphic account of Capt. Cuellar's nomination for the Presidency through a “cor. they will drive more accurate and honest recol-misadventures after the dispersion of the rupt New York bargain,” and be gives a pic-lection out of the minds of the author's con- Spanish fleet. Wrecked on the coast of Ireture of “bossism” in Hamilton County, Ohio, temporaries or successors, he will probably land, he spent seven months “in mountains which shows that offices play the same part always feel, as in the case of the legal-tenders, and woods amongst savages, for in that part there that they do here in New York; but be that there was really no other way to accom- of Ireland where we were wrecked they are all declares that no Secretary of the Treasury plish what he had in view, while the public at such.” He wrote to justify bimself with the was ever “so utterly indifferent to the dis- large will have the satisfaction of knowing King, for he had been condemned to death tribution of patronage” (p. 769); and per. that these last Sherman Notes will in the end when off Calais for some dereliction of duty. haps as an illustration of this he mentions be taken everywhere for exactly what they He hopes that his Majesty may occupy himself that he "severed all connection between are worth.

"a little by way of amusement after dinner by his duties in the Treasury” and the business

reading this letter." There was not much of getting himself nominated for President,

amusement for the Spaniards, for the greater by setting up his Presidential "headquarters"

THREE BOOKS ABOUT IRELAND.

dumber (about one thousand) who in another building (p. 767). Pagan Ireland. By W. G. Wood-Martin,

wrecked with Cuellar were killed as they came Mr. Sberman is fond of a phrase with which

Longmans. 1895.

asbore, or wherever they were found by the one is more familiar in the mouths of domestic

English troops and their adherents. The na. A Letter by Capt. Cuellar of the Spanish Arthan of public servants. The highest com

tive Catholics plundered but sheltered them. mendation that he can accord any measure is

mada to Philip the Second. Translated by

At that time Ireland was but partly subdued ;

H. D. Sedgwick, Jr. G. H. Richmond & Co. that it "gives satisfaction.” What he plumes

and, after many hairbreadth escapes, Cuellar

1895. himself upon in bis political career is that he

reached some mountains “behind which lay a has himself given satisfaction. There is every

The Life of Patrick Sarsfield, Earl of Lucan. friendly country that belonged to a great lord proof tbat he has done so. He has seen and

By John Todhunter. London: T. Fisher

who was a good friend to the King of Spain." deeply pondered the terrible fate of those in

Unwin; New York: Putnams.

On his way be was sheltered by a young man public life who do not give satisfaction, and he The first of the above trio is by a well-known who “knew Latin," and with whom he con. has steered clear of the pitfalls which beset antiquarian and author of other similar versed. Stripped of his clothes and wrapped those who try to be independent of party, or works. It is an exhaustive account of the in straw, be at last reached the house of the to determine their action by considerations of prebistoric antiquities of Ireland, copiously friendly lord, by name "de Ruerge," evidently public interest solely. Not that be avows any illustrated, and its compilation must have “O’Rorke.” Although he is a savage," wrote thing of the kind; the whole book is written on been the work of many years. There is no fail- Cuellar, “he is a very good Christian.” Here the theory that all the legislation of the pasting to wbich antiquarian observers are more he made himself acceptable to his hosts by generation is tbe result of the deliberations of liable than seeing too much; but the ordinary telling their fortunes, becoming, he says, a true representatives of the people (excepting, observer sees too little, and needs to have his “gipsy among the savages.” Here is his acof course, the Democrats in Congress, for when attention drawn to mounds, heaps of stones, count of the natives, who were always at war Mr. Sherman speaks of the People, what he has and rock-scribings, all of which have neither with the English : in mind is always his own party)-a most con. interest nor meaning for him unless they are venient theory, for it enables the author to interpreted by a skilled antiquarian. We can

"They live in buts made of straw. The men

have big bodies, tbeir features and limbs are overlook the fact that in all important crises only conjecture wbat manner of men the well made, and they are as agile as deer. They public opinion has been in advance of legisla-dwellers in Irish caves, mounds, and “cran.

eat but one meal a day, and their ordinary tive opinion, and that what most of the mem- nogs” were; they left no remains except bones

food is oaten bread and butter. They drink

sour milk, as they bave po other beverage, but bers of Congress and the Senate have been of animals which served for food, rude

no water, although it is the best in the world. trying to do has been to keep their places or to 'crockery, primitive stone implements, and 'They dress in tight breeches and goatskin jack

6

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