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| This vain talk was followed, as usual,

until this fatal Administration came in, his loss of employment. It is immaterial The new revised Doctrine now is, that did it fall below the sum mentionod. Then whether the capital withdrawn is native we may interfere in European affairs when this colloquy ensued :

or foreign. It is immaterial whether we see the European Powers plainly no

the owners of it are Americans or Eu- glecting their duty to each other, or when "Mr. Teller-That is a fact which everybody understands We did not break into the re

ropeans. Nor is it of any importance in any part of Europe " the hand of fanatiserve of $100,000,000 until after the present Ad whether the motive impelling them to cism and lawless violence seems to us

into powerbe am bound to say that I bave not the slightest withdraw their money is fear of a change too strong, or when “men and Chrisdoubt but that we should have broken into it of the money standard or a war scare. The tiang” in any part of Europe seem to us if Mr. Harrison had been reëlected. It was not effect is the same. Bad trade, scarcity of to be deprived of due legal protection. the Democratic party that came into power that made it; it was the condition of the

money, higher rates of interest, curtail. But surely we ought not to refuse this country.

ment of loans must follow, and when they sympathy to “men and Jews," and yet "Mr. Sberman-It was a Democratic law. “Mr. Teller-It was not a Democratic law.

come, some leatherhead who has done all we have never threatened Russia for There was not any law and had not been any in his power to drive capital away by expelling her Jewish population under law. Tbat was long after."

threatening us with the silver standard circumstances of great cruelty. Lastly,

or with a foreign war, declares that the how are we to assert this right to look The law that Mr. Sherman referred to was the Wilson tariff, which was not misery by "cornering gold.” First tell “money power" is producing all the after the manner in which European Pow

ers discharge their domestic duties, with. passed until July, 1894, whereas the gold every man who has a dollar that you are

out granting them the right to pass resoreserve fell below $100,000,000 in April, going to fix things so that it will be worthlutions and address exhortations to us 1893, or fifteen months earlier. Every day only fifty cents, and when he takes it to about our negligonces and failures-about we have fresh evidence that Mr. Sherman

a place where you cannot work this trans- our mob law, for instance, as expressed in is losing his wits. Senator Aldrich, how- formation, accuse him of maliciously the unpunished murder of the Italians in ever, is not in his dotage. He knows per causing a scarcity of money. O Liberty, the jail in New Orleans a few years ago ; in fectly well that President Harrison's Sec

how many sins are committed in thy the massacre of the Chinamen in Wyoretary of the Treasury, Mr. Charles Fosname!

ming; in the numerous, continued, and ter, in his last annual report (December,

horrible lynchings all over the country? 1892), predicted an early decline of the

Are we prepared to accept meekly resolugold reserve below the $100,000,000 line, THE ARMENIAN RESOLUTIONS.

tions of reprobation on these topics from saying:

There has been more debating in the the British Parliament, and the Reichstag, “One of the embarrassments to the Treasu | House and Senate over the Armenian re. and the Russian Chancellery, and the rery, in the opinion of tbe Secretary, is the ina. solutions than there was over the Venezu. tort courteous from the Sultan? We bility, with the limited amount of cash on hand above the $100,000,000 reserve, to keep up

elan correspondence, but no more real doubt it greatly, and yet the probability a sufficient gold supply. When the demand taking of counsel. The discussion in the that we shall have to put up with it, on comes for the exportation of gold, the Treasury House on Monday had the aerial character principles of reciprocity, was never menis called upon to furnish it. If this demand should prove to be as large the coming year which usually marks the fiery utterances tioned in the debate. as it has been for the past two years gold in of young men's debating clubs. Where the Treasury would be diminisbed to or below tbe reserve line."

else but in the proceedings of such a body by a stern resolve to “stand behind "the

would one find it solemnly resolved that President in "the most vigorous action But to return to the silverites, the " it was an imperative duty, in the inte he may take for the protection and secucondition of trade and industry which rests of humanity, to express an earnest rity of American citizens” in Turkey. they bewail in their platform is mainly hope" that somebody else would behave What would or could “our most vigor. their own work. They caueed the Sher-properly P What other body would order ous action" be? The whole of our fleet man act to be passed. Its consequences the Secretary to send this resolution to put together would not be more than were an alarm in the public mind and a six first-class Powers as an encouragement sufficient to force its way up to Constanwithdrawal of capital from the country. | to execute one of their own treaties to tinople, if all the Powers agreed to stand When a scarcity of capital began to be no- which we are no more a party than the aside and let it be done. Some of our ticed, they said that it was caused by the Y. M. C. A.! We may imagine the bilari. ships would be sunk in the process. The demonetization of silver which had taken ty with which it will be received in the others would arrive in a dilapidated conplace twenty years earlier. They over- various European chancelleries, and the dition. Both banks of the Bosphorus looked the years of prosperity that had mock solemnity with which its receipt would be in possession of the enemy, intervened. They ignored the fact that will be acknowledged. We doubt whether and that enemy a hostile and fanatical an era of great business activity began in it is worth while to notice that the resolu- population, which fights Christians with 1879, when specie payments were resumed, tions abandon that part of the Monroe great fierceness. Without a land force, and continued with slight interruptions Doctrine which denies our right “ to take where would our coal and supplies come until the Sherman act was passed, and part in the wars of European Powers in from, and how would the ships get back until its operation had had a marked matters relating to themselves" also again after the Turks had time to proeffect in the expulsion of gold from the Secretary Olney's recent interpretation of pare for their return? Suppose the Sulcountry. Then they said the evil dated the Doctrine, which shuts us out from tan, under threat of bombardment, were back to 1873, and many of them believe so "wars or preparations of wars with whose to agree to restore order in Armenia, how now.

causes or results we have no direct con- would this benefit the Armenians? They It is perhaps hopeless to reason with cern,” and which closes with the remark: are hundreds of miles away from Constanpeople who go back to ancient history to

“If all Europe were to suddenly fly to arms

tinople, and they are being massacred by find the cause of troubles that their own over the fate of Turkey, would it not be pre- local Mussulmans who pay no attention to immediate misconduct has brought upon posterous that any American state should find

the Sultan's orders. The Sultan has al. them; yet he must be a very ignorant man

itself inextricably involved in the miseries and

burdens of the contest? If it were, it would ready made to the Powers all the pro. who cannot see that a withdrawal of capi. prove to be a partnership in the cost and losses mises which we could possibly extract tal from the country is an adequate cause of the struggle, but not in any ensuing bene

from him by any action, however vigfits." of all the evils complained of. Every one

orous, without helping the Armenians in of these evils is explainable by the single In fact it would not be easy to make up, the smallest degree. Moreover, there is pbrase "lack of capital.” This will define by inference, a more complete repudiation no proof that we have received any injury and describe not only the general badness of our doctrine of non-interference in Eu- from the Sultan, except the destruction of trade, but the badness of every in. ropean matters, as the complement of the of property, and for this, according to all dividual's trade, his want of profit, or pon-interference of Europe in ours. accounts, he is willing to pay.

If we were talking to practical men of the expansion of commerce, and for a large with the Government proved unpopular, have business, or serious diplomatists, and number of equally desirable objects. But been promptly expelled from the ranks of the not mere Jingoes, we should point out while these parties have had so many objects Liberal party. Whatever faults may be attrithat there are only two ways in which we in common, their attitude toward each other, buted to the Jiyuto, it can scarcely be said that

they are double-faced, or ambitious for Gov. can do anything for the Armenians. One except when a common enemy was to be at

tacked, has been anything but friendly. Each ernment posts beyond the usual human meais to threaten Russia with war if she, the

party has occupied its time either in attacking sure. Their leader, Count Itagaki, has been only Power which can act promptly and

the Government or in denouncing the opposing called a political dreamer, a theorist; but no effectively in the matter, does not occupy parties.

one has ever charged him with being other than Armenia and restore order. The other is

A new step bas lately been taken, how. a singularly honest and upriglft man. It is hard to offer to support Great Britain in any ever, which promises to put both the Govern- to say how far he controls the action of his measures she may take to carry out the ment and the parties in a somewhat different party-in some cases bis advice is certainly Treaty of Berlin. She has undoubtedly position. It may be fairly said that no party not accepted; but in the present instance it is been checked in her recent attempt to co

in Japan can have much chance for success almost certain that he wholly approves of the erce the Sultan by the fear that she that is not opposed to the Satcho and strongly step taken by his party. His assurance on this might find herself acting alone or in the

in favor of responsible party cabinets. The point is almost a guarantee that the coalition

answer that the various statesmen in power, between the Government and the Jiyuto is face of a powerful opposition, for she is

and especially Marquis (formerly Count) Ito free from any political bargaining or personal not a general favorite, and France wants

have made to all demands for popular govern- gain to the leaders of the party. Egypt, and Russia Constantinople. But ments, is that the ministers are responsible Two motives are mentioned by the Liberals such support, to be really effective, would not to the Parliament but to the Crown. The themselves for the coalition. The first of these involve the despatch to the Mediterranean weakness of the argument, however, has been is the obvious one that the Government work of a powerful naval squadron and say 50,- apparent probably even to the present pre- can be immensely expedited by the loyal sup. 000 men of a land force. We have little mier. He must be aware that, under present port of a strong popular party in the lower doubt, speaking under naval and military circumstances, it is not the Emperor who house. Hitherto the Jiyuto, though at times correction, that this, with the troops

summons a new cabinet when tbe old resigns, it has given the Government a grudging adwhich England could assemble from Eng faction in the state.

but a few statesmen who form an oligarchical herence, bas for the most part joined in the

Nevertheless, the means land and India, would carry everything of fighting this system of government, power

cry against the Government. But for this re.

fusal of the party several years ago to vote before it in Asia Minor, and that the spec

ful in its resources, ability, and past record, any bills introduced by the ministers, the potacle of the two great Anglo-Saxon Pow

have not been within reach of the popular sition of the Government would have been im. ers acting together, not for aggrandize parties, and up to the present time all parliamensely stronger than it was in the late war. ment but for order and civilization, would mentary warfare bas attacked it in vain. More than once measures to increase the army be one of the finest the modern world has Early in November a rumor spread of a and navy, especially the latter, failed to pass seen. But, Jingo brethren, it would in- reconciliation between the Radical or Liberal because of the implacable temper of the popu. volve the abandonment of the sacred Doc

party (Jiyuto) and Marquis Ito. It was stated lar representatives towards any measure beartrine of "the immortal Monroe," and it that the party leaders of the Jiyuto had ap- ing the Government stamp. It is generally would commit you to the cares and re

proached the premier with a view to harmo-agreed, both by the Japanese themselves and

nizing the differences which had so long sepa. by foreigners who are in a position to know, sponsibilities and dangers of European rated the representatives in Parliament and that had the Government succeeded in puttiog politics, and-harder than all-it would

the Government. Among all the statesmen the navy in the state of efficiency it proposed compel you to be civil te the odious “ Bri- of national reputation who have in recent four years ago–had the Japanese pavy, for in. tishers.” If you are not ready for some years held the reins of Government, the Libe- stance, bad two first-class battle-ships-the thing of this sort, the less you vapor and rals could not have approached a more tracta- Japanese would have been at Pekin six months threaten, the more the civilized world will ble man than the present premier. Of a com- before the war actually ended. That the respect you.

promising disposition, by nature disinclined to Government was so bitterly opposed by the continual bickerings between the Parliament various parties was one of the reasons why the

and Government, he has doubtless come to the Chinese were so eager for war, and why they POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN JAPAN.

conclusion, especially since the close of the were so confident of victory in the beginning

war, that the old measure of dissolving Parlia. of the struggle. Hereafter the Government is TOKYO, December 28, 1895.

ment was no longer practicable. Japan is less likely to be placed in this predicament. As The course of affairs in Japan since the certain to have a serious time of it in the next one of the spokesmen of the Jiyuto declared in treaty of peace with China has been on the few years, even under the most favorable a speech some days ago, “It does not require whole different from what might have been circumstances; and with an irreconcilable po. any uncommon intelligence to see that nothing expected six months ago. The immediate ef- litical system the danger of successfully work- could be more disastrous to the interests and fect of the peace upon the foreign relations of ing the Government and guiding the country digvity of the Empire than that the people Japan has been comparatively slight. Not through its difficulties would be immensely in. should be engrossed in petty party disputes even the Corean troubles have proved to be creased. Whatever the motives actuating and contentions among themselves." so fruitful of immediate consequences as him may have been, it is known that Ito did Another reason which the Jiyuto assign for seemed likely at first. With Russia and other not long hesitate to accept the proposals of their action is the influence their coalition countries her relations, at least for the present, the Jiyuto. The latter agreed to support the with the Government will have in promoting have assumed all the smoothness and cordiality Government in the next parliamentary session, true party government. Naturally their opof the period before the war. Nor is it likely and thus, for the first time since the adoption ponents, who are themselves aiming to introtbat in the near future this status will be dis. of the Constitution, the Government is to bave duce government by party, ridicule this turbed. So many terrific contingencies lie an avowed supporter among the representa. assertion of the Liberals. It is declared to be concealed in the present situation that no gov. tives of the people in the lower house.

absurd on its 'face that any party can give its ernment, however eager for success or expan- The Kaishinto and other enemies of the support on this ground to wbat is not a national sion, will dare to rouse them.

Jiyuto interpret this political alliance in a most but a clan government. Yet, in spite of an The reflex action, however, of the war and unfavorable sense. Their principal charge apparent self-contradiction, there is no doubt its train of circumstances has given a most is that the Jiyuto, long deprived of the re that the Jiyuto have a strong case in this condistinct impulse to the internal political devel. wards of office, have at last fallen a victim to tention. Hitherto the Government has stood opment of Japan. It will be remembered that the wiles and bribes of the Government. In aloof from all parties. It has claimed to be party politics in this country has always this and other ways the Opposition are trying the impartial arbiter between the conflicting been in a state of confusion. At least tbree to discredit the Liberals in the country. But it demands of the popular representatives. To parties have existed between whom it is pot is doubtful whether these charges will have whatever extent in fact the Government may easy to distinguish any essential political prin much effect. Most of the local political asso- not have acted up to this assumption, yet it ciple. All have been against the Government, ciations have cordially supported the action of logically could present a strong front so long all have been opposed to the Satcho combina- the representatives of the party, and two or as it did not deviate grossly from this self-im. tion, all have advocated a strong foreign three members who have tried to play a double posed rôle. But hereafter the cabinet minis. policy, all have stood for the revision of trea- game by carrying on negotiations with the ters cannot fairly claim to be independent of ties, for the reform of local government, for Opposition in case the alliance of their party' party demands, for the simple reason that they bave openly admitted a definite party to sup. censured. If this succeeds in passing the House, the low-lying shores of Port Phillip, to find port them. If they fail to get sufficient votes the cabinet must necessarily dissolve the pre- ourselves, after a sea voyage of twelve hours, from their friends, it is difficult to see how sent Parliament and make an appeal to the steaming up the beautiful, winding, thickly they can continue in power. Marquis Ito must country. If a hostile majority is returned, no wooded shores of the Tamar. Launceston, have understood this contingency from the other escape seems possible but for the present with a population of 17,000, is pleasantly moment be agreed to receive the Jiyuto as a ministers to hand in their resignations. Even situated thirty miles up this river. A railway Government party. Probably he even acted if a friendly majority should be returned, the connects with the capital Hobart, of 25,000, on deliberately in this matter, believing that the Government will stand committed, and thus the Derwent, at the south of the island. Both time had come when the country would no in either case party government would be an these are regularly laid-out, quiet cities, with longer brook the present Satcho administra- accomplished fact in Japan.

G, D. more of an Old World air about them than tion. To quote another of the spokesmen of

others we have seen in the southern hemithe Liberals in a recent speech:

sphere. The line connecting Launceston and

TASMANIA. " It is our conviction that, by taking this

Hobart may be said to roughly divide the step (i, e., coalition with the Government), we

country into two-thirds and one-third. The sball effectually promote the introduction of a

HOBART, November 26, 1895. two-thirds portion, lying to the west, is for the system of responsible cabinets-a consumma. TASMANIA, somewhat smaller than Ireland, is most part mountain, lake, and waste; that to tion wbich has ever been the cherished bope of

the least in size, though not the least interesting, the east comprises most of the settled districts. the Liberal party. For the attainment of that hope we have sutfered much, but the sole re

of the Australasian colonies. Most of its sur- The mountainous character of the country is sult of our endeavor bas hitherto been to face is mountainous and rocky and is not likely expressed in the Tasmanian railway timestrengthen the Government's resistance to the

ever to be brought under cultivation. There tables, which give, in addition to the ordinary realization of our object. To continue the fruitless struggle at the present juncture

are twenty-one mountain peaks 3,000 to 4,000 information, columns showing the height of would be not only to th vart the carrying out

feet high, eighteen 4,000 to 5,000, and two the stopping-places above the sea. The main of various measures of paramount importance, slightly over 5,000. Unless where cleared, and line between Launceston and Hobart attains but also to retard the attainment of our long with exception of the mountains over 3,000 cherished object. We are contident of victory feet in altitude, it is covered with forests con

an elevation of 1,400 feet. We never travelled in the coming session of the Diet. But, should

on such a tortuous line apparently without we be defeated, we should be ready to hand stituted principally of different species of euca- sufficient cause. The explanation afforded is over the government of the country to our lyptus. There are coal mines; and gold, silver, that it was constructed for a lump sum by a opponents, if they faithfully represent the sentiments of the people.”

and tin are being discovered in considerable British firm which acted in the double capacity

quantities in the northern districts. Fruit of engineers and contractors, and to which A last and most important point for con. farming is becoming a considerable industry.cheapness of construction, without regard to sideration is how far the Jiyuto can give ef- After ninety-one years' settlement, the popula- the future cost of working, was the main confectual support to the Government in the com. tion is but 155,000; less than one-third of the sideration, ing session. If the party had a clear majority surface has been alienated, and but four per On the more than one hundred miles of smooth over all other parties in the lower house, there cent. thereof has been brought under cultiva. waters of D'Entrecasteaux Channel, Derwent would be little difficulty, either for the Gov- tion.

estuary and river, and Norfolk Bay, there is ernment or for the Liberals. But the latter It is practically an independent State, hav- some really fine and much charming scenery. cannot claim more than 109 or 110 party repre. ing an ambassador, under the name of an The eucalyptus forests at a distance appear sentatives out of a total number of 300. The agent-general, in London, and, under the somewhat sombre and uninviting; but, once Progressionists, who are the most active oppo- ægis of the British Empire, is relieved from in their leafy depths, a world of delight is nents of the Government, claim fifty-three, the necessity of maintaining an army and opened up to the traveller. We spent many and the National Unionists thirty-two; while navy. Its upper house consists of eighteen, its days lingering by the lakes and exploring the the Independents, together with other minor lower of thirty-seven members—the one elected recesses of their ferny valleys. Now, in spring, political organizations, make up the remainder. by a somewhat restricted and partly educa- the undergrowth of shrub and heath is bright It is conceded that the Jiyuto can count upon tional, the other by a general, franchise. The with blossom; the air, redolent with scents, is at least twenty or twenty-five of the independ public debt has, within the last few years, fresh and pure; the coloring of the young trees ent vote, while the Kaishinto claim as many as largely under labor and sectional influences, is varied in different tints of green. To one seventy or seventy-five. From these figures it been run up from £3,200,000 to £7,600,000. It subjected for long years to the storm and stress follows that the National Unionists, with a fol- now stands at £50 per head of the population, of public affairs there is a feeling of almost lowing of only thirty-two, hold the balance of nearly twice the national debt of the United intoxicating delight in these leafy primeval power between the two larger parties. The Kingdom. But then it has large effects to shades. Fine strands are to be found on the Progressionists have made strenuous efforts to show, mainly in railways-not merely prestige, shores of the Tasman peninsula and on the get this party to join them in opposing the honor, and glory, as with us at home. These east coast-strands where the pellucid waters Government, but so far without success. The state-owned and state-worked single-track of the Pacific break on long reaches of sand, National Unionists have little sympathy with railways cover 476 miles, and, beyond work- upon curiously formed terraces of basalt, the statesmen now in power; on the contrary, ing expenses, return little over one per cent. against noble forest-crowned clills and pron they are hostile to both the compromising tem. on capital. The main roads are excellently montories. Upon Maria Island, which we per and the personnel of the present cabinet. maintained, also by the state. The fiscal poli. reached by a four-hours' crossing in an open But they are backed by the military classes of cy of the country is, under the plea of revenue boat, from Spring Bay, we found magnificent the empire, and cannot join with a party eager requirements, mildly protective. To a certain scenery. Ten miles long by an average width of to antagonize the Government even in its mili. extent, but in a lesser degree than her sister five miles, clothed in forest and thick scrub, it tary and Daval policy. Hence the National colonies, Tasmania is passing through a wave is the abode of countless numbers of a small Unionists are on the horns of a dilemma from of commercial depression, consequent upon in. species of kangaroo. There are only two which they cannot at present find any es- flated dealings and engagement in unproduc. families residing upon it, amid the ruins of a cape. Common rumor has it tbat they will tive works upon borrowed capital. “She has," former penal settlement and of extensive works vote with the Opposition on condition that to use a nautical term, “been brought up connected with abandoned speculations in the the latter agree to the necessary military and with a round turn," and artisans recruited direction of vine-culture and cement manu. naval bulls.

from country districts and drawn from other facture. Under the circumst inces the present Govern. countries have had to look for work elsewhere. We have been most favorably impressed by ment is not in a position of security. It will The severe lesson is being learned that if there the Tasmanians. There is, outside the towns, probably be authorized to carry out large de- are born more sons and daughters than the where there continue to be amusing gradasigns for the country's welfare, but by the same country can, by a natural process of expansion, tions, much of that equality of class feeling authority it will be declared unfit for the pur. support, it is wiser that they should follow pa- and simplicity of dress and natural dignity of pose of carrying on the administration. Should turally expanding industries abroad than that bearing to be met with in Switzerland com. the Jiyuto and their friends have the requisite they should, at the cost of others, find occupa- bined with perhaps gentler manners bred of a number of votes to save the Government from tions at home by building up unnatural trade milder climate. We found travelling cheap the attacks of the Opposition, the present cabi- | barriers. Cheap ocean transit has worked and dealings open and fair. Drink-shops are net will be more certain of its position than it radical cbanges. Wheat land has gone out of neither many in number nor intrusive in aphas been for a number of years. But the op-cultivation, and ruins are to be met both of pearance, and we have seen no drunkenness. posing parties are alrearly gathering their water and of wind-mills.

Through several weeks of railway, coach, boat, strength for an address to the throne, in which It was a delightful change from the heat and steamer, and pedestrian travel, often glad to the whole policy of the Government will be bustle and wide extent of Melbourne and from 'put up at simple inns where accommodation

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was not always of the best, we have heard nei. cells once impervious to light and sound, where be left free to act in any crisis in such manner ther coarse por even barsh language. men graduated for the madhouse or were done

as their feelings of friendship towards those

republics and as their own honor and policy at In the history of this interesting country to death. The forest grows in upon them, and the time dictate." there has been much of the tragic. Upon the lizards creep over them. "Such of us as a small scale, but seldom elsewhere in a greater were not bad were made bad," remarked to us

In other words, the United States should not degree, have the horrors of the impact of civi. an aged survivor of the system. At Port

be fettered by any doctrine or programme (no

true statesman ever acted on a doctrine or lized with uncivilized man been here illustrated. Arthur, a locality almost rivalling Killarney Seven or eight thousand aborigines inhabited in beauty, we, the otber ay, rowed across to

dogma), but were to be left free to act as occathe islands when it was settled in the early a lovely island where, in unmarked graves, lie

sion might require. Mr. Calhoun, one of the years of the century. Sunk in a low condition 1,600 convicts. This system bas found its

advisers of Mr. Monroe, who had taken most of barbarism, they went unclothed. But all Uncle Tom's Cabin' in Marcus Clarke's For

interest in the declaration, speaking of the competent authorities agree in testifying that the Term of his Natural Life,' a book the

Monroe Doctrine in the debate about the acthey were endowed with many good qualities, name of which is here in every one's mouth. quisition of Yucatan, asserted most emphati. and were capable, if fairly treated, of living Those who have lived through the scenes there.

cally that the United States was under no harmless upon tbe borders of civilization. The in described, assure us that while they never

pledge to intervene against intervention, but desires of successive early governments that could all have occurred in the experience of

was to act in each case as policy and justice this should be, were frustrated by the intolera- one connected set of characters, they are based

required (see note 36, p. 97, Wheaton's 'Interble outrages inflicted upon the aborigines by on truth and have occurred "one bundred

national Law,' Dana's edition). escaped convicts and semi-barbarous wbites. times over." By the upper classes here, many

A resolution introduced by Mr.Clay, January, The aborigines, unable to discriminate, made of whom have sprung from “old bands,

1824, in the House of Representatives, “ deprereprisals alike upon the peaceful settler and everything is done to erase the memory of cating European combinations to resubjugate the murderous busbranger. The Government those times. Records bave been destroyed,

the independent American States of Spanish felt itself driven into a war of capture or ex. the names of places altered, conversation upon

origin, and thus giving support and emphasis termination. The few who survived, taken by the subject is discouraged. Among the people

to the declaration in the message of December force or decoyed by false promises, were de the system is with loathing freely spoken of, 2, 1823," seems never to have been acted upon, ported to the islands in Bass's Straits. Changes and the escapes and adventures of Martin Cash

and was not referred to any committee.

Now what were the views of Mr. Seward in modes of life, drink, disease, and neglect and other outlaws give interest to many a losoon did their work. A miserable rempant cality and form the subject of many a story.

when France had invaded Mexico in 1862 ? In were brought back to a settlement near Ho- To Irishmen, Port Arthur, Maria Island, Lake

a dispatch (October 9, 1863) to Mr. Motley, bart. The last full-blooded native, a woman, Sorell, Bothwell, and other localities will ever

the American Minister at Vienna, who had passed away twenty years ago. Her skull, be associated witb the names of W. Smith

expressed great alarm at the expedition of along with the bones of other extinct Tasma- O'Brien, Mitchel, Martin, Meagher, and their Maximilian, and sought instructions as to nian mammals, is preserved in the Hobart compatriots, the exiles of 1848. There are sad asking the Emperor of Austria for explana. museum. A few half-castes live on the islands, and bitter memories connected with the bistory

tions in allowing recruiting for Maximilian's where they make a living by curing fish and of Tasmania, but fortunately their continuity army to go on in his states, and had referred mutton-birds. has been completely broken. In a certain

Mr. Seward to the Monroe Doctrine, Mr. SowTasmania was settled by the United King- sense Tasmania is the Ireland of the Austral

ard instructed bim not to interfere, using dom mainly as a penal colony. Here were de- asian colonies, for the most enterprising and

these remarkable words: ported alike bardened offenders as well as vigorous of her sons are likely, for a long time "France has invaded Mexico, and war expersons, of both sexes and often of tender years, to come, to find wider scope for the exercise of ists between the two countries. The United wbo had committed offences for which now a their abilities abroad than at home. But this

States bold in regard to those two states and

their conflict the same principles as they hold few days', or at most a few weeks', imprison. arises from natural and economic conditions.

in relation to all other nations and their mument might be considered sufficient punish- She is mistress of her own resources and of her tual wars. They have neither a right nor any ment. The wretched Irish peasantry, driven own destiny, and has doubtless a happy future disposition to interfere by force in the interto outrage and violence under the iron heel of before her.

pal affairs of Mexico, whether to establish or D, B.

maintain a republican or even a domestic class and landlord rule, contributed in no

Government there, or to overthrow an imsmall number to this latter class. Here settled

perial or foreign one, if Mexico shall choose down, after the Napoleonic wars, many British

to establish or accept it." officers, who received grants of land upon easy

Mr. Seward sent copies of this dispatch to terms. Among other advantages held out to

our ministers at Paris, Madrid, and Brussels, these and other free settlers was the assign- SECRETARY SEWARD AND THE MON- undoubtedly for the purpose of advising the ment to them of convict labor. The mission.


Governments to which they were accredited of ary labors of James Backhouse and George W.

his views. But, even before that dispatch to Walker bave left the marks of Quakerism upon TO THE EDITOR OF THE NATION:

Mr. Motley, the writer of these lines was made the society of the island.

The convict system

SIR: You early called attention to the fact acquainted with Mr. Seward's views regarding was here extended as it became apparent that that

the Monroe Doctrine, by a dispatch received it could not be maintained in the other colo

"in the negotiations for the only application by him in April, 1863. The French expedition nies. Upon the Tasmanian Peninsula, at Mac- of the Monroe Doctrine to Spanish. American quarie Harbor, at Maria Island, and at Norfolk affairs which we have ever made—the expul

was very unpopular in Spain, and just at that sion of the French from Mexico-there was no

time the Madrid press was full of articles de. Island, a far-away dependency, the system was mention of the Monroe Doctrine at all.

nouncing bitterly the policy of Louis Napoleon. carried out in its concrete and severest form, Mr. Seward said he did not undertake to dic- In an entirely unofficial and friendly conversa. unmitigated by the safeguards of a numerous tate to the Mexican people what kind of gov.

tion with Marshal Serrano, Minister of Foreign surrounding free population. Escape was all

ernment they should have. They might bave
Maximilian if they pleased, but they must be

Affairs, we spoke about the Mexican trouble, but impossible : there was notbing available

free to choose; and therefore the French troops and in the course of qur talk I mentioned that for the support of life in the forests. There should be withdrawn.”

the present events were quite parallel with are authentic instances of cannibalism among

Mr. Seward not only felt himself not bound

those happening in 1823, and that I thought parties who did make the attempt. Chainby the Monroe Doctrine, but on several occa

that the Monroe Doctrine would be quite apgangs were subjected to the severest labor in sions expressly repudiated it, being justified

plicable. Serrano did not seem to know much swamp and forest, cutting and deporting tim.

by a resolution of the House of Representa about this doctrine, which I explained to him. ber and mining coal. The lash was freely tives, passed in 1825 (when the matter was

In reporting my official conversation with the used. To the gallows were constantly cop. fresh), which was surely intended to be a cor

Foreign Minister to Mr. Seward, I also spoke signed victims. Suicide, even among convict rect interpretation of the Doctrine. It reads

of our unofficial one, mentioning that I had children, was not uncommon. A case caught as follows:

brought the Monroe Doctrine to the recollecour eyes in an old Hobart paper of a clergy.

tion of Marsbal Serrano. It was not long beman magistrate sitting alone on the bench,

"That the United States ought not to be

fore I received a dispatch from Mr. Seward, sentencing an unfortunate to thirty lashes and

come a party with the Spanish-American re-
publics, or either of them, to any joint decla-

that the President had approved of what I had three years in a chain-gang for alteriog an ration for the purpose of preventing interfer

discussed with Marshal Serrano officially, but order for sixpence into one for two shillingsence by any of the European Powers with

he regretted to have to say that the President and sixpence. This system has long been

their independence or form of government, or
to any compact for the purpose of preventing

had by no means approved of what I had to say swept away-all save the remembrance, and

colonization upon the continents of America: | in relation to the Monroe Doctrine, and that ruined walls and vacant barracks, and open ' but that the people of the United States should ' be desired me to at once call upon Marshal



Serrano and assure bim that what I had said more necessity for an act of Congress to covery and occupation. But this would not regarding the Doctrine was only my private authoriza it to protect the inbabitants from exclude the right of acquisition by treaty or view, and did not express that of my Gov. Indians than to storm Chapultepec. As the conquest. ernment. Before, however, I received this dis debate in the Senate shows, the real object of (4) Mr. Lodge says that slavery was the patch, the ministry of wbich Serrano bad been the message was to prevent England from cause of the failure of the Panama Congress. A member was dismissed. I at once had con. occupying the country. When Mr. Hannegan | It may have inspired some of the opposition to cluded, on reading the dispatch, that it was saw the bill would be beaten, he let himself the mission; it had nothing to do with its fail. not written for me, but for the French Govern down easy by moving its postponement; allege ure. Bolivar had put the same interpretation ment, and so I dropped the matter; and, sure ing the very inadequate reason that the In- on the Monroe message that Mr. Lodge does, enough, I found in the diplɔmatic correspond. dians had stopped killing the white people. viz., that it implied a promise of a defensive ence of 1863, published by the State Depart- Mr. Calhoun, John Davis (Senator from alliance and protectorate over Spanish Ameriment, in a dispatch from Mr. Washburn, our Massachusetts), and others denied that the ca. Hence the United States were invited to Minister to Paris, the following passage : "I Monroe Doctrine bad any application to the participate in the Congress. The disa vowal of read your dispatch, No. 51, to Mr. Koerner, Mr. Niles said there was no evidence any such purpose by the friends of the mission our Minister at Madrid, to Mr. Drouyn de that the designs of England bad been aban. in the United States destroyed the illusion. Lbuys (Minister of Foreigo Affairë), and he ex. doned, if they ever existed ; the argument of The South American deputies never attended pressed his extreme satisfaction with it."

humanity had been given up - the argument it; the American ministers went and found Let me add that Mr. Calboun has been re- of policy remained. The appeal to humanity nothing but yellow fever and mosquitoes. One ported to have said that when the draft of was a mere makeshift, and was not made an of them died. The mission was an abortion. Mr. Monroe's message was laid before the Cabi. issue in the debate.

JNO, S. Mosby. net for consideration, it did not contain the (2.) Mr. Lodge says of the Monroe Doctrine

SAN FRANCISCO, January 16, 1896. colonization clause; that that passage was in that “Mr. Calhoun is the only American serted by Mr. Adams, and had never been.con- statesman of any standing who has tried to sidered and approved by the Cabinet. The fact limit its scope."

AMERICAN HATRED OF ENGLAND. that this clause occurs early in the massage, If' he will read Mr. Adams's messages exand is followed by much other matter before plaining the object of the Panama mission, and TO THE EDITOR OF THE NATION: the non-intervention passage is reached, lends the debates in Congress upon it, he will see that

SIR: Your editorial on American hatred of great probability to Mr. Calhoun's remarks, as all of the statesmen of that day repudiate the England omits two or three factors. One of certainly those two subjects in the message construction now put upon Mr. Monroe's de

these is the influence of the school bistories in logically would belong together.

claration by Mr. Lodge. In his 'Life of Web. In conclusion, I desire to make another ster,' speaking of his speech on the Panama these books that I read in my youth was per.

use a generation and more ago. Every one of point. Great stress has been laid of late on mission, Mr. Lodge says: "He made a full and vaded with a distinct anti- British animus. the fact that the English Government received fipal exposition of the intent of the Monroe The conduct of Great Britain in the Revoluthe message of Mr. Mouroe with very great Doctrine." True, he did make a full exposi satisfaction-that the Liberal press rejoiced at tion of it, and he gave it the same limited tionary war and the war of 1812 was placed in

an odious light. It cannot be said that they it; and we are favored with extracts to that scope and interpretation that Mr. Calhoun did were incorrect; but when the facts were preeffect from English journals of that time. This in his Yucatan speech. It was not final, how. sented without reference to the civilization of is all very true, for it conformed to the views

ever, for Mr. Lodge bas given an entirely difof the English Government; but it is equally ferent exposition of it. Both say that there is in our minds was that every British soldier

the times, the inevitable conviction produced true that Mr. Canning remarked to Mr. Rush, no general rule as to the circumstances that

was a fiend of a peculiarly malignant type, and our Minister at the Court of St. James's, that will justify armed intervention in the conflicts that every British officer was his abettor. he was very much displeased with the coloni. of other nations. Both Calhoun and Webster When the antipathy thus engendered bad zation clauses as being built on false premises; | say that nothing but manifest, imminent dan- somewbat subsided, tbe attitude of the Engthat the southern part of the continent was ger can justify such interference. Mr. Web

lish ruling class towards tbe North, and their not settled by Christian nations, so as to ex. ster thought tbat if a European armament outspoken sympathy with the South in the clude all further European colonization, but were sent against Chili and took possession of late rebellion, did much to kindle it afresh. was the abode of roaming savages. Such coun- the country, it would not be a casus belli with

Again, Irish influence in this country is a tries bad always been considered as a field for us because Chili is so Jistant, but that it would perennial instigation to our batred of the Engcivilized colonization. In some of his speeches be different, by reason of its proximity, if it lish. Nobody need be told what a powerful he expressed bis dissatisfaction with that part landed in Cuba. Mr. Calhoun said the same

factor the Irish-Americans are in our politics, of the message, while he enthusiastically ap. thing. Mr. Lodge says if England takes a

and five-sixths of them are animated by the proved of the non-intervention clause. That strip of land in Venezuela to which the United

most intense animosity against the English the other great Powers of Europe which bad States thinks she is not entitled, it would justi-Government and the Euglish people. How just planped intervention do not accept the fy war. It is all the same to bim whether she

far this animosity is justifiable it does not bere Monroe Doctrine as binding upon them needs is near or far away.

concern us to inquire--the fact is patent to the no proof. GUSTAV KOERNER. (3.) Mr. Lodge quotes the two declarations

most superficial observer. There is, I imagine, BELLEVILLE, ILL., January 20, 1896. of Mr. Monroe's message and joins them to

hardly a community in any of the Northern gether, as if they related to the same subject States in which the Irish are not making an

matter. He thereby perverts and distorts Mr. active propaganda of hatred against the EngJINGO HISTORY.

Monroe's meaning and creates a false impres-lish both by lectures and by newspapers. As

sion. If read in connection with their context, TO THE EDITOR OF THE NATION :

our sympathies are always with the injured it will be seen that they relate to entirely dif- party, the effect of this crusade of words is easy Sir : In Mr. Cabot Lodge's late speech on ferent subjects-one to the designs of the Holy

to predict. As the defence is but feebly reprethe Venezuelan question are some statements | Alliance in Spanish America, the other to the sented, or not at all, the resulting mental state that should not go unchallenged :

negotiation then pending with Russia about of our public would be easy to imagine even if (1.) Speaking of the bill for the military the Northwest (Oregon) Territory. It is sup

we did not see it.

Chas. W. SUPER. occupation of Yucatan, to prevent its becom. posed by many that Mr. Monroe said that the

JANUARY 20, 1896. ing a British colony, be says : “The war in United States would not permit any European Yucatan came to an end, and the bill never Power to colonize on either of these continents. reached a vote." He said nothing of the kind. He did say that

TO THE EDITOR OF THE NATION: Mr. Polk (1848) sent a message to Congress there was no longer any territory subject to SIR: Might I suggest, as an additional reason stating that Yucatan bad declared its inde colonization by a European Power. Now, as for the hatred of Eogland in the United States, pendence of Mexico, and bad offered the sov- Mr. Adams's correspondence with the Ameri- the Englishman's habit of giving his critical ereigoty of the country either to the United can Minister to Russia, and his special mes- faculties full sway wherever he goes? He States or to England ; be further stated that sages to Congress explanatory of the objects comes to this country for the first time under the Indians there were conducting a destruc- of the Panama mission, and Mr. Clay's dis- the impression that he is visiting his nearest tive war against the whites, and be declared patch to Mr. Poinsett, show, the declaration relations, and may therefore speak as freely as that the occupation of Yucatan by Eogland simply meant tbat the wbole eminent domain if he were dealing with things at home. Only would be an infringement of the Monroe of the two continents had become vested in in-time teaches him that Englishmen are foreignDoctrine and that we should resist it. Our dependent civilized nations, and was no longer ers in America, wbile Americans in England army was then in Mexico, and there was no 'subject to colonization by right of prior dis ' are always Americans-the term " foreigner"


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