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be conftructed by government; and we anxioufly hope that fo humane an appropriation of money, which must be returned with fo large an increafe, will not be overlooked by thofe on whom its adoption depends.
The view here prefented of the ftate of fociety differs effentially, in most particulars, from that which fubfifts in Bengal. This difference, however, appears ftill greater than it really is, from a variety of mifapprehenfions into which Dr Buchanan has fallen, from his want of acquaintance with the languages. Thus, the reader would be apt to infer, from the perufal of his work, that an infinite variety of religions prevailed in the Indian peninfula; but the divinities, whofe worship he cites in proof of this hypothefis, are only thofe univerfally invoked by the Brahmans, though known to Dr Buchanan under different names. The origin and number of the mixed cafts have been diftinctly and ably explained by Mr Colebrooke. With thefe, our author has inadvertently mixed the names of tribes or nations derived from the places of their former refidence. As they do not intermarry, each of courfe forms a fmall community, diftinguifhed by profeffion, and fome peculiarity of custom from the others. Whether we are to confider the wild but harmless inhabitants of the mountains as a diftinct race from the Hindus, must be determined by investigations not hitherto undertaken. It is alfo a matter of very curious inquiry, whether all these tribes of mountaineers throughout Hinduftan, fpeak one language, and bear an affinity to each other in their configuration and cuftoms,-authorifing the inference, that one great nation formerly peopled Hindustan, and were driven, by invaders, to the receffes of thofe hilly countries which they still Occupy.
Our readers must not infer, from the obfervations we have made, that a very confiderable portion of Dr Buchanan's work, which treats incidentally of the antient history of the countries he vifited, is without intereft. He has rendered an effential fervice to the Indian hiftorian, by collecting a variety of infcriptions extant in the temples of the peninfula. His remarks on them are judicious, notwithstanding fome occafional misconceptions; but they too are difperfed throughout the work, and prefent nothing like a connected whole. To enumerate the errors into which Dr Buchanan has fallen, from his unacquaintance with the opinions, customs, and vernacular idioms of the countries he paffes through, would be a very unpardonable abuse of the reader's patience. We fhall content ourselves, therefore, with a few fpecimens, calculated to fhow the nature and fource of his miftakes. Some among them are able to read poetry, and have a book called Márcandeya purána, faid to have been written by a
principal temple, bestows Upadésa, or Chicranticum, on such as have not received these ceremonies, and distributes holy water. He then inquires into matters of contention, or transgressions against the rules of cast; and having settled, or punished these, hears his disciples and other learned men dispute on theological subjects. This is the grand field for acquiring reputation among the Bráhmans. These disputations are said to be very similar to those which were common among the doctors of the Romish church seven or eight hundred years ago; and, in fact, a strong resemblance will be found between the present state of Hindu knowledge, and that which then prevailed in Europe.' I. 22, 23.
There is, perhaps, fomething too much of farcafm in the spirit of the following general remarks; but the fact is curious, and deferves to be recorded.
The circumstances which seem chiefly to add dignity to a cast are, its being restricted from the pleasures of the world, especially those of the table; the following no useful employment; and the being dedicated to what they call piety and learning. Almost every man endeavours, as much as possible, to assume at least the external appearance of these qualifications; and in the people of this country a hypocritical cant is a remarkable feature. Even young men of active professions, when talking on business, will frequently turn up their eyes to heaven, and make pious ejaculations, attended with heavy sighs.' I. 254.
The perufal of these volumes is certainly well calculated to lower very much our popular conceptions of the ease and voluptuousness of an Indian climate, as well as of the boundless opulence and splendour of their chieftains and princes. The common people are universally miserably poor, and in many places extremely filthy and flovenly-overrun with vermin, and confumed with itch. A great part of the country is infefted with robbers. The forefts, which are in many diftricts completely obftructed by fallen trees, are extremely unhealthful; and the tygers, in other quarters, fo numerous and fo bold, as frequently to carry the inhabitants off out of their beds. The huts of the peasants are univerfally built with mud, without windows or chimnies. Even their palaces are frequently constructed of the fame homely materials; and confift, for the most part, of apartments too close and low to be inhabited with any comfort by an European. The author's obfervations upon Seringapatnam, the famous refidence of Tippu Sultan, and the anecdotes he has interfperfed of this fovereign's character, are among the most curious and interefting parts of the publication.
Seringapatam, as is well known, is situated at the upper end of an island surrounded by the Cávery, which is here a large and rapid river, with a very extensive channel, filled with rocks, and fragments of granite. On the south branch of the river a bridge has been erected, which serves also as an aqueduct, to convey from the