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have not been sufficient to free the Roman Church from debt. Innocent IV consequently urges all to come to his assistance, by contributing whatsoever “our beloved son Martin shall consider proper to ask of you on our behalf, and by paying it to him or his agents by the date he shall fix.” He concludes by hoping they will show their devotion to him by making no difficulty, and not "compel him to proceed in some other way to obtain " what is necessary.'

When this letter had been considered by the bishops and abbots, they refused to give any reply until they had been able to consult together. “We are in a difficult situation,” they said; “the lord king, our patron and the founder and restorer of many churches, is without money. He asks our help to protect and defend the kingdom, that is, the State, and the lord pope urgently demands that we should do this for the king. In this there is a request, doubly valid and doubly efficacious. But now we have here a second and unexpected papal demand. The first, consequently, which is double, is of greater weight and the more worthy of our favour, for we may look for some return for our liberality to the king, but not from the pope. On the one side we are attacked, on the other oppressed ; here we are grasped by force, there we are constrained we are beaten as between a hammer and an anvil, and ground as between two mill stones.”

Whilst this new and difficult situation was still in debate, a messenger arrived from the emperor Frederick with letters to be read at the council. These were listened to, in spite of the protests of Martin the papal clerk. In them the emperor defended himself for his attitude to Pope Innocent IV, declared that he had no wish or intention not to be at peace with the Church, and asserted | Matthew Paris, iv. 369-380.

2 Ibid., 371.

that the pope desired to get possession of cities and villages which clearly did not belong to the Church. He ended by begging that the English would not act in a way hostile to him, by contributing to the papal treasury, and he even urged the English king not to contribute the annual tribute which Innocent III had exacted from the English Crown.

When the adjourned meeting came together again and the application of the king was renewed, first Henry in person and then his officials solemnly promised to guard all the liberties he had promised in his coronation oath. As a guarantee he asked that each bishop in his diocese should publish a sentence of excommunication against him or any other who might in any way infringe these liberties. Upon this, all, both ecclesiastics as well as lay people, promised an aid of twenty shillings for the marriage of his eldest daughter.

The papal clerk, Martin, was not altogether pleased when he heard that the king's requests had been complied with, foreseeing that this might make the papal business somewhat more difficult. Having called together the prelates, he tried by fair words to induce them to do as he had asked. “Brethren and most beloved sons of the Roman Church," he said, “on you rests every hope of the papacy. What reply are you going to give to your spiritual father on the affairs of your mother, the Roman Church, so oppressed, as you have been informed by the papal letter? You have obediently submitted to the wishes of your temporal master, the lord king; let it not be said that you have not also stretched forth a saving hand to your spiritual father, the lord pope, who trusts you, and who is fighting the cause of the universal Church against rebels.” The dean of St. Paul's replied, in behalf of the assembled clergy, that, as the contribution demanded by the pope and the proposed tax on all benefices affected the king and other founders, they could not give him any promise without their permission. Upon this, John Mansel, on behalf of the sovereign, strictly prohibited the clergy from making any charge upon the temporalities they held of him for the Holy See. As nothing was to be got from the assembly, Martin, the papal clerk, summoned another; but at this again the prelates refused to comply with his demands. England was poor, they said, and many churches and monasteries were already overburdened with debt. Further, when the last contribution was made at the demand of the legate to free the Roman Church from debt, the money had not been used for that purpose. Then to give a second time would be to create a precedent, which they had no wish to do. And generally they replied, that as a General Council was soon to be held, it would be for the universal body of the faithful to see that “their mother, the Roman Church," was freed from the burden of debts. This was their final answer to the demands, and, in spite of the threats of the disappointed collector, they returned to their homes. Martin, however, contrived to make many and heavy demands upon individual prelates and monasteries, chiefly for his own expenses.

At this time Alexander II of Scotland renewed the terms of peace he had previously made with King Henry in the presence of the legate Otho. The fresh treaty was necessitated by the contemplated marriage of the Scotch king's son with Henry's eldest daughter. The charter was forwarded to Pope Innocent IV for his confirmation, and, as in the case of the previous treaty, Alexander II declares that he and his heirs are subject to the papal Matthew Paris, iv. 372-376.

? Rymer, i. 257.

jurisdiction, so that the pope may oblige them to keep its terms “by an ecclesiastical censure.” In this case he “begs your Paternity to order some suffragan of the province of Canterbury to compel” him to observe the promises now made.

In the spring of this year, 1244, the papal confirmation was asked for, and accorded to several matters of some importance. In the January, King Henry had entered into a treaty with the count of Provence, by which he agreed to lend him four thousand marks and to take over five of his castles as security for the loan.” Henry forthwith applied to Pope Innocent to confirm this treaty "by Apostolic authority,” which he did on 25th April. On the same occasion the pope issued his “Apostolic letters” to confirm, at the request of the English king, the dower he had settled upon his queen, and he directed the archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop of London not to allow any one to call in question what he had thus confirmed. A few days later, on 30th April, the pope,“ at the humble request of” the English king, confirmed the will which he had made; and, strengthening it by his Apostolic authority, forbade any one to call in question its terms.

At the close of the summer the pope fled from Italy to Lyons, having successfully evaded the Imperial guards, which had been set at many points of the journey to prevent him. Whilst on his way from Rome the pope was met at Genoa by envoys from David, prince of Wales, who offered to surrender his country to the pope; he and his heirs henceforth to hold it from him, on an annual payment to the Holy See. In return, he obtained letters to bar the English king's further action in the quarrel be

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tween Wales and England. The letters of protection were directed to the abbots of Aberconway, and Cumhyre, and they were ordered to consider whether the original oaths, etc., made by the prince of Wales to the English king, were not extorted by force, and if so, were not in fact void. They were also to inquire into the truth of the matter, and, if they found this was so, they were to absolve the prince. On receipt of this communication, the two abbotcommissioners summoned the king to appear before him. This naturally Henry refused to do, and the pope did not further insist on this matter.

About this same time the canons of Chichester elected Robert Passelew, the treasurer, to the vacant See, regarding him as a prudent and fitting person, and thereby hoping to secure the good-will of the king and to obtain a useful and good bishop. On presenting him for confirmation, however, many objections were raised against him. The elect of Canterbury and his suffragans examined him, by Grosseteste, the bishop of Lincoln, who asked, what the chronicler characterises as, “altogether too difficult questions in theology.” In the result they rejected him, and declaring the election void, at once, and without awaiting even the royal assent, appointed one Richard de Wiz in his place. The whole matter was complicated by the papal clerk, Martin, who forthwith took possession of the benefices, previously held by de Wiz; upon which the king declared that any bishop elected for the future, without his consent being asked, should not receive the barony attached to the See.?

In the November of this year, 1244, Bishop Grosseteste left England to visit the pope at Lyons. His principal object was to endeavour to bring to a conclusion the long 1 Matthew Paris, iv. 399.

* Ibid., iv. 402.

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