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nobody" again compels his party to elect vision of the post-office officials. The nobody. In Pennsylvania interest has Government even imposed a tax of ten centered in the investigation of the charges per cent. upon the gross receipts of the of bribery brought against the Quay mana- telephone company, to compensate the ger in connection with the McCarrel bill to Post-Office Department for the loss of telechange the jury law so as to prevent the graph business which telephone commucomplete exclusion of Quay partisans. nication necessitated. The partnership The high-handed methods employed by between the private company and the Speaker Farr and others of the Quay Government, however, has not been satisleaders to defeat this investigation not factory. Owing to the limited rights of only led three of the Quay supporters to the private company, it has not felt justideclare their independence, as we reported fied in going to the expense of a costly last week, but also brought about the en and satisfactory plant; and owing to the largement of the investigating committee antagonism between its interests and upon a basis promising thorough work. those of the public, the public officials Several members have already testified supposed to supervise the company have that bribes were offered them, and the been the subjects of criticism and almost end is not yet reached. One prominent of scandal. The partnership, therefore, paper, friendly to Senator Quay, now pre has not been a success, though teledicts that the Legislature, before adjourn- phone charges in England seem to ing on April 21, will elect a Senator“ sat have been much lower than those in the isfactory to Senator Quay, though not United States. According to a statement Senator Quay himself.” Other predic made by Mr. Simon Sterne, of this city, tions are that the Legislature will ad in an address before the Social Reform journ without electing any one, as the Club last week, the London charge is $85 breach in the Republican ranks cannot be per year for an unlimited service, where healed during the present session, and the the New York charge is $240. Inasmuch Democrats willing to support an independ as electrical apparatus of all sorts is in ent Republican like Mr. Wanamaker or this country as cheap as or cheaper than in Mr. Stewart dare not withdraw their party England, the only important item of excandidate for fear that a minority of their pense which is greater in London than colleagues would vote for and elect Mr. here is the wages of the young women at Quay. Nothing is certain except the un the telephone exchanges; but inasmuch certainty.

as $30 per subscriber covers these wages in this country, $10 per subscriber would

perhaps cover the difference in wages On Monday of last between the two countries. The English Government Telephones week the welcome in England

company, says Mr. Sterne, claims that its announcement expense is increased by the fact that it has made in the House of Commons that the not the New York privilege of stringing English Government had decided to intro its wires in subways and thus saving heavy duce competition in the telephone service outlays for repairs. There are, however, of the country. A resolution was adopted probably two sides to this question, as indorsing the proposal and giving the Post to most questions. The greater number Office Department a credit of $10,000,000 of subscribers in New York doubtless reto develop the telephone service. This quires a somewhat higher rate; but if the action indicates that in the near future the English House of Commons feels that an telephone service of Great Britain, like $85 rate is so monopolistic as to demand the telegraph service, will be a part of the government interference, it would seem post-office system. When telephones were that the New York Legislature might introduced in that country, the Govern accept the moderate bill urged by the New ment recognized that the service to be York Board of Trade, establishing a $150 rendered was of the same character as rate for an unlimited service, unless the that performed by the Post-Office Depart- telephone company can show to the courts ment, and gave the private telephone com that this rate will not return to it ten pany very limited privileges, stipulating per cent. on its invested and accumulated that it should be under the close super capital,


in the West

In our own Central and tion upon some such basis as is proposed Competing

Western States, and at by the Board of Trade Bill for this city, or, Telephone Systems

some points in the East, still better, perhaps, by the bill which has

telephone rates are grad been before the Massachusetts Legislature ually being reduced by private competition. giving a State Commission the power to This remedy, however, is not only un ascertain the cost of service and to recomsatisfactory-- because neither of the two mend rates which shall be alike fair to the competing companies can connect all the public and to the companies. local subscribers—but it is also of uncertain duration, as the competitors may consolidate. Nevertheless the reductions of

The Illinois Legisla

The Allen Law Repealed rates secured by the introduction—and

ture has at last resometimes merely by the fear-of compe- pealed the Allen Law, which gave city tition have been important. In Indiana councils the right to grant fifty-year franthe competing companies have gradually chises to street-car lines with five cents developed a practical system, and more as the minimum fare. Upon the final of the smaller towns are served by the new

vote only one member, and that one Mr. system than by the old. Even in Indian Allen, dared stand out against the repeal apolis, according to the Chicago “ Times- of the law; and Governor Tanner, after Herald," a new company, by guaranteeing satisfying himself that the repeal bill did to reduce the yearly charge from seventy not allow city councils to authorize comtwo dollars to forty dollars, has secured peting car systems on any street without hundreds of five-year contracts; and the consent of the owners of most of the promises to begin business next month abutting property, signed the bill. Under with almost as many subscribers as the the new law, which is merely a modified old company. The New Long Distance form of the old law, no franchises can be Telephone Company promises to connect granted for a longer period than twenty one hundred and forty-four towns and

years, and the city councils may stipulate cities, and to establish charges from twenty- for fares less than five cents. The estabfive to forty per cent. less than those of lishment of low fares instead of heavy the long-distance company operating under taxes, when franchises are extended, seems the Bell patent. In the matter of telephone at last to be recognized in Chicago as the communication the smaller cities are every more sensible policy. A few months ago where served at a lower rate than the the press of that city, and the Mayor, larger, partly because the service is actually seemed intent upon prolonging five-cent cheaper, and partly because it is easier for fares, if ten per cent of this unjust charge a competing company to establish itself. could be turned over to the city treasury; According to a recent statement made by but the campaign which ex-Governor the head of the old company in Chicago, Altgeld inaugurated has borne fruit in unthe increase of its business by three hun- expected quarters. The Republican City dred per cent. during the last ten years has Convention, held last week, adopted the added fifty per cent to the cost of serv- following resolution : ing each subscriber. But the principal

The streets of Chicago are public highways. reason, apparently, why the service in the

All grants and extensions of franchises should smaller towns is conducted at rates so be for short periods—in no case exceeding much lower is the ease with which a com twenty years. Extensions of street railway peting system can be introduced if rates franchises, if made, should provide that all are unsatisfactory. In a great city, on the In a great city, on the subsequent grants shall expire at the same

time, and that the people shall, upon their other hand, the telephone subscribers can expiration, if they shall then so desire, be not easily get together, and no telephone entitled to purchase the tangible property used subscriber is willing to transfer his patron- for railroad purposes. Provision should first

in the operation of the roads, at its then value age to a new system until nearly all the be made for reduced fares, especially during people he wishes to keep in communica the rush hours and for school-children, and tion with have done the same. For this then for special services and cash payments to reason the telephone system in a large the city. city is a natural monopoly, and rates can A valued correspondent of The Outlook, be kept reasonable only by public regula- in reply to a former paragraph favoring

He pre

and Princeton

the policy of low fares against that of this new scandal in hand, at first in a increased taxation, has urged upon us that private way. He remonstrated with the three-cent fares are an impossibility in police authorities without effect. most cities, because the average expense sented charges before two grand juries per passenger now reported by street-car without effect. Then he determined to companies is more than three cents. In lay the matter before the people. He obreply to this, it need only be said that the tained, with the co-operation of friends, a average expense per passenger in Toronto mass of the most convincing facts in evibefore the new charter was granted was dence, and, taking these into his pulpit, more than three cents, and yet the com laid bare the iniquity, and charged the pany which gave the three-cent fares during police authorities with connivance at it. the rush hours, and the two-and-one-half The next morning the papers published cent fares to school-children, is making his sermon in full. With prescience of such profits that its securities have a the result, some of the guilty parties immarket value more than double the in- mediately prepared to move out of town. vested capital. Low fares make it possible The grand jury, of its own accord, at for a company to run large cars well once took the matter up, and, while stopfilled instead of small cars partly empty ; ping short of an indictment, adopted resoand in Toronto at least-where the reduc lutions which braced up the police authortion of fares was accompanied by the ities to order the enforcement of the law. introduction of electricity—the average This was done, and the infamy speedily cost per passenger has fallen to two cents. banished, at least for the present. It is Had the city government of Toronto re to be hoped that the lesson will not soon quired a ten per cent. tax upon gross

be forgotten. receipts instead of requiring a forty per cent. reduction in fares during the rush hours, the Toronto company would not

Dr. van Dyke has announced to-day be as prosperous as it is, and the

Dr. van Dyke his acceptance of the invitaworking people of Toronto using the cars

tion to fill the Professorship morning and night would be out of pocket of English Literature at Princeton Univernearly a week's wages every year.

sity, the date of his retirement from the pulpit of the Brick Church to be deter

mined by the needs of the church. The The recently reported clos new professorship will bear the honored The Purging ing of gambling-houses and name of Dean Murray, whose services to

cleaning out of gambling slot the institution have been invaluable, not machines from Trenton, New Jersey, has only as a teacher and executive officer, a history behind it. It shows, as in the but in the quiet, manly, and beautiful case of Dr. Parkhurst, what a public- illustration of the highest Christian charspirited and courageous minister can do acter, which the students have recognized as a tribune of the people. There were in his life. This chair will give unusual more than twenty of these houses and latitude to the man who fills it. It will more than three hundred of these ma be a grief to many that Dr. van Dyke chines in Trenton, operating in open feels called upon to leave the pulpit which defiance of laws which the “respectable” he has made so influential and so conspicpart of the community apathetically de

No preacher in the city has atclined to demand enforcement of. From tained a more prominent position, or has $4,000 to $6,000 a month went out of sustained his pulpit work at a higher Trenton as the profit of these machines, level ; and no man in the pulpit has had from men and boys, large groups of whom more authority with young men. On the might sometimes be seen waiting the turn other hand, the country has been recogof each to put his nickels in the slot. nizing with increasing clearness the talent The Rev. Alfred W. Wishart, minister of for literature which Dr. van Dyke has the Central Baptist Church, who had shown in so many ways; and he who previously led a successful movement for serves God and his fellow-men through the stoppage of prize-fights under the art serves as truly and often in a larger guise of sparring entertainments, took way than he who serves through direct

of Trenton


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teaching. Whatever instrument Dr. van sub-title as A Study of Life in NarraganDyke uses, it is certain that his spiritual sett in the Eighteenth Century,” is a notaideals will always be the burden of his ble piece of work from the standpoint of utterance. The country has a right to thoroughness of historical research. Miss expect, both in prose and verse, work of Hazard is said also to have enjoyed unan unusual quality and value from him in usual training along executive lines, and the future. As a teacher in a university will bring to her new position executive he will have the qualities which win and ability of a high order. inspire young men. There is no touch of professionalism in him ; his manliness is revealed in the frankest kind of speech;

The latest act in the drama

Italy in China he has great courage ; he is always

of the decline and fall of the virile in thought and in utterance, and Chinese Empire was performed last week; he has the kind of feeling about a man's one scene being set in China and one in place and a man's work in the world Europe. After the experiences of a few which appeals with peculiar force to months ago in Abyssinia, Italy was apparyoung men. In going to Princeton, Dr. ently willing to confine her attention to van Dyke puts himself in the way of home matters; but she suddenly appeared deeply impressing those who are in turn in the Far East and demanded what is euto impress others; of bringing out the phoniously called a base for a port (really a finest and best quality of his nature in large tract of territory) and other concesthe most lasting forms; and of carrying sions. San-Moon Bay is a seaport not very his message of courage and faith into far from the Chusan Islands, which are many pulpits.

generally recognized as lying within the sphere of influence of Great Britain. The

Chinese Government demurred, and Italy Mrs. Irvine will retire promptly made preparations to take by Wellesley College

from the presidency of force that which China refused her. The Wellesley College at the close of the pres- latest reports indicate that the Chinese ent academic year, after discharging the have recognized the futility of resistance, duties of that office for several years in a and, after the usual diplomatic formalities, spirit of devotion to the institution which they will undoubtedly cede what Italy its friends have not been slow to recog- demands. As Italy has practically no nize. Mrs. Irvine is pre-eminently a schol- interests in China, her action at once ar, and the surrender of her life to execu gave rise to the suspicion that this new tive work has involved a genuine sacrifice. move betrayed the influence of one of the She brought to her position exceptional great players in the game now being qualifications both of ability and training, played between the Great Powers. and she has steadily illustrated in the life of the College the highest ideals of intellectual integrity and thoroughness. Miss

At the very moment when

The New-Chwang Caroline Hazard, of Peace Dale, Rhode

Italy was making this Island, has been chosen by the Trustees

demand upon China, the to succeed Mrs. Irvine, and has accepted tension between Russia and England in her election with that kind of reluctance regard to what is known as the Newwhich is one of the best evidences of qual- Chwang railway was extreme, and there ification for a position. Miss Hazard is was talk of serious differences between a woman in the prime of life; a member the two Governments. The New-Chwang of the well-known Hazard family of Rhode railroad is being built within a part of Island ; exceptionally well educated, be- China included in the Russian sphere of cause she had not only the semi-collegiate influence, but it is being built by English privileges accorded to women by Brown capital upon the condition that the road University, but especially because she was shall never pass into the hands of any the personal friend and pupil of Professor other power, and that the chief engineer Diman, whose memoirs she subsequently and the chief accountant shall be British wrote. Her biography of her ancestor, subjects. To these concessions on the Thomas Hazard, which is described in its part of the Chinese Government Russia



was vigorously protesting at the very Various suggestions have been made in moment when Italy appeared as a new different quarters that our own Governclaimant in the field. It was instantly ment should now take its part in the surmised, therefore, that she appeared as division of China ; but our Government the result of an understanding with Eng- has wisely decided to take no steps in this land; and that, if the situation may be direction. We have but one interest in put in the language of the Street, she pro- China, and that is the protection of our posed to secure a small share of Chinese increasingly valuable commerce. stock for the purpose of being able to vote with Great Britain whenever the great stockholders came together in conference.

The statements of the German

Consul in Samoa, Herr Rose,

made public this week, do not materially Then came the proRussia and England

alter the case, as previously known. Herr posal of the English Rose contradicts Chief Justice Chambers's Government, put forward by Mr. Goshen, account in some particulars, but it is still for an increase of the navy, by adding perfectly clear that the German Consul to the regular ship-building programme and the German President of the Munialready very extensive and ambitious—a cipality of Apia deliberately defied the supplementary programme providing for orders of the Chief Justice, issued under the construction of four more battle-ships his well-defined powers, as laid down by and four more cruisers. Mr. Goshen de- the Berlin Treaty, and that their excuse is clared that the Government was taking that their understanding of the law was this action to meet the increase of foreign different from his! Fortunately, the Gernavies, especially that of Russia, and that man Government seems to be in earnest it will be the fixed policy of the English in its adherence to the Berlin Treaty, and Ministry to keep the English fleet at all while it may diplomatically defend its times equal in power to the feets of the rather unruly representatives in Samoa, two naval Powers which stand next it in there is no likelihood of any serious rank. Mr. Goshen, after frankly declaring trouble. The true American position is that England was going to meet Russia's simple; while the treaty is law, it must increase of strength by equivalent increase be enforced; revision should be in the of strength, then offered to modify the interest of the Samoans, as well as of forship-building programme if Russia would eign nations. Our war-ship the Philadelabandon a portion of her great scheme of phia is now well on its way to Apia, and naval construction. There was a good Admiral Kautz has orders to preserve the deal of apprehension last week in regard peace and enforce the treaty. The actual to the outcome of the Russian attitude situation in Samoa at last accounts (Febtoward English control of the New-Chwang ruary 23) was that Mataafa had the suprailway ; but the apparently determined port of the majority of the natives and position of the English Minister at Pekin had the largest forces of native soldiers; has resulted, if reports are to be trusted, Malietoa has the support of the law, as in a modification of Russian demands; laid down by Justice Chambers, and and England is likely to keep her railway therefore of the American and British concessions, and Italy to secure the terri- authorities. tory which she has claimed. Meantime China is being rapidly disposed of; England is now in possession of Wei-Hai-Wei,

The Dreyfus case is now

The Dreyfus Case the Russians are securely intrenched at

on trial before the entire Port Arthur, the Germans have taken Court of Cassation, and every judge (and Kiao-Chau, the French are established at there are, if we are rightly informed, fortyAnnam and Tonquin, the English hold nine) has the evidence in his hands. No Hong-Kong and Singapore, and, with the announcements have yet been made in Italians in possession of San-Moon Bay regard to the time when a decision may and the outlying islands, the available be anticipated. It is expected that the harbors and roadsteads along the coast decision will take one of three forms: are in the hands of foreign Governments. the combined Court may hold that the

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