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commodiously into volumes, and be the first is a foul without a body, and come genteeler appendages of the tea the latt a body without a soul, table. The candid reader will undoubt. As in this fashionable age there are edly impute this extraordinary care about many of Lord Foppington's opinion, externals to the modelty of us present that a book Mould be recommended by essayists, who are willing to compensate it's outside to a man of quality and for our poverty of genius, by beltowing breeding, it is incumbent on all authors these outward graces and embellishments to let their works appear as well dressed on our works. For my own part, I as possible, if they expect them to be ad. never reflect on the first unadorned pub. mitted into polite company. Yet we lication of the SPECTATOR, and at the should not lay too much stress on the same time take up one of my own papers, decorations, but rather remember Tulset off with every ornament of the press, ly's precept to all who build, that the but I am afraid that the critics will ap owner should be an ornament to the ply, what a facetious peer is said to have house, and not the house to the owner.' remarked on two different ladies; that. T

N° IX. THURSDAY, MARCH 28, 1754.





'HE publication of Lord Boling- ble, and openly avow their infidelity,

broke's pofthumous works has One of the queftions for the night was given new life and spirit to Free-think • Whether Lord Bolingbroke had not ing. We seem at present to be endea • done greater service to mankind by vouring to unlearn our catechism, with his writings,than the Apoftles or Evans all that we have been taught about re gelifts. As this fociety is chiefly ligion, in order to model our faith to composed of lawyers clerks, petty trader. the fashion of his lord hip's system. We men, and the loweit mechanics, I was have now nothing to do, but to throw at first furprised to find such amazing away our Bibles, turn the churches into erudition among them. Toland, Tintheatres, and rejoice that an act of par. dal, Collins, Chubb, and Mandeville, liament, now in force, gives us an op. they seemed to have got by beart. A portunity of getting rid of the clergy by shoemaker harangued his five minutes. iraníportation. I was in hopes that the upon the excellence of the tenets mainextraordinary price of these volumes tained by Lord Bolingbroke; but I soon would bave confined their influence to found that his reading had not been ex-; persons of quality. As they are placed tended beyond the idea of a Patriot King, above extreme indigence and absolute which he had mistaken for a glorious want of bread, their loose notions would syttein of Free-thinking. I could not have carried them no farther than cheat- help smiling at another of the company, ing at cards, or perhaps plundering their who took pains to thew bis disbelief of country: but if thele opinions spread the Gospel by unlainting the Apoftles, among the vulgar, we shall be knocked and calling them by no orber eitle than down at noon-day in our streets, and plain Paul or plain Peter. The pro. nothing will go forward but robberies ceedings of this fociety have, indeed, and murders.

almost induced me to wish, that (like The instances I have lately seen of the Roman Catholics) they were not Free-thinking, in the lower part of the permitted to read the Bible, rather than; world, make me fear, they are going they should read it only to abuse it. to be as fashionable and as wicked as I have frequently heard many wise their betters. I went the other night to tradelinen fettling the most important the Robin Hood; where it is usual for articles of our faith over a pint of beer. the advocates against religion to allem-' A baker took occasion from Çanning's


affair to maintain, in opposition to the the absurd and impracticable notions, Scriptures, that man might live by bread which they fo ftiffy maintain in order to alone, at least the woman might For evade the belief of the Christian religion.

elfe,' said he, how could the girl I fhall here throw together a few of their • have been supported for a whole month principal tenets, under the contradice • by a few hard crusts?' I answer to tory title of this, a barber surgeon set forth the improbability of that story; and thence in

THE UNBELIEVER'S CREED. ferred, that it was impollible for our Saviour to have falted forty days in the I Believe that there is no God, but that Wilderness. I lately heard a midship Matter is God, and God is Matter; man fwear that the Bible was all a lye: and that it is no matter whether there is for he had failed round the world with any God or no. Lord Anson, and if there had been any I believe, that the World was not Red Sea, he must have met with it. Í made; that the World made itself; that know a bricklayer, who, while he was it had no Beginning; that it will laft for working by line and rule, and carefully ever, World without End. laying one brick upon another, would I believe, that Man is a Beast; that argue with a fellow labourer, that the the Soul is the Body, and the Body the world was made by chance; and a cook, Soul; and that after Death there is who thought more of his trade than his neither Body nor Soul. Bible, in a dispute concerning the Mira I believe, that there is no Religion; cles, made a pleasant mistake about the that Natural Religion is the only Relinatore of the first, and gravely asked his' gion; and that all Religion is Unnaa antagonist what he thought of the Sup. tural. PER at Cana.

I believe not in Moses; I believe in This affectation of Free-thinking, the First Philosophy: I believe not the among the lower class of people, is at EVANGELISTS; I believe in Chubb, present happily confined to the men. Collins, Toland, Tindal, Morgan, On Sundays, while the husbands are Mandeville

, Woolston, Hobbes, Shafttoping at the alehouse, the good women hury: I believe in Lord Bolingbroke; their wives think it their duty to go to I believe not St. PAUL. church, fay their prayers, bring home I believe not REVELATION; I bethe text, and hear the children their lieve in Tradition: I believe in the Talcatechifm. But our polite ladies are, I mud; I believe in the Alcoran; I befear, in their lives and conversations, lieve not the Bible: I believe in So.' little better than Free-thinkers. Going crates; I believe in Confucius; I beto church, fince it is now no longer the lieve in Sanconiathon; I believe in Ma. falhion to carry on intrigues there, is al- homet; I believe not in Christ. most wholly laid afide: and I verily be Lastly, I believe in all UNBELIEF. lieve, that nothing but another earthquake can ever fill the churches with people of quality. The fair sex in ge

ADDRESS neral are too thoughtless to concern themselves in deep enquiries into inatters of religion. It is fufficient, that they HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT, are taught to believe themselves angels's it would therefore be an ill compliment, MY LORDS AND GENTLEMEN, while we talk of the heaven they bestow, EVER since we have thought fit to to perfuade them into the Mahometan take these Kingdoms into Our imnotion, that they have no Touls; though mediate Care, We have made it Our earperhaps our fine gentlemen may ima- neft Endeavour to go Hand in Hand gine, that by convincing a lady, that with Your Wisdoms in promoting the The has no soul, she will be less fcrupu- Welfare and Prosperity of the People. lous about the disposal of her body. The important Business of Taxes,

The ridiculous notions maintained by Lotteries, Marriages, and Jews, We Free-thinkers in their writings, scarce have left to Your weighty Considera. deserve a serious refutation; and per- tion; while Ourselves have been em. haps the best method of answering them ployed in the Regulation of Fashions, would be to select from their works all the Establishment of Taite, and Amend

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ment of the Morals. We have the sa doubt not, They will be of equal Ad. tisfaction to find, that both Our Mea vantage to the Community. fures have hitherto met with Success: The extraordinary Supplies requisite and the Public Affairs are at present in for the Service of the current Weeks, fo prosperous a Condition, that the Na- and for the Support of Our Own Privy tional Vices seem as likely to decrease as Purse, oblige Us to demand of You, the National Debt.

that a Sum, not exceeding Two-pence, The Diffolution of Your Assembly is be levied Weekly on each Person, to be now at Hand; and as Your whole Át. collected by our trusty and well-beloved tention will naturally be engaged in se- the Bookfellers. We must also particucuring to Yourselves and Friends a Seat larly request of You, that the same Pri. in the next Parliament, it is needless to vilege and Protection be extended to recommend to You, that Heads should Us,

which is enjoyed by Yourselves, and be broken, Drunkenness encouraged, is so very convenient to many of Your and Abuse propagated; which has been honourable Members. It is no less exfound by Experience to be the best Me. pedient, that We thould be secured from thod of supporting the Freedom of Elec. Let or Molestation : Be it therefore protions. In the mean Time, as the Care vided, that no one presume to Arrest or of the Nation must be left to Us, it is cause to be Arrested Our Person, or the necessary, that during this Interval Our Persons of Our Publisher, Printer, Cor. Prerogative, as CENSOR-GENERAL, rector, Devil, or any other employed in Thould be considerably extended, and Our Service. that We should be invested with the We have only to add, that you may united Power of Lords and Commons. rely on Our Care and Diligence in disc

When We are entrusted with this im-, charging the high Trust reposed in Us, in portant Charge, We shall expect, that such Manner as Mall merit the Thanks every different Faction thall concur in of the next Parliament.. We shall then Our Measures for the Public Utility; recommend it to Their Confideration, that Whig and Tory, High-Church, whether it would not be for the Interest and Low-Church, Court and Country, of these Kingdoms, that We should have shall all unite in this Common Cause; a Woolpack allotted Us with the Bi. and that opposite Parties in the Body shops, or be allowed a perpetual Seat Politic, like the Arms and Legs in the among the Commons, as the RepresenBody Natural, shall move in Concert, tative of the Whole People. But if this though they are on different Sides. In should be deemed too great an Honour, Our Papers, which we shall continue to it will at leatt be thought necessary, that publish on Thursdays, under the Title We should be occafionally called in, like of The CONNOISSEUR, every Misde- the Judges, to give Our Opinion in meanor shall be examined, and Offenders Cases of Importance, called to the Bar of the House. Be it therefore enacted, that these Our Orders

TOWN, CONNOISSEUR, and Resolutions have an equal Autho.

CRITIC, AND CENSOR-GENERAL, rity with Ads of Parliament: aş We T

No X. THURSDAY, APRIL 4, 1754.

Νηπιον, έπω ειδοθ' ομοιια πολεμοιο,
ουδ άγοξέων, ένα τ' ανδρες αριπρεπεες τελεθεσι.


EARNING, as it polishes the teristic that distinguishes the gentleman gives an ingenuous turn to our whole This axiom being universally allowconvertation and behaviour, has ever ed, I have often observed with wonder been esteemed a liberal accomplishment; the neglect of learning that prevails and is, indeed, the principal charac- among the gentlemen of the armyz.


who, notwithstanding their shameful part of the poem is made up of war. deficiency in this main requisite, are ge. These studies cannot surely fail of aninerally proposed as the most exact mo. mating a modern breaft, which often dels of good behaviour and Atandards of kindled such a noble ardour in the anpoliteness.

cients. The art of war is no easy ftudy: it If we look into the lives of the greatrequires much labour and application to est generals of antiquity, we shall find go through what Milton calls the ru them no mean proficients in science. i diments of soldier hip, in all the skill They led their armies to victory by their

of embattling, marching, encamping, courage, and supported the Itate by their • fortifying, besieging and battering, countels. They revered the fame Pal" with all the helps of ancient and mo- las, as the goddess of war and of wife • dern stratagems, tactics, and warlike dom; and the Spartans in particular, • maxims.' With all these every officer before they entered on an engagement,

hould undoubtedly be acquainted; for always facrificed to the Mules. The · mere regimentals no more create a soldier, exhortations, given by commanders be

than the cowl makes a monk. But, I fear, fore the onset, are some of the most ania the generality of our army have made mated pieces of oratory in all antiquity, little proficiency in the art they profess; and frequently produced astonishing efhave learnt little more than jult to ac- fects, rousing the soldiers from despair, quit themselves with some decency at a and hurrying them on to victory. An review; have not ftudied and examined, illiterate commander would have been as they ought, the ancient and modern the contempt of Greece and Rome. principles of war;

Tully, indeed, was called the learned Nor the division of a battle know,

Consúl in derision; but then, as Dryden More than a spinster.

observes, his head was turned another SHAKESPEARE.

way. When he read the tactics, he

was thinking on the bar, which was Besides the study of the art of war this field of battle.' I ain particularly itself, there are many collateral branches pleased with the character of Scipio of literature, of which, as gentlemen Æmilianus as drawn by Velleius Paterand as soldiers, they should not be ig- culus, and would recommend it to the norant. Whoever bears a commission serious imitation of our modern officers. in the army, should be well read in He was so great an a:lmirer of liberal hiftory." The examples of Alexander, studies, that he always retained the most Cæsar, or Marlborough, however il. eminent wits in his camp: nor did any lustrious, are of little concern to the ge one fill up the intervals of business with nerality of readers, but are set up as so more elegance, retiring from war only many land-marks, to direct thole who to cultivate the arts of peace; always are pursuing the fame course to glory. employed in arms or Audy, always A thorough knowledge of history would exercising his body with perils, or discifurnish a commander with true courage, plining his mind with sijence. The auinspire him with an honest emulation thor contrasts this amiable portrait with of his ancestors, and teach him to gain a a description of Mummius; a general lo victory without shedding blood. little versed in the polite arts, that hav

Poetry too, more especially that of ing taken at Corinth several pictures the ancients, seems particularly calcu. and statues of the greatest artists, he Jated for the perusal of those concerned threatened the perfons, who were inin war. The subject of the Iliad is en. 'trusted with the carriage of them to Itatirely martial; and the principal cha- ly,' that, if they lost thuse, they should racters are diftinguished fiom cach other ' give new ones.' chiefly by their different exertion of the I would fain have a British officer fingle quality of courage. It was, I looked upon with as much deference as suppose, on account of this martial spirit, those of Greece and Rome: but while which breathes throughout the Iliad, they neglect the acquisition of the same that Alexander was to captivated with accomplishments, they will never meet it, that he is said to have said it every with the same respect. Initead of cultinight under his pillow. The principal vating their minds, they are wholly character in the Æneid is a general of taken up in adorning their bodies, and remarkable piety and courage; and great look upon gallantry and intrigue as essen.


tial parts of their character. To glitter mer in the fifth Iliad represents the god. in the boxes, or at an assembly, is the dess Minerva as wounding Mars, and full display of their politeness; and to driving the heavy deity off the field of be the lite and soul of a lewd brawl, battle; implying allegorically, that wir. almost the only exertion of their cou- dom is capable of subduing courage. rage; intomuch that there is a good deal I would Aatter myself, that Britilla of justice in Macheath's raillery, when minds are still as noble, and British gehe says~ If it was not for us, and the nius as exuberant, as those of any other • other gentlemen of the sword, Drury nation or age whatever ; but that some ** Lane would be uninhabited.'

are debased by luxury, and others run It is something strange, that officers wild for want of proper cultivation. If fhould want any inducement to acquire Athens can boast her.Miltiades, The. fo gentleman-like an accomplishment as mistocles, &c. Rome her Camillus, Falearning. If they imagine it would de- bius, Cælar, &c. England has had her rogate from their good-breeding, or call Edwards, Henrys, and Marlboroughs. off their attention from military bufi. It is to be hoped the time will come, ness, they are mistaken. Pedantry is when learning will be reckoned as neno, more connected with learning, than ceflary to qualify a man for the army, rashness with courage. Cæsar, who as for the bar or pulpit. Then we may was the fineit gentleman and the greatest expect to see the British soldiery enter general, was also the beit scholar of his on the field of battle, as 'on a theatre, age.

for which they are prepared in the parts To say the trith, learning wears a they are to act. They will not then,' more amiable aspect and winning air in (as Milton expresses himself with his courts and camps, whenever it appears usual strength in his Treatise on Eduthere, than amid the gloom of colleges cation) if intrutted with fair and hopeand cloisters. Mixing in genteel life ful armies, suffer them, for want of files off the rust that may have been con • just and wise discipline, to Med away tracted by study, and wears out any from about them like fick feathers, little oddness or peculiarity, that may though they be never fo oft supplied : be acquired in the closet. For this rea • they would not suffer their empty and fon the officer is more inexcusable, who unrecruitable colonels of twenty men neglets an accomplishment that would ' in a company, to quaff out, or convey fit to gracefully upon him: for this rea • into secret huards, the wages of a defon too, we pay lo great deference to « Jusive list and a miserable remnant; those few who have enriched their minds yet in the mean while to be overa with the treasures of antiquity. An • mastered with a score or two of drunk. illiterate officer either hardens into a ards, the only foldiery left about them, bravo, or refines into a fop. The infi or elle to comply with all rapines and pidity of the fopis utterly contemptible; « violences. No certainly, IF THEY and a sough brutal courage, unpolished KNEW OUGHT OF THAT KNOWby science and unnslifted by realon, has LEDGE, THAT BELONGS TO GOOD no inore claim to heroism, than the cate MEN AND GOOD GOVERNORS, they hardened valour of a bruiser or prize would not suffer these things.' fighter. Agreeable to this notion, Ho



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N° XI. THURSDAY, APRIL 11, 1754.





*HE principal character in Steele's comh; but a coxcomb of learning and

comerly of the Lying Lover is parts. His erudition he renders fubler. young Buckwii, an Oxonian, who at vient to his plca/ures: his knowledge orce thiors of the habit and manners of in poetry qualifies him for a fonneteer, an academic, and a fumes the dress, air, his rhetoric to say fine things to the and converfarion, of a man of the town. ladies, and his philofophy to regulate like other fine gentlemen, a cox his equipage; for he talks of having


He is,

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