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N° XVI. THURSDAY, MAY 16, 1754.






“ therefore, Secchi, and cut a pound

“ of Aesh from any part you please of SIR,

OXFORD, MAY 12, 1754. “ the Jew's body. We advise you, TOUR laft week's paper, on the

“ however, to be very careful; for if

you cut a scruple more or less than of an extract I lately met wich in some your due, you fall certainly be news-papers, from the ' Life of Pope

“ hanged." Sixtus V. translated from the Italian of What induced me to trouble you with Gregorio Leti by the Reverend Mr. this, is a remark made by the editor, Farnworth.' The pallage is as follows: that the scene between Shylock and An.

It was reported in Rome, that Drake tonio in the Merchant of Venice is borhad taken and plundered St. Domingo rowed from this story. I should perin Alspaniola, and carried off an im- haps have acquiefced in this notion, if 6 mense booty. This account came in I had not seen a note in the “ Observa

a private letter to Paul Secchi, a very tions on Spenser's Faerie Queene, by

confiderable merchant in the city, whó Mr. T. Warton of Trinity College, • had large concerns in those parts, where he seems to have discovered the ' which he had insured. Upon receiv real source from which Shakespeare drew

ing this news, he sent for the insurer, his fable, which (he informs us) is . Samlon Ceneda, a Jew, and acquaint. founded upon an ancient ballad. "The

ed him with it. The Jew, whofe in- admirers of Shakespeare are obliged to 'terett it was to have such a report him for this curious discovery: but as

thought false, gave many reasons why Mr. Warton has only given fome ex• it could not pollibly be true; and attracts, they would undoubtedly be glad • last worked himself up into such a pas.

to see the whole. This ballad is moft fion, that he said " I'll lay you a probably no where to be met with but pound of my Atlh it is a lye." Sec. in the Ahmolean Musæum in this unichi, who was of a fiery hot temper, versity, where it was deposited by that replied" I'll lay you a thousand famous antiquary Anthony à Wood : I

crowns against a pound of your flesh, have therefore sent you a faithful'tran" that it is true." "The Jew accepted script of it; and you must agree with 'the wager, and articles were imme. me, that it will do you more credit, as • diately executed betwixt them, that if a Connoisseur, to draw this hidden

Secchi won, he should himself cut the treasure into light, than if you had disa * fefh with a sharp knife from whatever covered an Otho or a Niger. • part of the Jew's body he pleased. • The truth of the account was foon

A SONG, confirmed; and the Jew was almost • diftraéted, when he was informed, that Secchi had folemnly sworn he

TUS, A JEW, WHO LENDING TO A ' would compel him to the exact literal performance of his contract. A re

port of this transaction was brought • to the Pope, who sent for the parties, ' and being informed of the whole af. Venice town not long agoe • fair, faid" When contracts are A cruel Jew did dweli, " made, it is just they shoul i be ful.

Which lived all on ufirie, “ filled, as this thall. Take a knife,

As Italian writers tell.





Gernutus called was the Jew,

Which never thought to die, Nor never yet did any good

To them in streets that lye. His life was like a barrow hogge,

That liveth many a day, Yet never once doth any good,

Until men will bim lay. Or like a filthy heap of dung,

That lyeth in a hoord; Which never can do any good,

Till it be spread abroad.
So fares it with this usurer,

He cannot Neep in rest,
For fear the cheefe doth him pursue

To pluck him from bis nest.
His heart doth think on many a while,

How to deceive the poore;
His mouth is almost full of mucke,

Yet still he gapes for more.
His wife must lend a thilling,

For every week a penny,
Yet bring a pledge that's double worth,

If that you will have any.
And see (likewise) you keep your day,

O, elle you loose it all:
This was the living of his wife,

Her cow she doth it call.
Within that citie dwelt that time

A merchant of great fame, Which being diftreffed, in his need

Unto Gernutus came : Defiring him to stand his friend,

For tw..lve moneth and a day, To lend to him an ioo crownes,

And he for it would pay Whatsoever he would demand of him

And p edges he should have: • No,' (qd, the Jew with feering lookes)

• Sir, aske what 'ou will have. • No penny fo the loane of it

For one yeere you shall pay; ( You may du me as good a turne

* Before my dying day. . But we will have a merry jeaft

« For to be ca.ked long; "You thall make me a bond,' (quoth he)

• That shall be large and strong. « And this sal be the forfeiture,

Of your own f she a pound, • If you agree, make you the bond,

• And here's a hundred crownes.'

WITH right good will," the merchant

And so the bond was made,
When twelve months and a day drew on,

That back it should be payd.
The merchant's ships were all at sea,

And money ca ne not in;
Which way to take, or what to doe,

To thinke he doth begin.
And to Gernutus straight he comes

With cap and bended knee,
And sayd to him of curtefie

• I pray you bear with me.
My day is come, and I have not

The money for to pay:
! And littie good the forfeiture

• Will doe you I dare say,'
With all my heart, 'Gernutus said,

« Command it to your minde:
In things of bigger weight than this.

" You shall me readie finde.'

his way; the day once past,
Gernutus doth not llacke
To get a ferjeant presentlie,

And lapt him on the backe;
And layd him into prison strong,

And sued his band withall;
And when the judgineni-day was comes.

For judgmeni he doth call.
The merchant's friends came thither faft,

With many a weeping eye,
For other means they could not find,

But he that day must dye.
Some offered for his 100 crownes

Five hundred for to pay;
And some a thousand, iwo or three,

Yer still he did denay.
And at the last, 10,000 crownes

They offered him to save,
Gernutus said I will no gold,

• My fo feit I will have.
• A pound of flesh is my demand,

And that thall be my hyre.'
Then said the judge-'Yetmy good friend,

• Let me of you desire,
• To take the fleshe from such a place

"As yet you let him live; • Doe so, and lo an 100 crownes,

• To thee here will I give.' "No, no,' quoch he,' no judgment here

" For th s it shall be tryde, « For I will have my pound of feihe • From under his right side.'


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Ja grieved all the companie,

It will be proper to subjoin what the His crueltie to fee;

ingenious Mr. Warton has observed For neither friend nor foe could help

upon this subject. It may be object. But he must spoiled bee.

ed,' says he, that this ballad might The bloudie Jew now ready is

• have been written after, and copied With whetted blade in hand

• from Shakespeare's play. But if ihat To spoyle the bloud of innocent, • had been the cale, it is most likely, By forfeit of his bond.

! that the author would have prelerved And as he was about to strike

• Shakespeare's name of Shylock for the In him the deadly blow:

Jew; and nothing is more likely, than • Stay,'quoth the judge, 'thy crueltie, that Shakespeare, in copying from "I charge thee to do so.

" this ballad, should alter the name

< from Gernutus to one more Jewilh. Sith ne-ds thou wilt thy forfeit have, " Which is of Aethe a pound:

Another argument is, that our ballad " See that thou fhed no drop of bloud,

• has the air of a narrative written' beNor yet the man confound.

• fore Shakespeare's play; I mean, that For if thou doe, like murtherer,

• if it had been written after the play, • Thou here thalt har ged be:

6 it would have been much more full Likewise of Rethe see that thou cut

• and circumstantial. At present, it No more than longs to thee.

has too much the nakedness of an ori

• ginal.' • For if thou take either more or leffe, It would, indeed, be absurd to think, * To the value of a mite,

that this ballad was taken from Shake• Thou ihalt be hanged presently, • As is both law and right.'

speare's play, as they differ in the most

essential circumstances. The fum borGernutus pow waxt f antic mad,

rowed is in the former an hundred And wores not what to say:

crowns, in the latter three thoutand Quoth he at last 10,000 crownes ducats. The time limited for payment in I will that be shall pay.

the one is only three months, in the other And so I grant to let him free:' a year and a day. In the play the mer

The judge dothaniwere make, chant's motive for borrowing, (which + You shall not have a penny given, is finely imagined by Shakespeare, and • Your forfeiture now take.

is conducive to the gener al plur) is not At the lant he doth demand,

on account of his own neceffities, but But for to have his own :

for the service of his friend. To thele “No,' quo:h the judge, 'do as you lift, we may add, that the clofe of the Atory

Thy judgment shall be the wne. is finely heightened by Shakespeare. • Either take your pound of feshe, "(qd. he)

A m«re copyist, such as we may sup• Or cancell me your bond.

poie a ballad-maker, would not have O cruel judge,' then quoth the Jew,

given hintelf the trouble to alter cira " That doth against me stand!

cumstances; at least he would not have

changed them so much for the worse. And so with gripe grieved minde

But this matter seems to be placed out He biddeth them farewell:

of all doubt by the first ttanza of the All the people pays d the Lord That ever this heard teil.

ballad, which informs us, that the story

was taken from fome Italian novel. Good people that do hear this song, ( Thus inuch therefore is certain,' as For truth I dare wel! say,

Mr. Warton obierves, that Shake. That many a wretch as ill as he Doth live now ar this day,

' speare either copies from that Italian

novel, or troin this hallad. Now we That seeketh nothing hut the spoyle « have no tranflarion, I prelume, of luch Of many a wearthie man,

" a novel into English. If then it he And for to trap the innocent,

• granted, that Shakespeare generaly Deviseth what they can.

· took his Italian stories from their From whom the Lord deliver me, " E: glish tranflations, and that the fra And every Christian too,


above, concenme the ;tier And send to them like fentence eke,


of his head, are true, it That mea..eth so to do.

o will 'fullow, that Shaktipeale copied Printed at London by E. P. for J. Wright

s from this ballad.' dwelling in Gilt-Spur-Street,

Upon the whole, it is very likely, that


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the Italian novel, upon which this bal more than probable, is drawn from fome Jad seems founded, took it's rife (with other novel well known in his time, an inversion of the circuinitances) fron I cannot conclude without remarking, the above-mentioned story in the Life with what art and judgment Shakefpeare • of Pope Sixtus V.' the memory of has wove together these different stories which must have been then recent. I of the Jew and the Caskets; from both should be glad if any of your readers which he has formed one general fable, can give any further light into this af. without having recourse to the stale artifair, and, if poflible, acquaint the pub. fice of eking out a barren subject with lic froin whence Shakespeare borrowed impertinent underplots. I am, Sir, your the other part of his fable concerning humble servant, &c. Portia and ibe Caskets; which, it is

T le hardence been handlaid trim


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There have risen, within these two years,

very numerous tribes of Methodilts, SIR,

Moravians, Middletonians, Muggle"HOUGH many historians have tonians, Hutchinsonians,&c. In a word,

described the city of London (in our seats are multiplied to such an infiwhich we may include Westminster) nite degree, that, as Voltaire has before with great accuracy, yet they have not observed, 'every man may now go to fet it out in the full light which at pre- heaven his own way.' Can the Divifent it deserves. They have not diltin- nityschools boast fuch found doctrine guifhed it as an university. Paris is as the Foundery in Mhorfelds? Or were an university, Dublin is an univerfity, ever fellows of colleges such adepts in even Molcow is an university. But matrimony, as the reverend doctors of London has not yet been honoured with the Fleet, or the primare of May Fair? that title. I will allow our metropolis The theory of Medicine may un. to have been intended originally, only doubtedly be taught at Oxford and as a city of trade; and will farther Cambridge in a tolerable manner; but own, that scarce any sciences, except the art itself can only be learned, where such as were purely mercantile, were it Aourishes, at London. Do not our cultivated in it, till within these lait daily papers give us a longer list of methirty years. But from that period of dicines, than are contained in any of the time, Í may say a whole army, as it difpenfatories ? And are we not conwere, of arts and sciences have amicably stantly told of surprising antidotes, cermarched in upon us, and have fixed tain cures, and never failing remedies themselves as auxiliaries to our capital. for every complaint? And are not each

The four great faculties, I mean of these specifics equally efficacirus in Theology, Law, Medicine, and Philo.

one distemper as another, from the Grand fophy, which are taught in other uni. Restorative Elixir of Life, down to the versities, are in their highest perfection Infallible Corn Salve, as thousands have here. The prosperity of the first may experienced? With what pleasure and be seen by the crouded churches every admiration have I beheld the Machaon Sunday, and the discipline of the second of our times, Dr. Richard Rock, dir. by the numberle's young Itudents who penfing from his one horse chaise his constantly dine in their respective halls Cathartic Antivenereal Electuary, his at the several Inns of Court. These Itch Powder, and his Quintellence of two faculties have of late received con- Vipers! It may be asked, is he a Gra. fiderable improvements, but particularly duare? Is he a regular Physician? Na, that of Theology; as is manifest from heis superior to regularity. He despises feveral new and astonishing opinions, the formality of academical degrees. which have been started among us. He stiles himselt M. L. He is a London


Physician, or, as Moliere would express they have the advantage of languages is, C'eji un Medicin de Londres.

so very little known, as the Greek, and Alter Medicine let us contider Logic. even Hebrew, to compose in? Had ever How is that mott vieful art taucht in any of their professors the least idea of a the two universities? Is it not clogged Burletta? Or are

are any of their molt sublime with such barbarous ternis, as tend to Anthems hali lo ravishing a: Foot's Mi. puzzle and confound, railer than en nutt from the hand organ of the little lighten or direct the underitanding? Is Savoyard Duchess? Are those classical it not taught in a dead, I had almolt instruments the Doric Lute, the Syrinx, id, in a Popish tongue? Is it not over or the Fiftula, to be compared to the run with dry distinctions, and ulelels melody of the Woden Spoons, the Jews. subrieties? Where then is it to be learn. Harp, and Salt-Box, at Mrs. Mided in all the purity of reason, and the night's? dignity of language? Neither at Oxford But there are no doctrines more forci. nor at Cambridge, but at the Robin bly inculcaied among us than those of Hood Alehouse in Butcher Row, near Einics, or Moral Philosophy. What Temple Bar.

are the precepts of Plato, Epictetus, From Logic let us proceed to Elo. or Tully, in comparison to the moral quence: and let us ingenuously confels, lesons delivered by our periodical writthat neither of our unive fities can buait ers? And are not you, Mr. Town, a an orator equal to the renowned Hen- wifer man than Socrates ? But the age ley. Has he not all the qualifications is more particularly indebted, for it's required by Tully in a complete ora present universal purity of manners, to tor? Has he not been followed by the thote excellent rules for the conduct of greatest men of the nation? Yet has life contained in our modern novels. this modeft divine never derived any title From these moral works might be comto himself froin his own rhetoric, except piled an entire new systein of Ethics, such an one as his extraordinary elocis. far fuperior to the exploded notions of tion naturally bestowed upon hiin. milty Academics, and adapted to the Might he not have called himieif Preli- practice of the present times. Cato, we dent of the Butchers? Dean of Marrow are told, commended a young man, bones and Cleavers ? or Warden of whom he saw coming out of the public Clare Market? Certainly he might. Itews, because he imagined it inight Therefore, if it were for his fake only, preterve him from the crime of adultery; in my humble opinion, London ought and the Spartans used to make their immediately to assume the title of an Naves drunk in the presence of their University; and the butchers of Clare youth, that they might be deterred from Market, who have so conttantly attend the like cebiucheries. For the faine al Mr. Henley's Lectures, ought to be reatuns, we may suppose, that our tapretented with honorary degrees. veins and bagnios are so much frequent

I know not what pretentions the uni- ed by our young people; and in this verkties may have had originally to light we may fairly contider them as so adopt Music among the relt of their sci many Schools of Moral Philofopby. ences : perhaps they have allinned a right If we are willing to turn our thoughts of beltowing degrees in Muic, from towards Experimental Philosophy, can their being called the leats of the Muses; the several universities of the whole as it is well known that Apollo was a world produce fuch a variety of intrude filler, as well as a poet and a physician; ments, lo judiciously collected, for Af. and the Muses are said to have deligiited tronomical, Geographical, and all other in fiddling and piping. The young ftu- scientific observations, as are to be lien dents, I am told, of either university, in the two amazing repositories of Mr. are more ambitious to excel in this sci- Proffior Deard in the Strand, and of ence than any other, and spend most of Mr. Profetlor Rufel at Charing Cross? their time in the study of the Gamut: It were endless to enumerate particulars; but their knowledge in Harmonics is but I cannot help taking notice of thoro Leldom carried farther than I love Sue, elegant little portable telescopes, that or Ally Croker. In this point London are made use of in all public places; by has undoubtedly a better title to be call. · which it is evident, that even o'r fine ed an Univerfity. Did Oxford or Cam. ladies and gentlemen are become profia bridge ever produce an Opera, though cients in Oprics.


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