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whose alhes it conveyed. For the same farce and matter of form only. When purpose, an archievement was after. person of distinction goes out of the wards fixed over the door of the late world, not only the relations, but the habitation of the deceased. The ensign whole household, muit be cloathed in of death may fairly be indulged, where sable. The kitchen-wench (cours her the persons are ennobled by their birth dishes in crape, and the helper in the or station, and where it ferves to remind ftables rubs down his horses in black the passer-by of any great or good ac- leathern breeches. Every thing must tions performed by the deceased, or to put on a dismal appearance: even the inspire the living with an emulation of coach must be covered and lined with their virtues. But why, forfooth, can- black. This last particular, it is reanot an obscure or infignificant creature sonable to imagine, is intended (like a go out of the world, without advertising death's head on the toilette) to put the it by the atchievement? For my part, I owner constantly in mind, that the pomp generally consider it as a bill on an of the world and all gay pursuits are empty house, which serves the widow but vain and perishable. Yet what is to acquaint us, that the former tenant more common, than for these vehicles is gone, and that another occupier is to wait at the doors of the theatres, thie wanted in his room. Many families opera house, and other public places of have, indeed, been very much perplexed diversion? Those who are carried in in making out their right to this mark them, are as little affected by their dirof gentility, and great profit has arisen mal appearance as the horses that draw to the Herald's Office by the purchase them; and I once faw with great surof arms for this purpose. Many a wor- prise, an harlequin, a fcaramouch, a thy tradesman of plebeian extraction, has thepherdess, and a black lattin devil, been made a gentleman after his decease get into a inourning-coach to go to a by the courtesy of his undertaker; and jubilee masquerade. I once knew a keeper of a tavern, who If I fhould not be thought to lay too not being able to give any account of much stress on the leffer formalities ob. his wife's genealogy, put up his fign, served in mourning, I might mention the King's Arms, for an atchievement the adınirable method of qualifying the at her death.

melancholy hue of the mourning ring, It was the custom, in the time of the by enlivening it with the brilliancy of a plague, to fix a mark on those houses diamond. I knew a young lady, who in which any one had died. This pro- wore on the same finger a ring fet round bably may have given rise to the general with death's heads and crois marrowfashion of hanging up an atchievement. bones, for the loss of her father; and However this be, it is now designed as another prettily embellished with burna polite token, that a death has hap- ing hearts pierced through with darts, pened in the family; and might reason. in respect to her lover. But what I moft ably be understood as a warning to keep of all admire, is the ingenious contrivpeople from intruding on their grief. ance by which persons fpread the tidings No such thing is indeed intended by it; of the death of their relations to the inost I am therefore of opinion, that it ought distant parts, by means of black-edged every where to be taken down after the paper, and black fealing-wax. If it first week. Whatever outward signs of were possible to inspect the feveral letters mourning may be preserved, no regard that bear about them these external tois ever paid to them within : the fame kens of grief, I believe we should hardly visitings, the same card-playings, are ever find the contents of the faine gloomy carried on as before; and so little respect complexion : a merry tale, or an ainois thewn to the archievement, that if it rous billet-doux, would be inuch oftener happens (as it often does) to interfect found to be conveyed under theie dirone of the windows in the grand aparte mal passports, than doleful lamentation's ment, it is occasionally removed, when- or reflections on mortality: and, indeed, ever the lady dowager gives a grand en- these mock signs of woe are fo little attertainment.

tended to, that a person opens one of This naturally leads me to consider these letters with no more concern than how much the cultoniary suits of so. is felt by the poitman who brings it. • lemn black,' and the other trappings We cannot suppose, that black edged ' and signs of woe,' are become a mere paper was ever intended to be defiled by


vulgar vulgar han Is, but was contrived, like fine ladies and gentlemen. An acgilt paper, for the use of the polite world quaintance of mine has contrived a new only. But, alas! we must always be sort of mourning paper on the same plan: aping the manners of our betters. My and as the margin of the other is pret. agent sends me letters about busineis tily adorned with flowers, true lovers upon giit piper; and a stationer near knots, little Cupids, and amorous polies the 'Change tells me, that he not only in red ink; he intends that the margin felis a great quantity of mourning paper of his paper shall be dismally ftamped to the citizens, but that he has lately in black ink, with the figures of tombblacked the edges of the ihop.books for stones, hour-glasses, bones, skulls, and feveral tradesmen. My readers must olher emblems of death, to be used by have seen an elegant kind of paper, im- persons of quality when in mourning. ported from France, for the use of our T







ing his glass in turn, because he is not dry.

There are some few instances of men Y

OUR frequent ridicule of the se. of sense, as well as family and fortune, given me great pleasure : I could only Such an unaccountable itch of play has with that you had compleated the de- seized them, that they have sacrificed fign, hy drawing at large the portrait every thing to it, and have seemed wedof a Gameiter. This, since you omit- ded to seven's the main, and the odd ted it, I have ventured to undertake; trick. There is not a more melancholy and while your papers on that subject object than a gentleman of ienfe thus ferve as a counter-treatise to that of infatuated. He makes himself and fa. Hoyle on Whiit, Hazard, &c. my mily a prey to a gang of villains, more Tough draught of the professors of thele infamous than highwaymen; and, perarts may tend to illustrate the work, and haps, when his ruin is compleated, he is stand as properly in the frontispiece, as glad to join with the very scoundrels the Knave of Clubs at the door of a card. that destroyed him, and live upon the maker.

spoils of others, whom he can draw into The whole tribe of Gamesters may the same follies that proved so faral to be ranked under two divisions : every himself. man, who makes earding, dicing, and Here we may take a survey of the betting, his daily practice, is either a character of a Sharper; and that he may Dupe or a Sharper; two characters have no room to complain of foul play, equally the objects of envy and admi- let us begin with his excellencies. You ration. The Dupe is generally a per- will perhaps be startled, Mr. Town, fon of great fortune and weak intele when I mention the excellenties of a lects

Sharper; but a Gamefter, who makes

a decent figure in the world, must be Who will as tenderly be led by the nose, endued with many amiable qualities, As affus are.

SHAKESPEARE. which would undoubtedly appear with

great lustre, were they not eclipsed by He plays, not that he has any delight the odious character affixed to his trade. in cards or dice, but because it is ile In order to carry on the common busifarion; and if whist or hazard are pro- ness of his profession, he must be a man poled, he will no more refuse to male of quick and lively parts, attended with one at the table, than, among a set of a Stoical calmness of temper, and a conbard drinkers, he would objest to drink. stant presence of mind. "He must smile


at the loss of thousands; and is not to fonneuse Madame Brinvillier, if his mask be discompofed, though ruin ftares him fails off, he runs the hazard of being in the face. As he is to live among the fuffocated by the stench of his own poigreat, he must not want politeness and sons. I have seen some examples of ihis fability; he must be submissive, but fort not many years ago at White's. I not servile; he must be master of an in- am uncertain whether the wretches are gecuous liberal air, and have a seeming till alive; but if they are, they breathe openness of behaviour.

like toa ds under ground, crawling amidst These must be the chief accomplish- old walls, and paths long since unfrements of our hero: but left I should be quented. accused of giving too favourable a like. But fupposing that the Sharper's hy. ness of him, now we have seen his out. pocrisy remains undetected, in what a hde, let us take a view of his heart. itate of mind must that man be, whose There we shall find avarice the inain fortune depends upon the intincerity of spring that moves the whole machine. his heart, the disingenuity of his behaEvery Gamester is eaten up with ava. viour, and the falle bias of his dice: rice; and whien this passion is in full What lensations inutt he suppress, when force, it is more strongly predominant he is obliged to smile, although he is than any other. It conquers even lust; provoked; when he myli look Terene in and conquers it more effectually than the heighth of defpair; and when he age. At fixty we look at a fine woman muft act the Stoic, without the consowith pleasure: but when cards and dice lation of one virtuous sentiment, or one have engrossed our attention, women moral principle? How unhappy must he and all their charms are lighted at five be, even in that situation from which he and twenty. A thorough Gamester re. hopes to reap most benefit--I mean, nounces Venus and Cupid for Plutus ainidit stars, garters, and the various and Ames-ace, and owns no mistress of herds of nobility? Their lord hips are his heart except the Queen of Trumps. not always in an humour for play: they His insatiable avárice can only be grati- chuse to laugh; they chuse to joke; in fied by hypocrisy; so that all those spe- the mean while our hero must patiently cious virtues already mentioned, and await the good hour; and must not only which, if real, might be turned to the join in the laugh, and applaud the joke, benefit of mankind, must be directed in but muit humour every turn and caa Gamelter towards the destruction of price, to which that let of spoiled chil. his fellow-creatures. His quick and dren, called bucks of quali!y, are lilively parts ferve only to initruct and able. Surely his brother Thicket's emaslitt him in the most dextrous method ployment, of fauntering on horseback of packing the cards, and cogging the in the wind and rain till the Reading dice; his fortitude, which enables him coach passes through Smallberry Green, to lose thousands without emotion, must is the more eligible, and no less honest often be practised against the stings and occupation. reproaches of his own conscience; and The Sharper has also frequently the bis liberal deportment and affected open- mortification of being thwarted in his ness, is only a specious veil to recom- designs. Opportunities of fraud will mend and conceal the blackest villainy. not for ever present themselves. The

It is now neceffary to take a second falle die cannot be constantly produced, farvey of his heart; and as we have nor the packed cards always placed upon seen it's vices, let us consider it's mife. the table. It is then our Gamester is in ries. The covetous man, who has not the greatest danger. But even then, sufficient courage or inclination to en- when he is in the power of fortune, and crease his fortune by bets, cards, or has nothing but mere luck and fair play dice, but is contented to board up his

on his fide, he must stand the irunt, thousands by thefts lefs public, or by and perhaps give away his lait guinea, cheats lefs liable to uncertainty, lives in as coolly as he would lend a nobleman á a ftate of perpetual fufpicion and terror;. thilling. but the avaricious fears of the Gamelter Our hero is now going off the stage, are infinitely greater. He is constantly and his catastrophe is very tragical. The to wear a malk; and, like Monsieur St. next news we hear of him is his death. Croix, coadjutor to that famous empoia atchieved by his own hand, and with



his own pistol. An inquest is bribed, in a full-bottomed wig, an hat and he is buried at midnight, and forgotten feather, embroidered cloaths, diamond before fun-rile.

buttons, and the full court-dress of those These two portraits of a Sharper, days: but by pulling a string, the folds wherein I have endeavoured to Mew dif- of the paper were shifted, the face only ferent likenesies in the same man, puts remained, a new body came forward, me in mind of an old print, which I and Count Guiscard appeared to be a remember at Oxford, of Count Guif- Devil. I am, Sir, your humble fercard. At firit light he was exhibited vant,

M. N.







mare, (which, you know, have both

speed) but I beat them hollow. I canDEAR COUSIN,

not help telling you, that I was drested *HE following letter, occafioned

in my hlue riding frock with plate-butby the late races at Newmarket,

tons, with a leather belt round my and written by a fellow-commoner of wailt, my jemmy turn-down boots · College, Cambridge, to a friend

made by Tull, my brown scratch bob, in London, fell into my hands by ac- and my hat with the narrow silver-lace, cident. The writer, if we may judge cocked in the irue sporting talic: so that by his stile and inanner, is really, ac- altogether I don't believe there was a cording to the modern phrafe, a Genius.

moje knowing figure upon the course. As I look upon his epistle to be a

I was very Auth too, jack; for Mivery curious original, I cannot help de

chaelmas day happening dann'd luckily manding for it a place in your paper, just about the time of ihe races, I had as well as for the remarks which I have received fifty guineas for my quartertaken the liberty to fubjoin to it.

age. As soon as I came upon the course,

I met with fome jolly bucks from LonTO JOHN WILDFIRE, ESQ. TO BE

don. I never saw them before; however, LEFT AT MRS. DOUGLAS'S, CO- we were foun acquainted, and I took up VENT GARDEN, LONDON,

the odds; but I was damnnably let in,

for I loit thirty pieces slap, the first day. OCTOBER 10, 1754. The day or iwo after, I had no reDEAR JACK!

markable luck one way or the other: I

Was in hopes I should have met you but at last I laid all the cash I had left

at Newmarket races; but to lay the upon Lord March's Smart, who loft, truth, if your luck had turned out to

you know; but between you and me, I bad as mine, you did better to stay have a great notion Tom Marshal rode away:

Dick Riot, Tom Loungeit, booty. However, I had a mind to push and I went together to Newmarket, my luck as far as I could; so I fold my the first day of the meeting. I was poor little mare for twelve pieces, went inounted on my little bay mare, that to the coffee-house, and left them all cost me thirty guineas in the North. behind me at the gaming-table; and I I never crofled a better tit in my life; should not have been able to have got and if her eyes stand, as I dare say they back to Cambridge that night, if Bob will, she will corn out as tight a little Whip of Trinity had not taken me up in thing a, any in England. Then she is his phaeton. We have had a round of as feet as the wind. Why, I raced dinners at our rooms since; and I have with Dick and Tom all the


from been drunk every day to drive away Cambridge to Newmarket: Dick rode However, I hope to recruit again his roan geiding, and Tom his chesnut foon., Frank Classic of Pembroke has promised to make me out a long cata. to make a figure as arbiters of the course, logue of Greek books; so I will write and followers of Aaron and Driver. dire&tly to old Square-toes, send him I am the more earnest on this occa. the lift, tell him I have taken them up, fion, because I look upon races as a diand draw on him for money to pay the version peculiarly adapted to an unibookseller's bill. Then I shall be rich versity, and founded upon classical prinagain, Jack: and perhaps you may see ciples. Every author, who has men. me at the Shakespeare by the middle of tioned the ancient games, includes the next week; till when, I am, dear Jack, Race, and describes it with great digyour's,




nity. This game was always celebrat

ed with great pomp, and all the people I have often lamented the narrow of fashion of those days were present at plan of our University Education, and it. In the twenty-third Iliad in partialways observe with pleasure any at- cular, there is not only a dispute at the tempts to enlarge and improve it. In Race, but a bet proposed in as express this light, I cannot help looking on New- terms as at Newmarket. The wager market as a judicious fupplement 10 offered, indeed, is a goblet, which is the university of Cambridge, and would not entirely in the manner of our morecommend it to the young students to dern sportlinen, who rather chuse to repair duly thither twice a year. By melt down their plate into the current these means they may connect the know- fpecie, and bring their lide-boards to ledge of polite life with study, and come the course in their purses. I am aware from college as deeply versed in the gen- also that the races celebrated by the an. teel mystei its of Gaming, as in Greek, cients were chariot-races: but even in Latin, and the Mathematics. Attend- these, our young students of the uni. ing these folemnities inuft, indeed, be verlity have great emulation to excel; of great service to every rank of students. there are among them many very good Those who are intended for the church, coachmen, who often make excursions have an opportunity of tempering the in those noble vehicles, with great profeverity of the r character, by an happy priety called Phaetons, and drive with as mixture of the jockey and clergyman. much fury along the road, as the chaI have known several, who by uniting rioteers in the ancient games flew to. these opposite qualifications, and meeto wards the goal. In a word, if we have ing with a patron of their own disposi- not such noble odes on this occafion, as tion, have rode themselves into a living were produced of old, it is not for want in a good sporting country; and I doubt of a Theron but a Pindar. not, if the excursions of gownsmen to The advices, which I have at several Newinarket meet with the encourage. times received of the influence of the ment they deserve, but we shall shortly Races at Newmarket on the University, See the Beacon Course crouded with or give me great pleasure. It has not only dained sportsmen in short caflocks. As improved the behaviour of the students, to the fellow-commoners, I do not lee but enlarged their plan of itudy. They how they can pass their time more pro- are now very deeply read in Bracken's fitably. The fole intention of their reli. Farriery, and the Complete Jockey; dence at the university is, with most of know exactly how many stone they them, to while away a couple of years, weigh, and are pretty competent judges which they cannot conveniently dispose of the odds. I went some time ago to of otherwise. Their rank exempts them visit a fellow-commoner, and when I from the common drudgery of lectures arrived at his chambers, found the door and exercises ; and the golden tuft, that open, but my friend was not at home. adorns their velvet caps, is at once a The room was adorned with Seymour's badge of honour and an apology for ig, prints of horses neatly framed and norance. But as some of these gentle glazed; a hat and whip hung on one men, though they never will be scholars, hook, a pair of boots on another, and on may turn out excellent jockeys, it is the table lay a formidable Quarto, with but justice to let them carry some kind the Sport sınan's Calendar by Reginald of knowledge away with them; and as Heber, Esquire. I had the curiosity to they can never shine as adepts in Sir Ifaac examine the book; and as the college is Newton's philosophy, or critics on Ho. remarkable for the study of philosophy, mer and Virgil, we should suffer them I expected to see Newton's Principia, or


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