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accounts, who is defirous of understand
more happy ; they no way contribute mg the human heart, who leeks to know to controul their passions, to bear adverthe min of every country, who delires fiy, to inspire true virtue, or raise a deto discover those differences which re testation of vice. fuit froin clima, religion, education, Men may be very learned, and yet prejudice, and partiality.
very miserable; it is easy to be a deep I should think my time very ill be- geo:netrician, or a sublime astronomer, Rowed, were the only fruits of my ad but very difhcult to be a good man; I ventures to conlist in being able to tell, eiteem, therefore, the traveller who in. that a tradelinan of London lives in an ftructs the heart, but despite him who only houle three times as high as that of our indulges the imagination : a man who great Emperor. That the ladies wear
leaves home to mend himself and others longer cloaths than the men, that the is a philosopher ; but he who goes from prieits are drested in colours which we
country to country, guided by the blind are taught to derelt, and that their sol. impulse of curiosity, is only a vagabond. diers scar (carlet, which is with us the From Zerdutht down to him of Tyanea, fymbol of peace and innocence. How I honour all those great names who enmany travellers are there, who confine deavoured to unite the world by their their relations to such minute and use travels ; such men grew wifer as well lels particulars: for one who enters into as beiter, the farther they departed from the genius of those nations with whom hone; and seemed like rivers, whole be has conversed, who discloses their streams are not only increased, but remorals, their opinions, the ideas which fined, as they travel from their fource. they entertain of religious worship, the For my own part, my greatest glory intrigues of their ministers,' and their is, that travelling has not more iteeled skill in sciences; there are twenty, who my constitution againIt all the viciffi. only mention fome idle particulars, tudes of climate, and all the depressions which can be of no real ule to a true of fatigue, than it has my mind against philosopher. All their remarks tend, the accidents of fortune, or the accesses neither to make theinfelves nor others of despair. Farewell.
LET TER VIII.
FROM LIEN CHI ALTANGI, TO FUM HOAM, FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE
CEREMONIAL ACADEMY AT PEKIN, IN CHINA.
be this leperation, this immeasureable city are so very open, and so vastly endistance from my friend, were I not able gaging, that I am inclined to pass over thus to delineate iny heart upon paper, the more glaring defects of their persons, and to send thee daily a map of my mind, fince compensated by the more solid, yet
I am every day better reconciled to latent beauties of the mind: what though the people ainong whom I reside, and they want black teeth, or are deprived begin to fancy that in time I thall find of the allurements of feet no bigger them more opulent, more charitable, than their thumbs, yet till they have and more hospitable than I at first ima- fouls, my friend, such fouls, so free, lo gined. I begin to learn somewhat of pressing, so hospitable, and to ergaging their manners and customs, and to see I have received more invitations in reasons for leveral deviations which they the streets of London from the fex in make froin us, from whom all other na one night, than I have met with at Pekin tions derive their politenels as well as in twelve revolutions of the moon. their original.
Every evening as I return home from In spite of taste, in spite of prejudice, my usual solitary excursions, I am met . I now begin to think their women to by several of those well disposed daughlerable; I can now look on a languishing ters of hospitality, at different times and blue eye without disguit, and pardon a in different itreets, richly dreffed, and set of teeth, even though whiter than with minds not less noble than their ivory. I now begin to fancy there is appearance. You know that nature haş
indulged me with a person by no means being desirous to know the hour, and agreeable ; yet are they too generous to perceiving iny watch out of order, the object to my homely appearance; they kindiy took it to be repaired by a relafeel no repugnance at my broad race and tion of her own, which you may ima. flat nose; they perceive me to be a gine will save some expence, and the Atranger, and that alone is a fufficient allires me that it will cost her nothing. recommendation. They even seem to I thall have it back in a frw days when think it their duty to do the honours of mended, and am preparing a proper the country by every act of complai- iptech expreffive of my giatitude on the fance in their power. One takes me under occalion : « Celestial excellence,' I inthe arm, and in a manner forces me tend to say, ' happy I am in having along; another catches me round the • found out, after many painful advenneck, and desires to partake in this of. tures, a laud of innocence, and a peofice of hospitality; while a third kinder ple of humanity: I may rove into ftill, invites me to refresh my spirits with other climes, and converfe with nawine. Wine is in England referved . tions yet unknown, but where shall I only for the rich, yet here even wine is meet a foul of such purity as that given away to the stranger!
' which resides in thy breast! Sure A few nights ago, one of these gene • thou hatt been nurtured by the bill of rous creatures, dressed all in white, and • the Shin Shin, or fucked the breasts faunting like a meteor by my side, of the provident Gin Hiung. The forcibly attended me home to my own melody of thy voice could rob the apartment. She seemed charmed with Chong Fou of her whelps, or inveigle the elegance of the furniture, and the the Boh that lives in the midst of the convenience of my fituation. And well waters. Thy fervant Mall ever retain indeed the might, for I have hired an in a sense of thy favours; and one day apartment for not less than two thillings • boat of thy virtue, sincerity, and of their money every week. But her truth, among the daughters of China.' civility did not rest here; for at parting, Adieu.
LETTER IX. .
TO THE SAME.
fancied a daughter of Paradile has takes nor half the liberties of the Eng. proved to be one of the infamous dilci lish in this particular. Their laws may ples of Han! I have lost a trifle, I have be compared to the books of the Sybils, gained the confolation of having difco- they are held in great veneration, but vered a deceiver. I once more, there feldom real, er leldomer understool; fore, relax, into my former in ditterence even thoti who pretend to be their with regard to the Englith ladies, they guardians dispute about the meaning of once more begin to appear dilagreeable inany of them, and confeis their ignoin my eyes: thus is my whole time pal rance of others. The law therefore sed in forming conclusions which the which commands them to have but one next minute's experience may probably wile, is strictly obferved only by those destroy ; the prelent moment becomes a for whom one is more than fufficient, comment on the past, and I improve or by such as have not money to buy rarher in humility than wildom.
As for the rest, they violate it Their laws and religion forbid the publicly, and some glory in it's violaEoglish to keep more than one wo. tion. They seem to think like the Perman, I therefore concluded that pro- Gans, that they give evident marks of ftitutes were banished from society; I manhood by encreasing their teraglio. was deceived; every man here keeps as A mandarine therefore here generally many wives as he can maintain; the keeps four wives, a gentleman three, laws are cemented with blood, praised and a stage-player two. As for the and disregarded. The very Chinele, magiftrates, the country justices, and
squires, they are employed first in de- ftill, such battered beaus are generally bauching young virgins, and then pu most infamoully successful. niihing the transgreflion.
A fellow of this kind employs three From such a picture you will be apt hours every morning in dressing his head, to conclude, that he who employs four by which is understood only his hair. ladies for his amusement, has four times is a profesied admirer, not of any as much constitution to spare as he who particular lady, but of the whole sex. is contented with one; that a mandarine He is to suppose every lady has caught is much cleverer than a gentleman, and cold every night, which gives him an a gentleman than a player, and yet it is opportunity of calling to see how the quite the reverse; a mandarine is fre- , does the next morning. quently supporter on Ipindle thanks, He is upon all occasions to shew him. appears emaciated by luxury, and is ob- self in very great pain for the ladies; if Jiged to have recourse to variety, merely a lady even drops a pin, he is to fly in from the weakness, not the vigour of order to present it. his constitution, the number of his wives He never speaks to a lady without ad. being the most equivocal symptom of his vancing his mouth to her ear, by which virility.
he frequently addresses more senses than Belide the country squire, there is one. also another set of men, whose whole Upon proper occasions he looks ex. employment consists in corrupting beau- cellively tender. This is performed by ty; these the filly part of the fair sex laying his hand upon his heart, shutting call amiable; the more sensible part of his eyes, and shewing his teeth. them, however, give them the title of He is excessively fond of dancing a abominable. You will probably de- minuet with the ladies, by which is only mand what are the talents of a man thus meant walking round the floor eight or caressed by the majority of the opposite ten times with his hat on, affecting great fex; what talents, or what beauty is he gravity, and sometimes looking tenderpoffeffed of superior to the rest of his ly on his partner. fellows. To answer you directly, he He never affronts any man himself, and has neither talents nor beauty, but then never resents an affront from another. he is poslefied of impudence and afi He has an infinite variety of finall duity. With afiduity and impudence, talk upon all occafions, and laughs men of all ages, and all figures, may when he has nothing more to say. commence adrairers. I have even been Such is the killing creature who protold of some who made prof fions of strates himself to the sex till he has unexpiring for love, when all the world done them; all whose submissions are the conld perceive they were going to die of effects of design, and who to please the old age: and what is more surprising ladies almost becoines himself a lady.
TO THE SAME.
You will easily conceive the fatigue of ny journey from China to Eu of croiling valt tracts of land, either derope, of my travels through countries, folaie, or will more dangerous by it's where Narure sports in primeval rude. inhabitaris. The retreat of men, who ness, where the pours forih her wonders fiem driven from fociety, in order to in folitude; countries, from whence the make war upon all the human race; norigorous climate, the weeping inunda- minally profetling a subjection to Mortion, the drifted defari, the howling Cuvy or China, but without any resemforest, and mountains of immeafurable blance to the countries on which they height, banith the buibaneman, and depend. Spridd extensive detolacion; countries After I kad crefled the great wall, where the brown Tutar wanders for a the first object that prefented were the precarious subliltene, with an heart that remains of velclated cities, and a!l the n ver felt pity, him'elf more hideous mažnificence of venerable ruin. There than the wilderness he makes.
were to be seen temples of beantiial
structure, statues wrought by the hand infatuated perple! How would you
de. of a master, and arounj a country of plore the blindness and folly of manluxuriant plenty; but not one single in- kind! His boatted reason feems only habitant to reap the bounties of nature. to light him astray, and brutal instinct Theie were prospects that might hum more regularly points out the path to ble the pride of kings, and repress hu- happiness. Could you think it? They man vaniiy. I asked my guide the cause adore a wicked divinity; they fear him, of such defolation. These countries, and they worthip bim; they imagine hiin says he, 'were once the dominions of a malicious ing, ready to injure and
a Tartar prince; and these rnins the ready to be appeared. The men and ' feat of arts, elegance, and ease. This women asemble at midnight in a hut, . prince waxed an unsuccessful war which serves for a temple. A prieit • with one of the emperors of China; stretches himself on the ground, and all
he was conquered, his cities plunder the people pour forth the most horrid ed, and all his subjects carried into cries, while drums and timbreis twell
captivity. Such are the effects of the the infernal concert. After this dir' ambition of Kings! “Ten Dervises, sonance, miscalled inulic, has continued " says the Indian proverb,
about two hours, the priest rises from " in peace upon a single carpet, while the ground, assuines an air of infpira“ two kings shall quarrel, though they tion, grows big with the inpring da, “ have kingdoms to divide them." mon, and pretends to fill in futurity. . Sure, my friend, the cruelty and the In every country, my friend, ihe • pride of man have made more detarts bonzes, the brachmans, and the priests, • than Nature ever made! the is kind, deceive the people; all reformations be. • but man is ungrateful!'
gin from the laits ; the priest point us Proceeding in my journey through out the way to heaven with their fingers, this pensive scene of defolated beauty, but stand still themselves, nor seem to in a few days I arrived among the travel towards the courtry in view. Daures, a nation still dependent on The customs of this people correChina. Xaizigar is their principal city, spond to their religion; they keep their which, coinpared with those of Europe, dead for three days on the lime bei scarcely deserves the name. The go- where the perfon died; after which they vernors and other officers, who are lent bury him in grave moderately deep, but yearly from Pekin, abuse their authori with the head till uncovered. Here for ty, and of:en take the wives and daugh- leveral days they present him with difters of the inhabitants to themselves. ferert forts of meats; which, when they The Daures, accuitomed to bale fub- perceive he does not confume, they fill niffion, feel no resentment at those in- up the grave, and deiit from defiring juries, or trifle what they feel. Custoin him to eat for the future. How, how and necesity teach even barbarians the can mankind be guilty of such strange fame art of diffimulation that ambition absurdity, to entreat a dead body, al. and intrigue inspire in the breasts of the realy putrid, to partake of the banquet! polite. Upon beholding fuch uniicented Where, I again repeat it, is human reaftretches of power- Alas!' thought I, fon! not only fome men, but whole na" how little does our wile and good em tions, seem diverted of it's illumination,
peror know of these intolerable, ex Kere we observe a whole country adoring " actions! these provinces are too distant a divinity through fear, and attempting · for corplaint, and too insignificant to feed the dead. These are their most ' to expect redress. The more autant serious and most religious occupations ;
the government, the honetter should are these men rational, or are not the • be the governor to whom it is entrust- apes of Borneo more wife? 'ed; for hope of impunity is a strong Certain I am, 0 thou infruftor of • inducement to violation.'
my youth! that without philosophers, The religion of the Daures is more without fomne fe'v virtuous inen who absurd than even that of the festaries of seein to becta difiere inaiure from the Fohi. How would you be surprizel, rest of manninnt, without liich as there, O fage difciple and follower of Confu- the worship of a wicked divinity will cius! you who believe one eternal in- furely be eitablished over every part of telligent Cause of all, should you be pre- the earth. Fear guides more to their sent at the barbarous ceremonies of this duty than gratitude: for one man who
is virtuous from the love of virtue, from reans were, that heaven had no thun. the obligation which he thinks he lies ders in store for the villain, they would under to the Giver of all; there are ten no longer continue to acknowledge fub. thousand who are good only from their ordination, or thank that Being whe apprehensions of punishment. Could gave them existence. Adieu. thele latt be persuaded, as the Epicu
TO THE SAME.
FR ROM such a pi&ture of Nature in only are curious after knowledge, when
primeval fimplicity, tell me, my we find it connected with sensual hap. much respected friend, are you in love piness. The senses ever point out the with fatigue and folitude? Do you figh way, and reflection comments upon the for the fevere frugality of the wandering discovery. Inforin a native of the deTartar', or regret being born amidst the fart of Kobi, of the exact measure of Juxury and dislimulation of the polite? the parallax of the moon, he finds no Rather tell me, has not every kind of fatisfaction at all in the information ; he life vices peculiarly it's own? Is it not wonders how any could take such pains, a truth, that refined countries have more and lay out such treasures in order to vices, but those not so terrible, barba. folve lo useless a difficulty; but connect rous nations few, and
they of the most it with his happiness, by thewing that hideous complexion ? Perfidy and fraud it improves navigation, that by such an are the vices of civilized nations, cre. investigation he may have a warmer dulity and violence those of the inhabi. coat, a better gun, or a finer knife, and tants of the defart. Does the luxury of he is inttantly in raptures at so great an the one produce half the evils of the in improvement. In short, we only defire humanity of the other? Certainly those to know what we desire to pofiers; and philosophers who declaim against luxury whatever we may talk againit it, luxury have but little understood it's benefits; adds the spur to curiosity, and gives us they seem insensible, that to luxury we a defire of becoming more wife. owe not only the greatest part of our But not our knowledge only, but our knowledge, but even of our virtues. virtues, are improved by luxury. Ob
It may sound fine in the mouth of a serve the brown savage of Thibet, to declaimer, when he talks of subduing whom the fruits of the spreading pome. our appetites, of teaching every sense to granate fupply food, and it's branches be content with a bare sufficiency, and an habitation. Such a character bas of supplying only the wants of nature; few vices I grant, but those he has are but is there not more satisfaction in in- of the most hideous nature; rapine and dulging those appetites, if with inno. cruelty are scarce crimes in his eye; neicence and safety, than in relt, aining ther pity nor tenderness, which ennoble them? An not I better pleased in en every virtue, have any place in his joyment than in the lullen fatisfaction heart; he hates his enemies, and kills of thinking that I can live without en those he subdues. On the other hand, joyment? The more various our arti- the polite Chinese and civilized Euroficial neceffities, the wider is our circle pean feein even to love their enemies. I of pleasure; for all pleasure consists in have just now seen an instance wisere the obviating necessities as they ride; luxury, English have succoured those enemies therefore, as it encreases our wants, en whom their own countryinen actually creates our capacity for happiness. refused to relieve.
Elamine the history of any country The greater the luxuries of every remarkable for opulence and wisdom, country, the more closely, politically you will find they would never have speaking, is that country United. Luxu• been wife hal they not been first luxu ry is the child of society alone, the rious; you will find poets, philosophers, luxurious man ftands in need of a thouand even patriots, marching in Luxury's fand different artists to furnish out his train. The reason is obvious; we then happinels; it is nuore likely, tserefore,