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et having either natural or social claims mortifying influence of conscious infeto enforce his petitions.

riority, by degrees links into a flatterer, But this intercourse of benefzation and from Aattery at last degenerates into and acknowledgment is often injurious stupid veneration. To remedy this, the even to the giver as well as the receiver. great often difmiss their old dependents, A man can gain but little knowledge of and take new. Such changes are falsely himself, or of the world, amidst a circle imputed to levity, fallehood, or caprice, of those whom hope or gratitude has ga- in the patron, since they may be more thered round him; their.unceasing hu- justly afcribed to the client's gradual demiliations muit necessarily er create his terioration. comparative magnitude, for all men No, my son, a life of independence meature their own abilities by those of is generally a life of virtue. It is that their company; thus, berg taught to which fits the foul for every gonerous overrate his merit, he in reality leffens fight of humanity, fre dom, and friend. it; encreasing in confidence, but not in hip. To give thould te our pleafure, power, his professions end in empty but to receive our shame; ferenity, boist, his undertakings in thameful dil- health, and affluence, attend the defire appointment.

of rising hy labưur; misery, tepentance, It is perhaps one of the feverest mif- and dilre!pect, that of fucceeding by fortunes of the great, that they are, in extorted benevolence. The man whocan general, obliged to live among men thank himself alore for the happiness he who e real value is lessened by depend enjoys is truly bleffet; and lovely, far ence, and whose minds are enslaved by more lovely, the sturdy gloom of laboobligation. The humble companion rious indigence, than the fawning fin. may have at first accepted patronage with 'per of thriving adulation. Adieu. generous views; but soon he feels the

LETTER CI.

TROM LIEN CHI ALT ANGI, TO FUM HOAM, FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE

CEREMONIAL ACADEMY AT PEKIN, IN CHINA.

N every society, some men are born fable observes, is furnished with one Aruction; some to work, and others to pable of subliltence and expedition, than enjoy in idleness the truits of their in- another which is furnished with but one duitry; fome to govorn, and others to tail and many heads, obey. Every people, how fee fuever, Obvious as these tinths are, the peo, mult be contented to give up part of ple of this country feem insensible of their liberty and judgment to those who their force, Not fatisfied with the ad. govern, in exchange for their hopes of vantages of internal peace and opulence, security; and the motives which fint in- they fill murmur at their governors, and Avenced their choice in the election of interfere in the execution of their designs; their governors, hould ever be weighed as if they wanted to be fomething more againit the succeeding apparent incon- than happy. But as the Europeans in. hitencies of their conduct. All cannot fruet by argument, and the Asiatics be rulers, and men are generally best mostly by narration, were I to address governed by a few. In making way them, I should convey my sentiments in through the intricacies of busineis, the the following fory. finallert obhacies are ap! io retard the Takupit, id long been prime minister execution of what is to be planned by a of Tipaitala, a fertile country that multiplicity of counfels; the judgment Rretches along the western confines of of one alone being always titrekt for China. During his adminiftration, winding though the labyrinths of in- whatever advantiges conld be derived trigue, and the obstructions of disap- from arts, learning, and commerce, pointment. A ferrent, which, as the were seen to bless the people; nor were

Y

the

the necessary precautions of providing held facred, and fuffered gradually to for the security of the ftate forgotten. It decay. often happens, however, that when men The last witness now appeared. This are possessed of all they want, they then was a widow, who had lauðably atbegin to find torment from imaginary tempted to burn herself upon her husafflictions, and lessen their present en- band's funeral-pile. But the innovatjoyments, by foreboding that ihoie en- ing minister had prevented the execujoyments are to have an end. The peo. tion of her design, and was insensible ple now, therefore, endeavoured to find to her tears, proteltations, and entrez.. out grievances; and after some search, 'ties. aétually began to think themselves ag- The queen could have pardoned the grieved. A petition against the enor- two foriner offences; but this laft was mities of Takupi was carried to the conlidered as fo gross an injury to the throne in due forın; and the queen wiio fex, and so directly contrary to all the governed the country, willing to fatis, cuitoms of an:iquity, that it called for fy her subjects, appointed a day in immediate justice. "What!' cried the which his accufers should be heard, and queen,' not fuffer a woman to burn the minister should stand upon his de- i herself when the thinks proper! The fence.

. fex are to be very prettily Tutored, The day being arrived, and the ini- no doubt, if they must be restrained nister brought before the tribunal, a " from entertaining their ft male friends carrier, who supplied the city with tish, now and then with a fried wife, or appeared among the number of his ac- 'roafter acquaintance. I sentence the corers. He exclaimed, that it was the I criminal to be banilhed my prele!ce cuttum, time immemorial, for carriers • for ever, for his injurious treatır.ent to bring their fith upon an horse in a 6 of the tex.' hamper; which being placed on one Takupi had been hitherto filent, and fide, and balanced by a stone on the spoke only to thew the sincerity of his other, was thus conveyed with ease and resignation. 'Great Queen!' cried he, safety: but that the prisoner, moved · I acknowledge my crime; and unce either by a spirit of innovation, or per- "I ain to be banished, I beg it may be haps bribed by the hamper makers, had to fome ruined town, or defolate vilobliged all carriers to use the stone no • lagc, in the country I have governet. longer, but balance one hamper with • I lhall find some pleasure in improve another; an order entirely repugnant to ing the foil, and bringing back a the customs of all antiquity, and those • spirit of industı y among the inhabi. of the kingdom of Tipartala in parti- • tants.' His request appearing reacular.

fonable, it was immediately complied The carrier finished; and the whole with; and a courtier had orders to fix court shook their heads at the innovat. upon a place of lanishinent answering ing minifter: when a fecond witness ap- the min.iter's description. After some peared. He was inspector of the city- months search, however, the enquiry buildings, and accuted the difuraced proved fruitles; neither a desolate vilfavourite of having given orders for the lage, nor a runted town, was found in demolition of an ancient ruin, which the kingdoin. · Alas!" said Takupi obftru&tid the passage through one of then to the queen, " how can that coul. the principai (treets. He observed, that 'try be ill governed which has neither fuch buildings were noble monumenis a defolate village nor a ruined town of barbarous antiquity; contributed in it?' The gocen perceived the julfinely to Nicw how litite their anceliers tice of his expirti ulation, and the miunleiftsof of architecture: and for nister was received into more than forthat reason fuch monuments should be iner favour,

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LETTER

LETTER CII.

FROM THE SAME.

THE

HE ladies here are by no means a woman of fashion, after losing her

Luch ardent gamesters as the wo. money, has fat writhing in all the ago. men of Alia. In this respect I must do nies of bad luck; and yet, after all, the English justice; for I love to praise never once attempted to itrip a fingle, where applause is juitly merited. No. petticoat, or cover the hoard, as her latt thing more common in China, than to itake, with her head.cloaths. fee two women of fashion continue gam- However, though I praise their moing till one has won all the other's deration at play, I must not conceal cloaths, and stripped her quite naked; their alliduity. In China, our women, the winner thus marching off in a double except upon some great days, are never fuit of finery, and the loter shrinking permitted to finger a dice-box; but here behind in the primitive fimplicity of na- every day seems to be a festival; and ture.

night itself, which gives others reft, No doubt

you

remember when Shang, only serves to encrease the female gameour maiden aunt, played with a sharper. Iter's industry. I have been told of an First her money went; inen her trinkets old lady in the country, who being were produced; her cloaths followed given over by the physicians, played piece by piece foon after: when she had with the curate of her parish to pass the thus played herself quite naked, being time away : having won all his mo ay, a woman of spirit, and willing to pur- the next proposed playing for her funefue ber own, the staked her tecth. For- ral charges; the proposal was accepted ; tune was against her even here, and her but unfortunately the lady expired just teeth followed her cloaths; at lait she as she had taken in her game. played for her left-eye; and, oh, hard There are some paflions which, Fate, this too she loit! However, the though differently pursued, are attende, had the confolation of biting the sharper; ed with equal consequences in every for he never perceived that it was made country: here they game with more of glass till it became his own.

perseverance, there with greater fury; How happy, my friend, are the Eng- here they trip their families, there they lith ladies, who never rise to fach an ftrip themselves naked. A lady in inordinance of passion! Though the fex China, who indulges a passion for here are naturally fond of games of gaming, often becomes a drunkard; chance, and are taught to manage games and by flourishing a dice-box in one of skill from their infancy, yet they hand, the generally comes, to brandith never pursue ill forture with such amaz- a dram-cup in the other. Far be it ing intrepidity. Indeed I may entirely from ine to say there are any who drink atquit them of ever playing I mean drams in England; but it is natural to of playing for their eyes or iheir teeth. fuppole, that when a lady has lost every

It is true, they often stake their for- thing else but her honour, she will be tune, their beauty, health, and repu- apt to toss that into the bargain; and, tations, at a gaming-table. It even grown infensible of nicer feelings, befometimes happens, that they play their have like the Spaniard, who, when all husbands into jail; yet till they pre- his money was gone, endeavoured to serve a decorum unknown to our wives borrow more, by offering to pawn his and daughters of China. I have been whisker. Alieu. present at a route in this country, where

LETTER

LETTER CIII.

FROM LIEN CHI ALTANGI, TO ***, MERCHANT IN AMSTERDAM. I

Have just received a letter from my nevolence be not so congenial, get art

fon, in which he informs me of the supplies the place of nature. Though fruielellness of his endeavours to recover here every vice is carried to excess, yet the lady with whom he fled from every virtue is practiced allo with un. Perha. 'He itrives to cover, under the exampled superiority. A city like this appearance of fortitude, a heart torn is the foil for great virtues and great with anxiety and disappointment. Ivices : the villain can foon improve here have offered little confolation ; since that in the deepelt myfteries of deceiving; but too fiequently feeds the forrow and the pra&ical philosopher can-every which it pretends to deplore, and day meet new incitemenis to mend his trengthens the impression which no. honeft intentions. There are no plea. thing but the external rubs of time and fures, sensual or sentimental, which this accident can thoroughly efface.

city does not produce; yet, I know ret He informs me of his intentions of how, I could not be content to relide quitting Multow the first opportunity, here for life. There is something fo and travelling by land to Amsterdam. feducing in that spot in which we firit I must therefore, upon his arrival, en- had exiltence, that nothing but it can treat the continuance of your friendlaip; pleale : whaterer viciffitudes we experianı' beg of you to provide him with pro- ence in life, however we toil, or where. per directions for finding me in London. fuever we wander, our fatigued withes You can scarcely be sentible of the joy Mill recur to hoine for tranquillity; we I expect upon seeing him once more: long to die in that spot which gave us the ties between the father and the fun, birth, and in that pleasing expectation among us of China, are much more opiate every calamity. ciotely drawn than with you of Europe. You now, therefore, perceive that I

The remittances fent me from Argun have some intentions of leaving this 10 Moscow, came in latery. I cannot cuwtry; and yet my designed depar. fufficienily admire that Ipirit of honelly ture tills me with reluctance and regret. which prevails through the whole coun. Though the friend whips of travellers are try of Siberia : perhaps the savages of generally more tranlie:lt than vernal that desolate region are the only watu · Inows, itill I feel an uneasinets at breaktored people of the glube that cultivate ing the connections I have formed fince the moral virtues, even without know. my arrival; particularly I shall have ing that their actions merit praise. I no small pain in leaving my uiual comhave been told surpriiing things of their panion, guide, and instructor. goodness, benevolence, and xenerotity; I thali wait for the arrival of my lon and the uninterrupted commerce be- before I fet out. He shall be my come tween China and Ruffia ferves as a colo panion in every intended journey for Jateral confirmation.

the future ; in his company I can lupa • Let us,' says the Chinese Taw-giver, port the fatigues of the way with re« admire the rude virtues of the igno: doubled ardour, pleared at once with • rant, but rather imitate the delicate conveying instruction, and exacting

movals of the polite.' In the country obedience. Adieu. where I reade, though honesty and be

.

LETTER CIV. FROM LIEN CHI ALT ANGI, TO FUM HOAM, FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE

CEREMONIAL ACADEMY AT PEXIN, IN CHINA. UR scholars of China have a died the decorums of dress with more

most profound veneration for assiduity. They may properly enough te forins. A first rate beauty never stu- said to be clothes with wildom from

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head to foot; they have their philoso- court was informed that he posleifed phical caps, and philosophical whiskers; great skill in aitronomy; he was theretheir philofophicai Nippers, and philo. fure tent for and exainined. The fophical tans; there is even a philofo- ' eltablished aitronomers of state underphical standard for measuring the nails; took this talk; and made their report to and yet, with all this ieeming wildom, 'the emperor, that his skill was but very they are often found to be mere empty superficial, and no way comparable to pretenders.

their own. The misfionary, however, A philofophical beau is not fo fre- appealed from their judgment to expequent in Europe ; yet I an roid that rience, and cliallenged them to calculate fach characters are found here. I an tclipfe of the iroon taat was to hapo mean, such as punctualıy support all pen a few nighis following. "What, the decorums of learning without being laid fonie, . thall a Barbarian, without really very profound, or naturally poi- ' nails, pretend to vie with men in felted of a fine underitanding; who la- ' aftronoiny, who have made it the kgbour hard to attain the titukar honouis • dy of their lives; with men who know attending literary merit; who faiter " baif the knowable characters of olhers in order to be Hattered in turn; < words, who wear scientifical caps and and only tudy to be thought itudenes. * Alppei's, and who have gone through

A character of this kind generally every literary deg.es with applause?' receives company in his itefy, in all the They accepted the challenge, contident penlive formality of flippers, nght of luccens. The echiple began : the goivn, and easy-chair. The table is Chinele produced a inot plenuid apuacovered with a large book, which is al- ' ratus, and were fitteen ininutes wrong; ways kept open, and never read; bis ilie millionary, with a fingle initrument, Politary hours being dedicated to duz- was exact to a fecond. This was coning, mending pens, feeling his pulle, vinc ng ; but the court astronomers were peeping though the microscope, and not to be convinced; instead of acknowlometimes reading amuling buks, which ledying their error, they affured the le condemns in coinpary. His library emperor that their calculations were is preferved with the most religious neat- cer anniy exact, but that the Atranger neis; and is generally a repontory of without nais haid actually bewitched fcarce buoks, whiclı bear an high price, the inoon. • Well, then,' cries the because too dull or useless 10 become good emperor, sining at their ignocommon by the ordinary methods of rance, ' you mall stiti continue to be publication.

15 jervants of the moon; but I constitute Such men are generally candidates (this man her controuer.' ; for admittance into literary clubs, acao, China is thus replete with men, whose dernies, and institutions, where they re- only pretebitions to knowledge arise froin gularly meet to give and receive a little external ciicumstances, and in Europe intruction and a great deal of prale. every country abounds, with their in In conversation they never betray ig- proportion to it's ignorance. Spain and norance, becaute they never leern to re- Flanders, who are behind the relt of ceive information. Offer a new obfer- Europe in leaning, at least three cenvation, they have heard it before ; pinch turies, bave iwenty literary titles and them in an argument, and they reply marks of distinction unknown in France with a sneer.

or England : they have their Clarissimi Yet, how trilling foever these little and Preclarijini, 'their Accuratishni aris may appear, they answer one va- and Minutifimi: a round cap entitles luable purpose, of gaining the practil- one student to arglie, and a square cap ers the eiteem they with for. The permits another to teach ; while a cap bounds of a man's knowledge are easily with a rallel almost sanctifies the head concealed, if he has bet prudence; but it happens to cover. But where true all can readily see and admire a gile li- knowledge is cultivated, these formalibrary, a set of long wails, a silver Itanit. ties begin to disappear; the ermined ih, or a wellcombe whikir, who are cowl, the soieinn beard, and sweeping incapable of distinguishing a dunce. train, are laid aside; philofophers drets,

When Father Marchew, the first Eu- and talk, and think, like other men; sopean missionary, entered China, the and lamb ikin dreilers, and cap-maka

ers,

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