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structure, statues wrought by the hand infatuated perple! How would you deof a matter, and around a country of plore the blindness and folly of manJuxuriant plenty; but not one single in- kin?! His boasted reaton seems only habitant to reap the bounties of nature. to light bin asray, and brutal inftinét These were prospects that might hum- more regularly points out the path to ble the pride of kings, and repress hu- happinets. Could you think it? They man vaniiy. I asked my guide the cause adore a wicked divinity; they fear him, of such defolation. These countries,' and they worthip him; they imagine hiin says he,' were once the dominions of a malicious being, ready to injure and • 3 Tartar prince; and these ruins the ready to be appeased. The men and ' seat of arts, elegance, and eale. This women assemble at midnight in a hut,
prince wared an unsuccessful war which ferves for a temple. A prieit
with one of the emperors of China; stretches himself on the ground, and all • he was conquered, his cities plunder. the people pour forth the most horrid
ed, and all his subjects carried into cries, while drums and timbreis (well
captivity. Such are the effets of the the infernal concert. After this dif' ambition of Kings! “Ten D-rviles," fonance, miícalled inufic, has continued
says the Indian proverb, Inali sleep about two hours, the priest rises from “ in peace upon a single carpet, while the gro'ind, affeines an air of infpira“ two kings Mall quarrel, though they tion, grows big with the infusing da, “ have kingdoms to divide them.” mon, and pretends to kill in futurity, . Sure, my friend, the cruelly and the In every country, my friend, ihe • pride of man have made more detarts bonzes, the brachmaus, and the priests, • than Nature ever made! she is kind, deceive the people; ali reformitions be. • but man is ungrateful!'
gin from the laithe priest point us Proceeding in my journey through out the way to heaven with their fingers, this pensive scene of defolated beauty, but itand stiil themsilves, nor seem to in a few days I arrived among the travel towards the country in view. Daures, a nation still dependent on The cuitoms of this peonie correChina. Xaizigar is their principal city, spond to their religion; they kecp their which, conpared with those of Europe, dead for three days on the line but scarcely deserves the name.
where the perfon died; after which they vernors and other officers, who are lent bury him in a grave moderately deep, but yearly from Pekin, abuse their authori- with the head still uncovered. Here for ty, and often take the wives and daugh- teveral days they present him with difters of the inhabitants to themielves. ferere forts of meats; which, when they The Daures, accustomed to bale fube perceive he does not condime, they fill iniffion, feel no resentment at those in- up the grave, and deilt from defiring juries, or itifle what they feel. Custom him to eat for the future. How, how and necesity teach even barbarians the can mankind he guilty of such strange fame art of diffimulation that ambition absurdity, to entreat a dead body, al. and intrigue inipire in the breasts of the ready putrid, to partake of the banquet! polite. Upon beholding fuch uniicented Where, I again repeat it, is human reaftretches of power Alas!' thought I, fon! not only fome men, but whole na< how little does our wile and good em- tions, seem diveited of it's illumination,
peror know of these intolerable, ex- Here we observe a whole country adoring " actions! these provinces are too distant a divinity through fear, and attempting • for complaint, and too infignificant to feed the dead. These are their most . to expect redress. The more dutant serious and most religious occupations :
the government, the honetter thould are these men rarionai, or are not the • be the gover nor to whom it is entrust- apes of Borneo more wife? 'ed; for hope of impunity is a strong Certain I am, 0 thou inftru Stor of ' inducement to violation.'
my youth! that without phiiosophers, The religion of the Doures is more without fome feiv virtuous men, who absurd than even that of the sectaries of feein to bect difiere t nature from the Fohi. How would you be surprizeil, rest of mannin, tiront frich as there, O lage disciple and follower of Confus the worfoip of a wicked divinity wuu!! cius! you who believe one eternal in- furely be established over every part of telligent Cause of all, should you be pre- the earth. Fear guides more to their sent at the barbarous ceremonies of this duty than gratitude: for one man who
is virtuous from the love of virtue, from reans were, that heaven had no thun. the obligation which he thinks he lies ders in store for the villain, they would under to the Giver of all; there are ten no longer continue to acknowledge fuh. thousand who are good only from their ordination, or thank that Being who apprehensions of punishment. Could gave them existence. Adieu. these lait be persuaded, as the Epicu
LET TER XI.
TO THE SAME.
ROM such a picture of Nature in only are curious after knowledge, when
primeval fimplicity, tell me, my we find it connected with sensual hapmuch respected friend, are you in love piness. The senses ever point out the with fatigue and folitude? Do you figh way, and reflection comments upon the for the fevere frugality of the wandering discovery: Inform a native of the deTartar, or regret being born amidst the fart of Kobi, of the exact measure of luxury and dissimulation of the polite? the parallax of the moon, he finds no Rather tell me, has not every kind of satisfaction at all in the information ; he life vices peculiarly it's own ? Is it not wonders how any could take such pains, a truth, that refined countries have more and lay out such treasures in order to vices, but those not so terrible, barba- folve so useless a difficulty; hut connect rous nations few, and they of the most it with his happiness, by thewing that hideous complexion ? Perfidy and fraud it improves navigation, that by such an are the vices of civilized nations, cre. investigation he may have a warmer dulity and violence those of the inhabi
coat, a better gun, or a finer knife, and tants of the defart. Does the luxury of he is inftantly in raptures at so great an the one produce half the evils of the in- improvement. In short, we only desire humanity of the other? Certainly those to know what we desire to posess; and philosophers who declaim against luxury whatever we may talk againit it, luxury have but little understood it's benefits; adds the fpur to curiosity, and gives us they seem insensible, that to luxury we a defire of becoming more wise. owe not only the greatest part of our But not our knowledge only, but our knowledge, but even of our virtues. virtues, are improved by luxury. Ob
It may sound fine in the mouth of a serve the brown savage of Thibet, to declaimer, when he talks of subduing whom the fruits of the spreading pemeour appetites, of teaching every sense to granate tupply food, and it's branches be content with a bare sufficiency, and an habitation. Such a character has of supplying only the wants of nature; few vices I grant, but those he has are but is there not more satisfaction in in- of the most hideous nature; rapine and dulging those appetites, if with inno- cruelty are scarce crimes in bis eye; neicence and safety, than in relt, aining ther pity nor tenderness, which ennoble them? An not I berter pleased in en- every virtue, have any place in his joyment than in the fullen fatisfaction heart; he hates his enemies, and kills of thinking that I can live without en- those he subdues. On the o: her hand, joyment? The more various our arti- the polite Chinese and civilized Euroficial neceflities, the wider is our circle pean teemn even to love their enemies. I of pleasure; for all pleasure consists in have just now seen an initance where the obviating necessities as they rite; luxury, English have succoured those enemies therefore, as it encreases our wants, en. whom their own countryinen a&tualy creates our capacity for happiness. refused to relieve.
Elamine the history of any country The greater the luxuries of every remarkable for opulence and wisdom, country, the more closely, politically you will find they would never have speaking, is that country united. Luxu. been wise ha. they not been firit luxu- ry is the child of society alone, the rious; you will find poets, philosophers, luxurious man stands in need of a thouand even patriots, marching in Luxury's fand different artists to furnish out his train. The reason is obvious; we then happinels; it is more likely, tlierefore, that he should be a good citizen who is encroaching on mutual property; in connected by motives of self-interelt whatever light we regard it, we shall with so many, than the abitemious man have reason to stand up in it's defence, who is united to none.
and the sentiment of Confucius itill reIn whatsoever light therefore we con- mains unshaken; ' that we should enjoy sider luxury, whether as employing a as many of the luxuries of life as are number of hands naturally too feeble • consistent with our own safety, and the for more laborious employment, as find- prosperity of others; and that he who ing a variety of occupation for others • finds out a new pleasure is one of the who might be totally idle, or as furnish- moit useful members of society.' ing out new inlets to happiness, without
TO THE SAME.
the Daures, who think themselves used to make him do what he might have the politest people in the world, I muit been induced to perform only by being make a transition to the funeral solemni- told — Sir, you are past all hopes, and ties of the English, who think themselves • had as good think decently of dying.' as polite as they. The numberless ce- Belides all this, the chamber is darkremonies wbich are used here when a ened, the whole house echoes to the cries person is sick, appear to me so many of the wife, the lamentations of the evident marks of fear and apprehension. children, the grief of the servants, and Ask an Englishman, however, whether the sighs of friends. The bed is lurhe is afraid of death, and he boldly an- rounded with priests and doctors in swers in the negative; but observe his black, and only flaniveaux emnit a yel. behaviour in circumitances of approach. low gloom. Where is the man, how ing sickness, and you will find his ac. intrepid foever, that would not shrink tions give his affertions the lye. at such a hideous solemnity? For fear
The Chinese are very fincere in this of affrighting their expiring friends, the respect; they hate to die, and they con- Englith pratife all that can fill them fess their terrors: a great part of their with terror. Strange effect of human life is spent in preparing things proper prejudice, thus to torture merely froin for their funeral; a poor artizan shall miltaken tenderness! spend half his income in providing him- You see, my friend, what contradicself a tomb twenty years before he wants tions there are in the tempers of thote it; and denies himself the neceffaries of illanders; when prompted by ambition, life, that he may be amply provided for revenge, or disappointment, they meet when he ihall want them no more. death with the utmost resolution; the
But people of distinction in England very man who in his bed would have really deserve pity, for they die in cir- trembled at the aspect of a doctor, shall cumitances of the most extreme distress. go with intrepidity to attack a bastion, It is an established rule, never to let a or deliberately noose himfelf up in his man know that he is dying: physicians garters. are sent for, the clergy are called, and The passion of the Europeans for every thing passes in silent folemnity magnificent interments is equally strong sound the fick bed; the patient is in with that of the Chinese.
When a agonies, looks round for pity, yet not tradesman dies, his frightful face is a single creature will say that he is dy- painted up by an undertaker, and placed ing. If he is poffefsed of fortune, his in a proper fituation to receive company; relations entreat him to make his will, this is called lying in Itate. To this as it may restore the tranquillity of his disagreeable spectacle all the idlers in mind. He is desired to undergo the town flock, and learn to loath the rites of the church, for decency requires wreich dead, whom they despised when it. His friends take their leave only be living. In this minner you see some cause they do not care to see him in pain. who would have refused a fhilling to
save the life of their dearest friend, be. up in terms as flattering as possible; and ftow thousands on adorning cheir putrid that he would make it the employment corpse. I have heen told of a fellow, of his whole life to deserve it! who, grown rich by the price of blood, I have not yet been in a place called left it in his willthat he could lie in state, Westminster Abbey, but soon intend to and thus unknowingly gibbered himself visit it. There I am told I shall see into infamy, when he might have other- justice done to deceased merit; none, wise quietly retired into oblivion. I am told, are permitted to be buried
When the person is buried, the next there but such as have adorned as well care is to make his epitaph; they are as improved mankind. There no ingenerally reckoned beit which flattertruders, by the influence of friends or moit; such relations therefore as have fortune, presume to mix their unhal. received most benefits from the defunct, lowed ashes with philosophers, heroes, discharge this friendly office; and gene. and poets. Nothing but true merit has rally flatter in proportion to their joy. a place in that awiul sanctuary: the When we read those monumental hif- guardianship of the tombs is committed tories of the dead, it may be justly said, to feveral reverend priests, who are never that ' all men are equal in the dust;' for guilty for a luperior reward of taking they all appear equally remarkable for down the names of good men, to make being the inoit fincere Christians, the room for others of equivocal character, most benevolent neighbours, and the nor ever prophane the sacred walls with honesteit men of their time. To go pageants, that posterity cannot know, through anEuropean cemetery,one would or shall blush to own. be apt to wonder how mankind could I always was of opinion, that sepulhave fo balely degenerated from such chral honours of this kind should be excellent anceitors; every tomb pretends confidered as a national concern, and to claim your reverence and regret; pone not trusted to the care of the priests of are praised for piety in those inscrip- any countiy, how respectable foever; but tions who never entered the temple un- from the conduct of the reverend pertil they were dead; some are praised for fonages, whose disinterested patriotiim I being excellent poets, who were never fhall shortly be able to discover, I am mentioned, except for their dullness, taught to retract my former sentiments. , when living; others for sublime orators, It is true, the Sparians and the Perlians who were never noted except for their made a fine political use of fepulchral impudence; and others still for military vanity; they permitted none to be thus atchievements, who were never in any interred, who had not fallen in the vinother skirmishes but with the watch. dication of their country; a monument Some even make epitaphs for themselves, thus became a real mark of distinction, and bespeak the reader's good-will. lt it nerved the hero's arın with tenfold were indeed to be wished, that every vigour; and he fought without fear, man would early learn, in this manner, who only fought for a grave. Farewell. to make his own; that he would draw it
FROM THE SAMZ.
cielings. Think, then, what were my Abbey, the place of sepulture for fentations at being introduced to such a the philosophers, beroes, and kings of scene! I stood in the midst of the temEngland. What a gloom do monu- ple, and threw my eyes round on the mental inscriptions and all the venerable walls filled with the statues, the infcrip. remains of deceale: merit in fire! Ima- tions, and the monuments of the dead. gine a teinple marked with the hand of • Alas!' I said to mytelf, how does antiquity, solemn as religious awe, • pride attend the puniy child of duit adorned vith all the magnificence of even to the grave! Even humble as I barbarous profusion, dim windows, I pofieis more confequence in the fretted piliars, long colonades, and dark prelent Icene than the greatest hero of
s them all; they have toiled for an hour • taking half a score towns, is thought . to gain a transient immortality, and a sufficient qualification ?'- Gain• are at length retired to the grave, where . ing battles, or taking towns,' replied
they have no attendant but the worn, the man in black, may be of service; none to flatter but the epitaph.' but a gentleman may have a very fine
As I was indulging luch reflections, monument here without ever seeing a a gentleman, dressed in black, perceiving • battle or a fege.' This then is the me to be a ftranger, came up, entered • monument of fome poet, I prefume ; into conversation, and politely offered to ' of one whose wit has gained him imbe my initructur and guide through the 'mortality? '-— No, Sir,' replied my temple... If any monument,' said he, guide, ' the gentleman who lies here • should particularly excite your curio- never made verles; and as for wit, he « fity, I thall endeavour to satisfy your • despised it in others, because he had • demands.' I accepted, with thanks, 'none himself.'-- Pray tell me then the gentleinan's offer; adding, that I in a word,' said I, peevithly, 'what was come to observe the policy, the wil- ' is the great man who lies here partidom, and the justice of the English, in 'cularly remarkable for?'- Remark. conferring rewards upon deceased merit. able, Sir!' said my companion ; ' why,
If adulation like this,' continued I, • Sir, the gentleman that lies here is be properly conducted, as it can no remarkable, very remarkable for a
ways injure those who are flattered, so • tomb in Westminiter Abbey.'— But, ' it may be a glorious incentive to those head of my Ancestors! how has he ' who are now capable of enjoying it. got here? I fancy he could never bribe • It is the duty of every good govern. " the guardians of the temple to give 'ment to turn this monumental pride him a place: Should he not be asham• to it's own advantage, to become ed to be seen among company, where • Itrong in the aggregate from the weak- even moderate merit would look like
ness of the individual. If none but • infamy?'' I suppose,' replied the • the truly great have a place in this man in black,' the gentleman was rich, ' awful repolitory, a temple like this ' and his friends, as is usual in such a ' will give the finest lessons of morality, 'cafe, told him he was great. He rea' and be a strong incentive to true am- • dily believed them; the guardians of • birion. I an told, that none have a • the temple, as they got by the felf
place here but characters of the most • delusion, were ready to believe him • diftinguished merit.' The man in too; so he paid his money for a fine black seemed impatient at my observa- monument; and the workman, as tions; fo I discontinued my remarks, • you see, has made him one the most and we walked on together to take a • beautiful. Think not, however, that view of every particular monument in . this gentleman is fingular in his desire order as it lay.
6 of being buried among the great; there As the eye is naturally caught by the are several others in the temple, who, fincit objects. I could not avoid being " hated and shunned by the great while particularly curious about one monu- alive, have come here, fully resolved ment which appeared more beautiful to keep thens company now they are than the rest; i That,' said I to my
dead.' guide, ' I take to be the tomb of some As we walked along
to a particular very great man. By the peculiar ex- part of the temple-There,' says the
cellence of the workmanthip, and the gentleman, pointing with his finger, • magnificence of the design, this must i that is the Poets Corner; there you
be a trophy railed to the memory of • see the monuments of Shakespeare,
fome king who has saved his country • and Milton, and Prior, and Drayton.' • from ruin; or law-giver, who has re- Drayton,' I replied, • I never heard • duced his feilow-citizens from anar- of him before; but I have been told
chy into just subiection.'- Ir is not of one Pope, is he there?'- It is • requifite,' replied my companion, • time enough,' replied my guide, smiling, to have such qualifications " there hundred years, he is not long ' in order to have a very fine monument · dead, people have not done hating • here. More humble abilities will fuf. • him yet.'- Strange!' cried I, 'can • fice.'- What, I suppose, then, the any be found to hate a man, whose
gaining two or three battles, or the life was wholly spent in entertaining