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• folving to obey his will, and endea. Morten a long ftory, they both agreed

vorring to dry it with my fan. I have to be married. • employed two whole days in fulfilling There was now no longer mourning • luis coinmands, and am determined not in the apartments; the body of Choang • to marry till they are punctually obey- was now thrust into an old coffin, and • ed, even though his grave should take placed in one of the meanest rooms, there four days in drying.'

to lie unattended until the time pre crib. Choang, who was itrack with the ed by law for his interment. In the widow's beauty, could not, however, mean time Hansi, and the young diície avoid smiling at her hafte to be married; ple, were arrayed in the moit magniñ. but, concealing the cause of his mirth, cent habits; the bride wore in her nose civilly invited her home; adding, that a jewel of immense price, and her lovet he had a wife who might be capable of was dressed in all the finery of his for. giving her some confulation. As soon mer matter, together with a pair of ar. as he and his guest were returned, he tificial whiskers that reached down to jmparted to Hanfi in private what he his toes. The hour of their nuptials had seen, and could not avoid expressing was arrived; the whole family sympa. his uneasinets, that such might be his thized with their approaching happiness; own cafe if his dearest wife Thould one the apartments were brightened up with day happen to survive him.

lights that diffused the most exquisite It is impossible to describe Hansi's re. perfume, and a lustre more brighi than Sentment at so unkind a suspicion. As noon day; The lady expected her her palījon for him was not only great, youthful lover in an inner apartment but extremely delicate, the employed with impatience ; when his servant aptears, anger, frowns, and exclamations, proaching with terror in his counte. to chide his suspicions; the widow her- nance, informed her, that his matter self was inveighed againit; and Hansi was fallen into a fit, which would cer. declared she was resolved never to fcep tainly be mortal, unless the heart of a under the same roof with a wretch, who, man lately dead could be obtained, and like her, could be guilty of such bare. applied to his breait. She scarce waited faced inconstancy. The night was cold to hear the end of his story, when, tuck. and stormy; however, the itranger was ing up her cloaths, she ran with a mat. obliged to seek another lodging, for tock in her hand to the coffin, where Choang was not as posed to resilt, and Choang lay, resolving to apply the Hanli would have her way.

heart of her dead husband as a cure for The widow had scarce been gone an the living, She therefore ftruck the hour, when an old disciple of Choang's, lid with the utmost violence. In a few whom he had not seen for many years, blows the coffin flew open, when the came to pay him a visit.

He was re- body, which to all appearance had been ceived with the utmost ceremony, placed dead, began to move. Terrified at the in the most honourable seat at lupper, right, Hanli dropped the mattock, and and the wine began to circulate with Choang walked out, astonished at his great freedom. Choang and Hansi ex. own situation, his wife's unusual inaghibited open marks of mutual tender- nificence, and her more amazing sur. ness, and unfeigned reconciliation : no- prize. He went among the apartments, thing could equal their apparent happi- unable to conceive the cause of so much nels; lo fond an husband, to obedient a splendor. He was not long in suspence wife, few could behold without regret. before his domeftics inforined him of ting their own infelicity. When, lo! every transaction since he first became the r happine's was at once disturbed by insensible. He could scarce believe what a molt fatal acciilent. Choang fell life. they told him, and went in pursuit of Jess in an apoplectic fit upon the floor. Hansi herself, in order to receive more Every method was used, but in vain, certain information, or to reproach her for his recovery. Hansi was at first in- infidelity. But the prevented his re. confolable for his death : after some proaches: he found her weltering in hours, however, the found spirits to blood; for she had stabbed lierself to the read his last will. The entuing day she heart, being unable to survive her hans began to moralize and talk wisdom ; the and disappointment. next day Me was able to comfort the

Choang, being a philosopher, was too young disciple; and, on the third, to wise to make any loud lawentations ;

he

De thought it best to bear his loss with As they both were apprised of the serenity; so, mending up the old coffin foibles of each other before hand, they where he had lain himself, he placed his knew how to excuse them after mar. faithless spouse in his room; and, un- riage. They lived together for many willing that so many nuptial prepgrations years in great tranquillity, and not ex. should be expended in vain, he the same pecting rapture, made a shift to find night married the widow with the large contentment. Farewell. fan.

LETTER XIX.

TW

TO THE SAME. gentleman in , or keep her in perpetual imprisonment, who was my companion through • as with us in China ? Pr'ythee, what Westminster Abbey, came yesterday to • is the wife's punishment in England pay me a visit ; and after drinking tea, • for such offences?'-'When a lady is we both resolved to take a walk together, thus caught tripping,' replied my comin order to enjoy the freshness of the panion, they never punish her, but the country, which now begins to resume i husband.'- You lurely jeit,' interit's verdure. Before we got out of the rupted I; 'I am a foreigner, and you fuburbs, however, we were stopped in I would abuse my ignorance!'- I am one of the treets by a crowd of people, 'really serious,' returned he. • Dr. gathered in a circle round a man and his • Cacafogo has caught his wife in the wife, who seemed too loud and too an- • act ; but as he had no witnesses, his gry to be understood, The people were • sinall testimony goes for nothing ; the highly pleased with the dispute, which • consequence, therefore, of his discoupon enquiry we found to be between very will be, that she may be packed Dr. Cacafogo, an apothecary, and his off to live among her relations, and wife. The doctor, it seems, coming the doctor must be obliged to allow unexpectedly into his wife's apartment, • her a separate maintenance.'-—'Amazfound a gentleman there in circum- ing!' cried I; is it not enough that ftances not in the least equivocal. • she is permitted to live separate from

The doctor, who was a person of nice • the object the detefts, but must he give honour, resolving to revenge the Ala- • her inoney to keep her in fpirits too?" grant infult, immediately few to the 'That he muit,' says my guide; ' and chimney-piece, and taking down a rusty • be called a cuckold by all his neighblunderbuss, drew the trigger upon the • bours into the bargain. The men defiler of his bed; the delinquent would • will laugh at him, the ladies will pity certainly have been shot through the • him; and all that his warmeit friends bead, but that the piece had not been can lay in his favour, will be, that the charged for many years. The gallant poor good foul has never had any made a shift to escape through the win. “ harm in him."- I want patience,' dow, but the lady itill remained ; and, interrupted I; 'what! are there no privaie as the well knew her husband's temper, • chastitements for the wife; no ichools, undertook to manage the quarrel with- of penitence to thew her her folly; out a second. He was furious, and the norods for luch delinquents?'-Piha, loud; their noise had gathered all the man,' replied he, Imiling; if every mob, who charitably assembled on the delinquent among us were to be treat. occasion, not to prevent, but to enjoy, (ed in your manner, one half of the the quarrel.

• kingdom would flog the other.' • Alas,' said I to my companion, I must confess, my dear Fum, that • what will become of this unhappy if I were an English husband, of all • creature thus caught in adultery! Be things I would take care not to be jea. • lieve me, I pity her from my heart ; lous, nor busily pry into those secreis • her husband, I suppose, will show her my wife was pleased to keep from me. • no mercy. Will they burn her as in Should I detect her infideliiy, what is • India, or behead her as in Persin? Will the consequence? If I calınly pocket the • they load hu with Itripes as in Turkey, abuse, I am lauglied at by her and her

gallant,

gallant; if I talk my griefs aloud like cudgel on the back My dear,' cries a tragedy hero, I am laughed at by the he, these are the lait blows you are whole world. The course then I would ever to receive from your tender fatake would be, whenever I went out, • ther; I resign my authority, and my to tell my wife where I was going, leit ' cudgel, to your luiband; he knows I thould unexpectedly meet her abroad " better than me the ute of either.' The in company with some dear deceiver. bridegroom knows decorums too well to Whenever I returned, I would use a pe- accept of the curigel abruptly; he ala, culiar rap at the door, and give four fures the father that the lady will never loud hems as I walked deliberately up want it, and that he would not for the the stair-cale. I would never inqui- world make any use of it. But the fatively peep under her bed, or look' be- ther, who knows what the lady may hind the curtains. And even though I want better than he, iniitts upon his acknew the captain was there, I would ceptance. Upon this, there follows a calmly take a dish of my wife's cool tea, scene of Ruflian politeness, while one rea and talk of the amy with reverence. fuses, and the other offers, the cudgeld

Of all nations, the Rullians fcem to The whole, however, ends with the me to behave molt wisely in fuch cir.. bridegroom's taking it, upon which the cumitances. The wife promiles her lady drops a curtley in token of obedihusband never to let hin fee her tranie ence, an the ceremony proceeds as gressions of this pature; and he as pune.. ufual. tually promiles, whenever the is lo de- There is something excessively fair tected, without the least anger, to beat and open in this method of courtship, her without mercy: fo they both know. By this, both sides are prepared for all, what each has to expect; the lady trans- the matrimonial adventures that are to grelles, is beaten, taken again inta fa-. follow. Marriage has been compared vour, and all goes on as before. to a game of skill for life; it is gererous,

When a Russian young lady, there- thus in buih parties to declare they are fore, is to be married, her father, with tharpers in the beginning. In England, a cudgel in his hand, alks the bride. I am told, both sides ute every art to cons, groorn whether he chutes this virgin ceal their defects from cach other before for his bride? to which the other repliesmarriage, and the rest of their lives may in the affirmative, Upon this, the fa- be regarded as doing penance tor their ther turning the lady three tiines round, former ditimulation. Farewell. and giving her three strokes with his

1

LETTER XX.

FROM THE SAME.

THE

"HE Republic of Letters is a very ing here; every member of this fancied

common expreflion among the republic is detirous of governing, and Europeans; and yet, when applied to the none willing to obey; each looks upon learned of Europe, is the most absurd his fellow as a rival, not an affiftant, in that can be imagined, since nothing is the same pursuit. They calumnate, more unlike a republic than the fociety, they injure, they despise, they ridicule which goes hy that name. From this each other: if one man writes a book expression one would be apt to imagine, that pleales, others thall write books to that the learned were united into a single tew that he might have given till body, joining their interests, and cons greater pleasure, or should not have curring in the same design. From this pleased. If one happens to hit upon one might be apt to compare them to foine hing new, there are numbers ready our literary societies in China, where to assure the public that all this was na each acknowledges a just subordination; novelty to thein or the learned; tha: Cara and all contribute to build the temple of danus or Brunus, or some other author science, without attempting from igno- tuo dull to be generally read, had an: rance or envy to obftruct each other.

ticipated the di covery. Thus, inftead But very different is the state of learn- of uniting like the members of common.

wealth,

wealth, they are divided into almost as ' many reputable and pleasing writers many factions as there are men; and present themselves from either country, their jarring constitution, instead of be. • that my judgment rests in suspence: I ing filed a republic of letters, should ' am pleased with the disquisition, withbe entitled, an anarchy of literature. out finding the object of my enquiry.'

It is true, there are some of superior But left you should think the French abilities who reverence and esteem each alone are faulty in this respect, hear how other; but their mutual admiration is an English journalist delivers his fenti. not sufficient to shield off the contempt ments of them. " We are amazed,' of the crowd. The wise are but few, says he, to find so many works transand they praise with a feeble voice; the • lated from the French, while we have vulgar are many, and roar in reproaches. ' such numbers neglected of our own. The truly great seldom unite in societies, In our opinion, notwithstanding their have few meetings, no cabals; the fame throughout the rest of Europe, dunces hunt in full cry till they have • the French are the most contemptible run down a reputation, and then fnarl ' reasoners (we had almost said writers) and fight with each other about dividing • that can be imagined. However, nethe spoil. Here you may see the com- vertheless, excepting, &c.' Another pilers, and the book-answerers of every English writer, Shaftsury, if I rememmonth, when they have cut up some ber, on the contrary, lays, that the respectable name, most frequently re- French authors are pleasing and judi. proaching each other with stupidity and cious, more clear, more methodical, and dullness: resembling the wolves of the entertaining, than those of his own Russian forest, who prey upon venison, country. or horse flesh when they can get it; but From these opposite pictures, you perin cases of necessity, lying in wait to ceive that the good authors of either devour each other. While they have country praise, and the bad revile each new books to cut up, they make a hearty other; and yet, perhaps, you will be meal; but if this resource should unhap. surprized that indifferent writers should pily fail, then it is that critics eat up thus be the most apt to censure, as they critics, and compilers rob from com- have the most to apprehend from recripilations.

mination; you may, perhaps, imagine, Confucius observes that it is the duty that such as are possessed of' fame themof the learned to unite society more close- felves Tould be most ready to declare ly, and to persuade men to become citi- their opinions, since what they say might zens of the world; but the authors I re- pass for decision. But the truth hapfer to, are not only for disuniting so. pens to be, that the great are solicitous ciety, but kingdoms also; if the Eng- only of raising their own reputations, lith are at war with France, the dunces while the opposite class, alas! are foliof France think it their duty to be at citous of bringing every reputation down war with those of England. Thus to a level with their own. Freron, one of their first-rate scribblers, But let us acquit them of malice and thinks proper to characterise all the Eng- envy; a critic is often guided by the ļish writers in the gross. " Their whole same motives that direct his author.

merit,' says he, consists in exaggera- The author endeavours to persuade us, • tion, and often in extravagance; correct that he has written a good book: the cri• their pieces as you pleale, there still tic is equally solicitous to new that he • remains a leaven which corrupts the could write a better, had he thought • whole. They fometimes discover ge. proper. A critic is a being poflefied of " nius, but not the smallest share of all the vanity, but not the genius, of a • taste; England is not a foil for the scholar: incapable, from his native weak. • plants of genius to thrive in. This nels, of lifting himself from the ground, is open enough, with not the least adu- he applies to contiguous merit for fuplation in the picture; but hear what a port, makes the sportive Sallies of ano. Frenchman of acknowledged abilities ther's imagination his serious employlays upon the same subject — I am at a ment, pretends to take our feelings un• loss to determine in what we excel the der his care, teaches where to condemn, • English, or where they excel us; when where to lay the emphasis of praise, and

I compare the merits of both in any may with as much justice be called a Qae fpecies of literary composition, so man of taste, as the Chinese who mea

E

fures

sures' his wisdom by the length of his ing notes to the book, intended to hew nails.

the particular passages to be laughed at; If then a book, Spirited or humour. when these are out, others fill there are ous, happens to appear in the republic who write notes upon notes.

Thus a of letters, several critics are in waiting fingie new book employs not only the to bid the public not to laugh at a single paper-makers, the printers, the prefilire of it, for themselves had read it; inen, the book binders, the hawkers, and they know what is most proper to but twenty critics, and as many com: to excite laughter. Other critics con- pilers. In short, the body of the learn, tradict the fulminations of this tribu- ed may be compared 10 a Persian army, nal, call them all spiders, and assure where there are many pioneers, several the public, that they ought to laugh sutlers, numberlefs servants, women and without restraint. Another set are in children in abundance, and but few lola the mean time quietly employed in writ- diers. Adieu.

LETTER XXI.

TO THE SAME.

THE

THE English are as fond of see. reading the story of the play, or making

ing plays acted as the Chinese; ailig nations. but there is a vast difference in the man- Those who fat in the lowest rows, ner of conducting them. We play our which are called the pit, seemed to conpieces in the open air, the Engliih theirs sider themselves as judges of the mei it of under cover; we açt by day lighi, they the poet and the performers; they were by the blaze of torches. One of our asembled partly to be amuted, and partplays continues eight or ten days luc- ly to Mew their taste; appearing io lacellively; an English piece feldom takes bour under that restraint whichi an af. up above four hours in the representa- fectation of superior discernment genetion.

rally pro iuces. My companion, howMy companion in black, with whom ever, informed me, that no one in an I am now beginning to contract an inti- hundred of them k new even the firit prin. macy, introduced me a few nights ago ciples of criticism ; that thev affumed the to the play-house, where we placed our right of being censors becaule there was felves conveniently at the foot of the none to contradict their pretenfiors; and ttage. As the curtain was not drawn that every man who now called himself a before my arrival, I had an opportunity connoiffeur, became such to all intents of observing the behaviour of the spec- and purposes. tators, and indulging those reflections Those who sat in the boxes appeared which novelty generally inspires. in the most unhappy situation of all.

The rich in general were placed in The rest of the audience came merely the lowest seats, and the poor rose above for their own amusenient; thele sather them in degrees proportioned to their to furnish out a part of the entertain. poverty. The order of precedence leem. ment themselves. I could not avoid ed here inverted; those who were under considering thein as acting part in dumb most all the day, now enjoyed a tempo- Mew; not a curtsey or nod, that was not rary eminence, and became masters of the result of art; not a look nor a finile the ceremonies. It was they who called that was not designed for murder. Genfor the mulic, indulging every noily tlemen and ladies ogled each other freedom, and testifying all the infolence through spectacles; for my companion of beggary in exaltation.

observed, thar blindness was of late beThey who held the middle regione come fashionable, all affected indiffer. seemed not so riotous as thofe above , ence and ease, while their hearts at the thein, nor yet so tame as those below; same time burned for conqueft. Upon to judge by their looks, many of them the whole, the lights, the music, the laseemed trangers there as well as myself. dies in their gayeit dresies, the men with

They were chiefly employed during this chearfulness and expectation in their period of expectation in eating oranges, looks, all conspired to inake a molt agree

able

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