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Rowing in the fields and on scaffolds; fo many cities, produced ? Nothing eitortures used as arguments to convince ther great or conliderable. The Christian the recusant: to heighten the horror of princes have lost indeed much from the the piece, behold it shaded with wars, enemies of Christendom, but they have rebellions, treasons, plots, politics, and gained nothing from each other. Their poison.
princes, because they preferred ambiAnd what advantage has any coun- tion to juitice, deserve the character of try of Europe obtained from such cala. enemies to mankind; and their priests, mities ? Scarce any. Their dissentions by neglecting morality for opinion, have for more than a thousand years have mistaken the interests of society. served to make each other unhappy; but On whatever side we regard the histohave enriched none. All the great na- ry of Europe, we shall perceive it to be tions still nearly preserve their ancient a tissue of crimes, follies, and misfor. limits ; none have been able to subdue tunes, of politics without design, and the othei', and so terminate the dispute. wars without consequence ; in this long France, in spite of the conquests of Ed. list of human infirmity, a great characward the Third, and Henry the Fifth; ter, or a living virtue, may sometimes notwithstanding the efforts of Charles happen to arise, as we often meet a cotthe Fifth, and Philip the Second, still re- tage or a cultivated spot in the most himains within it's ancient limits. Spain, deous wilderness. But for an Alfred, Germany, Great Britain, Poland, the an Alphonso, a Frederic, or one Alex, itates of the North, are nearly still the ander III. we meet a thousand princes fame. What effect then has the blood who have disgraced humanity. of so many thousands, the destruction of
FROM LIEN CHI ALTANGI, TO FUM HOAM, FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE
CEREMONIAL ACADEMY AT PEKIN, IN CHINA.
E have just received accounts genius to bless and enlighten a degene.
here, that Voltaire the poet and rate age. Prodigal in the production philosopher of Europe is dead! He is of kings, governors, mandarines, chams, bow beyond the reach of the thousand and courtiers, the seems to have forgotenemies who, while living, degraded ten; for tnore than three thousand years, his writings, and branded his character. the manner in which she once formed the Scarce a page of his latter productions þrain of a Confucius; and well it is the that does not betray the agonies of an has forgotten, when a bad world gave heart bleeding under the scourge of un- him fo very bad a reception: merited reproach. Happy therefore Whence, my friend, this malevolence at last in escaping from calumny, happy which has ever pursued the great even in leaving a world that was unworthy of to the tomb? whence this more than him and his writings.
fiend-like disposition of embittering the Let others, my friend, bestrew the lives of those who would make us inore hearses of the great with panegyric; but wise and more happy? fuch a loss as the world has now suffer- When I cast my eye over the fates of ed affects me with stronger emotions. Several philofophers, who have at diffeWhen a philosopher dies, I consider rent periods enlightened mankind, I. myself as losing a patron, an initructor, muft confess it inspires me with the most and a friend. I consider the world as degrading reflections on humanity. loang one who might serve to console When I read of the stripes of Mentius, her amidit the desolations of war and am- the tortures of Tchin, the bowl of soa bition. Nature every day produces in crates, and the bath of Seneca; when I abundance men capable of filling all the hear of the persecutions of Dante, the requifite duties of authority; but he is imprisonment of Galileo, the indigni. niggard in the birth of an exalted mind, ties suffered by Montange, the banishkcarcely producing in a century a linglé ment of Cartesius, the infamy of Bacon;
and that even Locke himself escaped not upon the royal concubine. He had sc. without reproach; when I think on such cepted the place of historian to the French subjects, I hesitate whether most to blame, king, but refused to keep it, when he the ignorance or the villainy of my fel- found it was presented only in order low-creatures.
that he Ghould be the first flatterer of the Should you look for the character of state. Voltaire among the journalists and illi. The great Pruffian received him as an ferate writers of the age, you will there ornament to his kingdom, and had senie find hiin characterized as a monster, with enough to value his friendship, and proa head turned to wisdom, and an heart fit by his instructions. In this court he inclining to vice; the powers of his mind continued, till an intrigue, with which and the baseness of his principles form. the world seems hitherto unacquainted, ing a detestable contraft. But feek for obliged him to quit that country. His his character among writers like himself, own happiness, the happiness of the and you find him very differently de- monarch, of bis Kjler, of a part of the fcribed. You perceive him in their ac- court, rendered his departure neces. counts possessed of good-nature, huma. fary. nity, greatness of soul, fortitude, and Tired at length of courts, and all the almost every virtue: in this description follies of the great, he retired to Switthose who might be supposed best ac- zerland, a country of liberty, where he quainted with his character are unani- , enjoyed tranquillity and the muse. Here,
The royal Pruffian*, Dar- though without any taste for magnifigents t, Diderot I, D'Alembert, and cence himself, he usually entertained at Fontenelle, conspire in drawing the pic. his table the learned and polite of Euture, in describing the friend of man rope, who were attracted by a desire of and the patron of every rising genius. seeing a person from whoin they had re
An inflexible perseverance in what he ceived so much satisfaction. The enthought was right, and a generous de. tertainment was conducted with the ut. testation of flattery, formed the ground. molt elegance, and the conversation was work of this great man's character. that of philosophers. Every country From these principles many trong vir- that at once united liberty and science, tues and few faults arose; as he was were his peculiar favourites. The bewarm in his friendship, and fevere in ing an Englifhman was to him a cha. resentment, all that mention him feem racter that claimed admiration and repoffefied of the fame qualities, and spect. Ipeak of him with rapture or detefta- Between Voltaire and the disciples of tion. A person of his eminence can Confucius, there are many differences ; have few indifferent as to his character; however, being of a different opinion every reader matt be an enemy or an does not in the leait diminish my esteem; admirer.
I am not displeased with my brother, This poet began the course of glory because he happens to ask our father for fo early as the age of eighteen, and even favours in a different manner from me. then was author of a tragedy which de. Let his
error's rest in peace, his excellenserves applause. Posleffed of a small pa- cies deserve admiration; Jet me with the trimony, he preserved his independence wise admire his wisdom; let the envious in an age of venality, and tupported and the ignorant ridicule bis foibles ; the dignity of learning, by teaching his the folly of others is ever most ridicucotemporary writers to live, like him, lous to those who are themselves mof above allthe favours of the great. He was foolish. Adieu. banished his native country for a fatire
• Philosophe Sans Sousi. + Let. Chin 1 Encycloped.
LETTER LETTER XLIV.
FROM LIEN CHI ALTANGI, TO HINGPO, A SLAVE IN PERSIA.
T is imposible to form a philosophic Every wish, therefore, which leads
fyftem of happiness which is adapt. us to expect happiness somewhere else ed to every condition of life, fince every but where we are, every institution person who travels in this great pursuit which teaches us that we should be bete takes a separate road. The differing ter, by being possessed of something new, colours which suit different complexions, which promises to lift us a step higher are not more various than the different than we are, only lays a foundation for pleasures appropriated to different minds. uneasiness, because it contracts debts The various fedts who have pretended to which we cannot repay; it calls that a give lessons to instruct me in happiness, good, which when we have found it, have described their own particular sen- will in fact add nothing to our happisations, without considering ours; have ness. only loaded their disciples with con- To enjoy the present, without regret straint, without adding to their real fe- for the part, or solicitude for the future, licity.
has been the advice rather of poets than If I find pleasure in dancing, how philosophers. And yet the precept seems ridiculous would it be in me to prescribe more rational than is generally imaginfuch an amusement for the entertain- ed. It is the only general precept rement of a cripple! Should he, on the specting the pursuit of happiness, that other hand, place his chief delight in can be applied with propriety to every painting, yet would he be absurd in re. condition of life. The man of pleasure, commending the faine relish to one who the man of business, and the philofohad lost the power of distinguishing co- pher, are equally interested in it's dis. lours. General directions are therefore quisition. If we do not find happiness commonly useless; and to be particular in the present moment, in what shall we would exhauft volumes, since each in find it? Either in reflecting on the past, dividual may require a particular system or prognosticating the future. But let of precepts io direct his choice.
us see how these are capable of produce Every mind seems capable of enter- ing satisfaction. taining a certain quantity of happiness, A remembrarice of what is past, and which no inftitutions can increase, no an anticipation of what is to come, seem circumftances alter, and entirely inde. to be the two faculties by which man pendent on fortune. Let any man com- differs most from other animals. Though pare his present fortune with the past, brutes enjoy them in a limited degree, and he will probably find himself, upon yet their whole life seems taken up in the the whole, neither better nor worse than present, regardless of the part and the formerlv.
future. Man, on the contrary, endeaGratified ambition, or irreparable ca- vours to derive his happiness, and exlamity, may produce transient sensations periences most of his miseries, from these of pleasure or distress. Those Atorms iwo sources. may discompose in proportion as they Is this superiority of reflection a preare itrong, or the mind is pliant to their rogative of which we should boait, and impression. But the soul, though at for which we Mall thank Nature; er is firit lifted up by the event, is every day it a misfortune of which we should comoperated upon with diminished influences plain and be humble? Either from the and at length subfides into the level of abuse, or from the nature of things, it it's usual tranquillity: Should some certainly makes our condition more miunexpected turn of fortune take thee serable. from fetters, and place thee on a throne, Had we a privilege of calling up, by exultation would be natural upon the the power of memory, only such passages change; but the temper, like the face, as were pleasing, unmixed with such as would soon resume it's native serenity, were disagreeable, we might then excite at pleasure an ideal happiness, perhaps unqualified to feel the real pleasure of more poignant tha actual sendation. drinking; the drunkard, in turn, finds But this is not the case; the pait is never few of those transports which lovers reprefented without some difagreeable boaft in enjoyment; and the lover, when circumstance, which tarnishes all it's cloyed, finds a diminution of every beauty; she remembrance of an ev.d car- other appetite, Thus, after a full inries in it nothing agreeable, and to re- dulgence of any one fente, the man of member a good is always accoinpanied pleature finds a languor in all, is placed with regret. Thus we lose more than in a chatin between past and expeted we gain by remembrance.
enjoyınent, perceives an interval which : And we shall find our expectation of mult be filled up. The present can the juture to be a gift more distressful give no fatisfaction, beç use he has al. even than the former. To fear an ap- ready robbe! it of every charm: a mind proaching evil is certainly a most dir. thus left without immediate gratificaagreeable sensation, and in expecting tion. Instead of a life of diflipation, an approaching good, we experience none has more frequent converfations the inquietude of wanting actual posses- with disagreeable self
' than be: hus en. fion.
thufialins are hut few and tranfient; his Thus, which ever way we look, the appetites, like angry creditors, contiprospect is disagreeable. Behind, we nually making fruitleís demands for have left pleasures we hall never more what he is unable to pay; and the greater enjoy, and therefore regret; and before, his former pleasure, the more impatient we fee pleasures which we linguish to bis expectations, a life of pitature is possess, and are consequently uncaly till therefore the most unpleasing life in the we posess thein. Was there any me
world. thod of seizing the present, unimbitiered Hibit has sendered the man of build By such reficctions, then would our itate neis more cool in his defires; he finds be tolerably easy.
less regret for past pitasures, and less This, indeed, is the endeavour of all solicitude for those to come. The life mankind, who, untutored by philoto. he now leads, though tainted in some phy, pursue as much as they can a life meature with hope, is yet not afof amusement and dislipation. Every flicted so strongly with regret, and is rank in life, and every size of under, less divided between short-lived rapture Itanding, seems to follow this alone; or and lasting anzuilh. The pleasures he not purluing it, deviates from happi- has enjoyed are not so vivid, and those ness. The man of pleasure pursues dit he has to exixit, cunot consequently fipation by profession; the man of busi- create so much anxiety. ness pursues it not lets, as every volun- The philofopler, who extends his re. tary labour he undergoes is only diflic gard to all mankind, mvit have till a. pation in disguise. The philosopher smaller concern for what has already af, himfelf, even while he reasons upon the fi&ted, or may hereafter affect himself ; subject, does it unknowingly with a the concerns of others make his whole view of dilipating the thoughts of what ftudy, and that study is his pleasure; he was, or what he mult be.
and this pleasure is continuing in it's The subject, therefore, comes to this. pature, because it can be changed at Which is the most perfect furt of dili- will, leaving hut fove of these anxious pation : pleature, business, or philofo. intervals which are employed in rememphy? which beit ferves to exciude those brance or anticipatiin. The philosoUnealy fentations, which memory or an- pher, by this means, leads a life of al. tizipation produce?
most continued dilipation; and reflec. The enthusiatin of pleasure charms tion, which makes the uneasiness and only by intervals. The highest rapture nnifery of others, ferves as a companion lasts only for a moment; and all the and instructor to him. Senie's ie ein to combined, as to be foon In a word, positive happiness is conlired into fatiguor by the gratification of Aitutional, and incapable of encrease; any one o' then.
It is only among the misery is artificial, and generally pro. poets we hear of men changing to one ceeds from our folly. Philosophy can delight, when faliated with another. add to our happiness in no other manIn nature it is very different: the glut- ner, but by dininishing ous misery: jt. con, when fated with the full meal, is thould not pretend to encreale cur pre
fent stock, but make us æconomists of dificult to the man of business; and is what we are poffefsed of. The great in some measure attainable by the philofource of calamity lies in regret or an- sopher. Happy were we all born phiticipation : he, therefore, is most wife, losophers; all born with a talent of thus who thinks of the prefent alone, regard. diffipating our own cares, by spreading less of the past or the future. This is them upon all mankind! Adieu. impossible to the man of pleasure; it is
FROM LIEN CHI ALTANGI, TO FUM HOAM, FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE
CEREMONIAL ACADEMY AT PEKIN, IN CHINA.
HOUGH the frequent invitations thus his face underwent an involuntary here might excite the vanity of fome, I to his primitive complexion and indiam quite mortified however when I con. gence. sider the motives that inspire their civi- After some time, being freed from lity: I am ser: for not to be treated as aol, he was now grown wiser, and ina friend, but to satisfy curiosity; not to itcad of making himself a wonder, was be entertained fo much as wondered at; resolved only to make wonders. He the same earneitness wh'ch excites them learned the art of pasting up mummies; to see a Chinese, would have made them was never at a loss for an artificial lufus equaily proud of a visit from the rhi- naturæ; nay, it has been reported, that noceros.
he has sold seven petrified lobsters of his From the highest to the lowest, this own manufacture to a noted collector of people seem fond of lights and monsters, rarities; but this the learned Cracovius I ain toid of a person here who gets a Putridus has undertaken to refute in a very comfortable livelihood by making very elaborate differtation. wonders, and then selling or Mewing His last wonder was nothing more them to the people for money, no matter than an halter, yet by this halter he how insignificant they were in the be- gained more than by all his former exginning, by locking them up close, and hibitions. The people, it seems, had Thewing for money, they foon became got it in their heads, that a certain noble prodigies! His first essay in this way criminal was to be hanged with a filken was to exhibit himself as a wax-work rope. Now there was nothing they lo figure belind a glass door at a puppet. much desired to see as this very rope ; fhow. Thus keeping the spectators at and he was resolved to gratify their cua proper distance, and having his head riolity: he therefore got one made, not adorned with a copper crown, he looked only of filk, but, to render it more strikextremely natural, and very like the ing, several threads of gold were interlife itself. He continued this exhibition mixed. The people paid their money with success, till an involuntary fit of only to see hilk, but were highly satissneezing brought him to life before all fied when they found it was mixed with the spectators, and consequently render- gold into the bargain. It is scarce need him for that time as entirely useless, cessary to mention, that the projector as the peaceable inhabitant of a cata“ fold his filken rope for almost what it comb.
had coft him, as soon as the criminal Determined to act the statue no more, was known to be hanged in hempen he next levied contributions under the materials. figure of an Indian king; and by paint. By their fondness of lights, one would ing his face, and counterfeiting the fa- be apt to imagine, that instead of desire vage howl, he frighted several ladies and ing to see things as they should be, they children with amazing success : in this are rather solicitous of seeing them as manner, therefore, he might have lived they ought not to be. A cat with four very comfortably, had he not been ar. legs is disregarded, though never so userested for a debt that was contracted ful; but if it has but two, and is con-' wlien he was the figure in wax-work; fequently incapable of catching mice, it