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The wife at last made her appkärance, ' with a little of my own fauce?' at once a flattern and a coquet; much The very thing,' replies he; 'it will emaciated, but still carrying the remains eac beft with some finart bottled beer; of beauty. She made twenty apologits " but be fure to let's have the sauce his fur being feen in fach ocious vislable, grace was fo fond of. I hate your but lopou to be cacuidh, as she had staid immenfe loads of meat, that is counout all night at the gardens with the try all over ; extreme disgusting to countess, who was Caceively fond of those who are in the least acquainted the horns.--' Anil, indeedt, n.y dear',' ' with high life.' added the, turning to her husband, 'his By this time my curiosity began to • lordship drank your health in a bum. abate, and my appetite to increase. The ! peri'--' l'oor Jack,' cries he, “ a

company of fools may at fiift make us • duur good-nature creature, I know smile, but at last never fails of render

ne loves me; but I hope, my dear, ing us melancholy; I therefore pretend' you have given orilers for dinner ? ed to recollect a prior engagement; and . You need make no great prepaia. after having thewn my respect to the • tions neither, there are but three of house, according to the fation of the

us; something elegant, and little will English, by giving the oid fervant a

do; a turbot, an ortolan, or a - piece of money at the door, I took my • Or what do you think, my dear,' in- leave : Mr. Tibbs assuring me that terrupis the wife,' of a nice pretty bit dinner, if I staid, would be ready at lealt • of ox cheeks piping hot, and drefied in less than two hours.

LETTER LVI.

FROM FUM HOAM, TO ALTANGI, THE DISCONTENTED WANDERER,

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HE distant sounds of music that own forests; a few years are fufficient

catch new sweetness as they vibrate to clear away the obstructions to agrithrough the long drawn valley, are not culture; but it requires znany ere the more plealing to the ear than the ticings ground acquires a proper degree of ferof a far distant friend,

tility. The Russians, attached to their I have just received two hundred of thy ancient prejudices, again renew their letters hy the Ruffian caravan, descrip- hatred to strangers, and indulge erery tive of the manners of Europe. You have former brutal excels. So true it is, that left it to geographers to determine the size the revolutions of wisdom are flow and of their inountains, and extent of their difficult; the revolutions of folly or amlakes, seeming only employed in disco- bition precipitate and easy. 'We are vering the genius, the government, and not to be astonished,' says Confucius*, difpofition, of the people.

" that the wife walk more slowly in their in those letters I perceive a journal of road to virtue, than fools in their pafthe operations of your mind upon what- fage to vice; since passion drags us ever occurs, rather than a detail of your along, while wisdcm points out the travels from our building to another; of your taking a draught of this ruin, cr The German empire, that remnant of that obelilk; of paying fo many Tomans the majerty of ancient Rome, appears for this commodity, or layir; up a pro. from your account on the eve of difícłu. per ftore for the passage of tome new tion. The members of it's vaft body wilderness.

want every tie of government to unite From your accounts of Rullia I learn, them, and seem feebly held together that this nation is again relaxing into only by their respect for ancient inftitua pristine barlarity, that it's great em- tion. The very name of country and peror wanted a life of an hundred years countrymen, whichinoiher nations makes more to bring about his vast design. A one of ihe strongest bonds of govern. favage people may be resemble to their ment, has been here for some time laid

Thongh this fine maxim be not found in the Latin edition of the morals of Confucius, yet we find it ascribed to him by Le Compte, Etat present de la Chine. Vol. I. p. 342.

alide,

" way.'

חס

afide, each of it's inhabitants seeming they will ever take a refuge in despotism more proud of being called from the or democracy. petty state which gives him birth, than As the Swedds are making concealed by the more well-known title of Ger- approaches to despotism, the French, on man.

the other hand, are imperceptibly vindiThis government may be regarded in cating themselves into freedom. When the light of a fevere matter, and a feeble I consider that those parliaments (the opponent. The states which are now members of which are all created by the subject to the laws of the empire, are court, the presidents of which can act only watching a proper occasion to fling only by immediate direction) presume off the yoke; and those which are be- even to mention privileges and freedom, come too powerful to be compelled to who, till of late, received directions obedience, now begin to think of dic- from the throne with implicit humility ; tating in their turn. The ftruggles in when this is considered, I cannot help this itate are therefore not in order to pre- fancying that the genius of freedom has serve, but to destroy, the ancient consti- entered that kingdom in disguise. If they tution; if one side succeeds, the govern. have but three weak monarchs more, ment must become despotic; if the other, successively on the throne, the mask will feveral states will sublist without no- be laid aside, and the country will cerminal subordination ; but in either case tainly once more be free. the Germanic conftitution will be no When I compare the figure which the more.

Dutch make in Europe, with that they Sweden, on the contrary, though now assume in Aha, I am itruck with surseemingly a strenuous affertor of it's li- prize. In Alia, I find them the great berties, is probably only hastening on to lords of all the Indian feas; in Europe, despotism.' Their' senators, while they the timid inhabitants of a paltry state. pretend to vindicate the freedom of the No longer the sons of freedom, but of people, are only establishing their own avarice; no longer affertors of their independence. The deluded people will, rights by courage, but by negotiationsz, however, at last perceive the miseries of fawning on those who insult them, and an aristocratical government; they will crouching under the rod of every neighperceive that the adminiftration of a fo- bouring power. Without a friend to ciety of men is ever more painful than fave them in distress, and without virthat of one only. They will fly from tue to save themselves; their governo this most oppreffive of all forms, where ment is poor, and their private wealth one fingle member is capable of con. will serve to invite some neighbouring trouling the whole, to take refuge under invader. the throne which will ever be attentive I long with impatience for your letto their complaints. No people long ters from England, Denmark, Holland, endure an aristocratical government, and Italy; yet, why with for relations when they can apply elsewhere for re- which only describe new calamities, dress. The lower orders of people may which thew that ambition and avarice be enslaved for a time by a number of are equally terrible in every region ? tyrants, but upon the first opportunity

Adieu,

LETTER LVII.

FROM LIEN CHI ALTANGI, TO TUM HOAM, FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE

CEREMONIAL ACADEMY AT PEKIN, IN CHINA.

I have been thin a dormired the even the

In England there are no such tribu. of criticising in China, where the nals erected; but if a man thinks proper learned are affembled in a body to judge to be a judge of genius, few will be at of every new públication; to examine the pains to contradict his pretensions. the merits of the work without know. If any chuse to be critics, it is but saying the circumstances of the author, and ing they are critics; and from that time then to usher it into the world with pro. ' forward they become invested with full per marks of respect or reprobation. power and authority over every caitiff

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who who aims at their instruction or enter- the whole might have been before more tainment.

disgusting than his own rent-roll, yet As almost every member of society figning his name and title gives value to has by this means a vote in literary the deed; title being alone equivalent to transactions, it is no way surprizing to taite, imagination, and genius. find the rich leading the way here as in As soon as a piece, therefore, is pubother common concerns of life, to see lithed, the first questions are — Who is them either bribing the numerous herd • the author? Does he keep a coach? of voters by their interest, or brow- " Where lies his eitate? What fort of beating them by their authority. ' a table does he keep?' If he happens

A great man says, at his table, that to be poor, and unqualified for such a such a book is no bad thing. Imme- scrutiny, he and his works sink into irdiately the praise is carried off by five remediable obscurity; and too late he flatterers to be dispersed at twelve diffe- finds, that having fed upon Turtle is a rent coffee-houses, from whence it cir- more ready way to fame, than having culates, still improving as it proceeds, digested Tully. through forty-five houses, where cheaper The poor devil, against whom fa. liquors are sold; from thence it is carried mhion has set it's face, vainly alledges, away by the honest tradelinan to his own that he has been bred in every part of fire-side, where the applause is eagerly Europe where knowledge was to be sold; caught up by his wife and children, who that he has grown pale in the study of have been long taught to regard his judg- nature and himself; his works may ment as the standard of perfection. Thus, please upon the perufal, but his pretenwhen we have traced a wide-extended li- fions to fame are entirely disregarded ; terary reputation up to it's original source, he is treated like a fiddler, whose music, we shall find it derived from some great though liked, is not much praised, be. man, who has, perhaps, received all cause he lives by it; while a gentlemanhis education and English from a tutor performer, though the most wretched of Berne, or a dancing-master of Pi- scraper alive, throws the audience into cardie.

raptures. The fiddler, indeed, may in The English are a people of good such a case console himself by thinking, sense; and I am the more surprized to that while the other goes off with all the find them fwayed in their opinions by praise, he runs away with all the momen who often, from their very educa- ney: but here the parallel drops; for tion, are incompetent judges. Men who, while the nobleman triumphs in unme. being always bred in aftuence, see the rited applause, the author by profession world only on one fide, are surely im- steals off with-Nothing: proper judges of human nature; they The poor, therefore, here, who draw may indeed describe a ceremony, a pa- their pens auxiliary to the laws of their geant, or a ball; but how can they pre country, must think themselves very tend to dive into the secrets of the hu- happy if they find, not fame, but forman heart, who have been nursed up giveness; and yet, they are hardly only in fornis, and daily behcld nothing treated; for, as every country grows but the fame infipid adulation smiling more polite, the press becomes more use. upon every face? Few of them have ful; and writers become more necessary, been bred in the best of schools, the as readers are supposed to encrease. In school of adversity; and, by what I can a polished fociety, that man, though in learn, fewer still have been bred in any rags, who has the power of enforcing school at all.

virtue from the press, is of more real use from such a description, one would than forty ftupid brachmans or bonzes, think, that a droning duke, or a dow. or guebres, though they preached never ager dutcheiš, was not poffeffed of more fo ofien, never so loud, or never so long. jull pretensions to taste than persons of That man, though in rags, who is ca. lets quality; and yet, whatever the one pable of deceiving even indolence into or the other may write or praise, shall wisdom, and who professes amusement pass for perfection, without farther ex-, while he aims at reformation, is more amination. A nobleman has but to useful in refined faciety than twenty car. take a pen, ink, and paper, write away dinals with all their fearlet, and tricked through three large volumes, and then out in all the fopperies of scholastic laga his name to the title-page; though finery.

LETTER

LETTER LVIII.

TO THE SAME.

A

are

S the man in black takes every Divine love; but as for eating and

opportunity of introducing me to drinking, I had prepared myself to be such company as may serve to indulge disappointed in that particular. I was my speculative temper, or gratify my, apprized, that fasting and temperance curiosity, I was by his influence lately were tenets strongly recommended to the invited to a visitation dinner. Tó un. profeflors of Christianity; and I had derstand this term, you must know, seen the frugality and mortification of that it was formerly the custom here for the priests of the Eart: fo that I expectthe principal priests to go about the ed an entertainment where we should country once a year, and examine upon have much reasoning, and little meat. the spot, whether those of subordinate Upon being introduced, I confess I orders did their duty, or were qualified found no great signs of mortification in for the talk; whether their temples were the faces or persons of the company. kept in proper repair, or the laity pleased However, I imputed their florid looks with their administration.

to temperance, and their corpulency to Though a visitation of this nature was a sedentary way of living. I faw sevevery useful, yet it was found to be ex- ral preparations indeed for dinner, but tremely troublesome, and for many rea- none for philosophy. The company sons utterly inconvenient ; for as the seemed to gaze upon the table with lilent principal priests were obliged to attend expectation; but this I easily excused. at court, in order to solicit preferment, 'Men of wisdom,' thought 1, it was impossible they could at the same • ever now of speech ; they deliver no. time attend in the country, which was thing unadvisedly.--" Silence," says quite out of the road to promotion : if • Confucius,' “ is a friend that will we add to this the gout, which has been never betray." They are now protime immemorial a clerical disorder here, . bably inventing niaxims, or hard faytogether with the bad wine, and ill. ings, for their mutual instruction, dressed provisions that mult infallibly be when some one thall think proper to served up by the way, it is not strange begin.' that the custom has been long disconti- My curiosity was now wrought up to nued, At present, therefore, every the highest pitch; I impatiently looked head of the church, initead of going round to see if any were going to interabout to visit his priests, is satisfied if rupt the mighty pause; when, at last, his priests come in a body once a year one of the company declared, that there to visit him; by this means the duty of was a low in his neighbourhood that half a year is dispatched in a day. When farrowed fifteen pigs at a litter. This assembled, he aiks each in his turn, how I thought a very preposterous beginning: they have behaved, and are liked; upon but juit as another was going to second which, those who have neglected their the remark, dinner was served, which duty, or are disagreeable to their con- interrupted the conversation for that gregation, no doubt accuse themselves, time. and tell him all their faults; for which The appearance of dinner, which he reprimands them most severely. consisted of a variety of dishes, seemed

The thoughts of being introduced to diffuse new chearfulness upon every into a company of philosophers and face ; fo that I now expected the philolearned men, (for such I conceived them) sophical conversation to begin, as they gave me no small pleafure; I expected improved in good-humour. The prinour entertainment would resemble those cipal priest, however, opened his mouth, sentimental banquets so finely described with only observing, that the venison by Xenophon and Plato; I was hoping had not been kept enough, though he some Socrates would be brought in from had given strict orders for having it the door, in order to harangue upon killed ten days before. "I fear,' con

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tinued

tinued he,' it will be found to want which lasted as many hours, till every • the true heathy flavour; you will one of the company were unable to swala • find nothing of the original wild- low or utter any thing more. 6 neis in it.' A priest, who sat It is very natural for men who are next him, having smelt it, and wip- abridged in one excess, to break into ed his nose—Ah, my good lord,' some other. The clergy here, particucries he, “ you are too modest, it is larly those who are advanced in years,

perfectly fine; every body knows that think, if they are abstemious with regard

nobody understands keeping venison to women and wine, they may indulge • with your lordship.'- Ay, and par, their other appetites without cenfure. • tridges too,' interrupted another; I Thus some are found to rise in the • never find them right any where else.' morning only to a consultation with His lordship was going to reply, when their cook about dinner; and when that a third took off the attention of the com- has been swallowed, make no other use pany, by recommending the pig as in. of their faculties, (if they have any) imitable. " I fancy, my lord,' con- but to ruminate on the succeeding meal. tinues he, it has been smothered in it's A debauch in wine is even more para

own blood ?? If it has been smo- donable than this, fince one glafs insen • thered in it's blood,' cried a facetious sibly leads on to another, and instead of member, helping himself, we'll now fateing whets the appetite. The pro• • smother it in egg-fauce. This poig- greflive steps to it ale chearful and fenant piece of humour produced a long ducing; the grave are animated, the Joud laugh, which the facetious brother melancholy relieved, and there is even observing, and now that he was in claslic authority to countenance the exJuck, willing to second his blow, assured cefs. But in eating after nature is once the company he would tell them a good fatisfied, every additional inorsel brings story about that: ' As good a story,' stupidity and distempers with it, and, cries he, bursting into a violent fit of as one of their own poets expresses it laughter himself,' as ever you

heard • in your lives. There was a fariner of The soul fubfides, and wiekedly inclines,

my parishi, who used to sup upon wild To leem boc mortal, even in sound divines • ducks and flummery; so this farmer

' Doctor Marrowfat,' cries Let me suppose, after such a meal as his lordship, interrupting him, ' give this I have been describing, while all the

me leave to drink your health.' - So, company are fitting in lethargic filence « being fond of wild ducks and fummie- round the table, grunting under a load

ry-Doctor,' adds a gentleman of foup, pig, pork, and bacon; let me who sat next him, let me advise to a suppole, 1 tay, fome hungry beggar,

wing of this turkey'- So this far- with looks of want, peeping through mer being fondi Hob nob, doc- one of the windows, and thus addres

tor, which do you chute, white oring the allembly: " Pr’ythee, pluck • red?'' So being fond of wild ducks those napkins from your chins; after 6 and flummery- • Take care of nature is satisfied, all that you eat ex:

yourlard, Sir, it may dip in the gravy.' • traordinary is my property, and I The doctor, now looking round, found " claim it as mine. It was given you not a hngle eye difpoled to litten; where- ' in order to relieve me, and not to opfore, calling for a glass of wine, he ' press yourselves. How can they comgulped down the disappointment and the ' fort or inftru&t others, who can scarca tale in a bumper.

feel their own existence, except from The converfation now began to be the unfavoury returns of an ill-digefted little more than a rhapsody of exclama- meal? But though neither you not tions; as each had pretty well fatisfied • the cushions you fit upon will hear his own appetire, he now found futti- ' me, yet the world regards the excient time to press others. • Excellent ! • cesses of it's teachers with a prying • the very thing ! let me recommend the eye, and nutes their conduct with

pig; do but taste the bacon ! never double severity.' I know no other

eat a better thing in my life; exqui- answer any one of the company could • site! delicious!' This edifying dir- make to such an expoftulation, but courte continued through three courses, this: 'Friend, you talk of our lofing

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