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present, but should vary in proportion to the height of the house. London has no such provision, and it is sad to see the miserable allowance of yard left between the very high houses now so common. The permission thus to build probably only acts as a means of epabling ground landlords to command higher ground rents. Certainly it has of late years become impossible to build houses of moderate height, for land is let at a price calculated on the assumption that many stories will be built.

There is one branch of the open space question to which I specially desire to ask attention. Not that many of us can do very much to forward it, except by cultivating that large hope which often leads to great results, because it keeps before the mind of hundreds objects which it would be good to attain, and then, when opportunity arises, people care to attain them. The hope I would desire that we should all keep steadily before us is that of securing additional large open spaces on the outskirts of London. If all our little churchyards, if the few available squares, were all thrown open, if our School Board playgrounds were not, as now, closed on the children's one-holiday Saturday, we have still, taking into account the Embankment and the parks, very little open space in proportion to the population. More and more as the houses creep out over the fields in the suburbs, and especially as they cover the hills near London, the people feel the loss. I can remember when one had not far to walk to reach the country; now the places which were then bayfields are covered with villas. Where working people used to wander out on Saturdays and holidays, by Highgate, by Hampstead, by Camberwell, by Deptford, everywbere the ground is being built over.

Common after common has indeed been saved, Epping Forest and Burnham Beeches; but, so far as I know, no land which could legally have been sold for building has ever yet been given to, or bought for, the people of London, by any of her citizens, to be kept as open space, except the few acres about to be given by Mr. Evelyn. We lost the Swiss Cottage Fields, we lost Paddington Park, but that is no reason for despondency; year by year, from tiny beginnings, we have seen the interest in this subject deepen and grow, and the day will come when more open space will be given for the people, I believe. There is now once more a movement in this direction set on foot, which to the utmost of our power we may each help. I refer to that for providing additional open space on the north of London. Papers explaining what is proposed may be procured from Mr. Edmund Maurice, Sydney Cottage, Hampstead. Some may know that many commons have been saved on the south of London, but that only one existed on the north. The rights of the lord of the manor over that one-Hampstead Heath-were bought up by the Metropolitan Board of Works. It is, however, only 240 acres in extent. Beyond it Kilburn, Willesden, Finchley, are becoming masses of houses ; up to it, over our lost Swiss Cottage Fields, Fitz-John's Avenue and many other roads are uniting Hampstead to London. For all that vast district the small 240 acres will soon be the only park. It will have to serve as well, unless the hands of the leaders of this new movement are adequately strengthened, for a great new district also which will assuredly creep up the Highgate slopes as soon as the land north of Kentish Town is in the market. There is a hill -Parliament Hill—just north of that large crowded district of Kentish Town ; up this hill the poor now stream in thousands; from its top you can see all London lie at your feet; there you always get a breeze, and sight of the sunset; there the children can still play on the grass. We are getting more and more-quite necessarily, but rather sadly-in our parks to regard grass as too rare and costly to step on. Near Kentish Town we can still walk on it and pick buttercups. Is there really no one who will save even a few acres of this land near the homes of the poor, the more valuable as it saves them from having to approach the Heath by a long, weary walk through streets?

Other efforts are being made in the south to preserve Pepys Hill and the Hilly Fields. These attempts all spring from the instinct which makes people long to keep the power of walking up the hills near their homes.

Will it ever occur to any very rich man or woman to buy some such place for London ? I sometimes think so, and hope it may be soon, for every year the country is further off, and land grows dearer.

There are many kinds of gifts which have now a demoralising effect on the poor ; never did men more desire to be generous, never did their generosity find expression in ways which proved so mischievous. The gift of a man's time and heart is now, as ever, helpful, but we want to offer money too, in such measure as we are entrusted with it. Such gifts as this of common land could do nothing but unmixed good. The space, the quiet, the sight of grass and trees and sky, which are a common inheritance of men in most circumstances, are accepted as so natural, are enjoyed so wholly in common, that, however largely they were given, they could be only helpful. Have you ever thought what the sense of quiet is to the member of a poor family ? Many of them have never for years been alone, hardly ever been in silence; crowd, noise, dirt, confusion all round. Your excursion trains and vans only carry noise into the country; let the people stroll from their own homes up the hilly fields, and you may be sure it will do them good.

I have been asked to add a few words about the houses of the people, but what can I say? There has been so much said. Is it not better just now silently to do? If, after all the talking and

writing, you yourselves are meaning henceforward quietly and naturally to know a few poor people as your friends, you will soon learn how to help them, and how they help you. Then, perhaps, the homes will be better. We are all parts of one great human family ; you know very well that your friends in general provide themselves with houses and the necessaries of life. It is not otherwise with these poorer neighbours. You can give them flowers and come Dearer to them thereby, but if their intercourse with you is mainly that of receiving chance half-crowns or dinners, or living as recipients of your bounty, you will find little manly human fellowship possible. See, then, first that the homes are not bolstered up with gifts.

And, secondly, may I add that much has been said lately of Miss Octavia Hill's plan of managing houses for the poor? There is, believe me, no plan in it at all. There is indeed some technical knowledge essential-more, perhaps, than people realise who seem to think they can manage houses without training. But success in this depends no more on any plan than does that of a young lady who begins housekeeping. Certain things she should indeed know, but whether she manages well or ill depends mainly on what she is. So it is with me and all the fellow-workers who undertake the charge of houses for or with me. If we are patient, firm, gentle, punctual, persevering, courteous, ready to learn, quick to see, and swift to execute what is needed, economical as to expenditure, and liberal in plans for good, clever as to tangible things, and full of sympathy in spiritual ones, then the houses and families under our care will steadily progress, but in so far as we fail in these characteristics and we fail often--So far our courts and tenants, like our homes and families, suffer.

Only, somehow, if we set our desires on trying to help, and lose thought of ourselves in others, our mistakes and failings seem to sink into insignificance, and the great purpose we have at heart prospers, and little by little, as the years go on, steady progress is made in the outward things, and the sense of affection and relationship between us and our tenants deepens, and out of our imperfect work our Father leads us, and all we love, onward towards His own perfection.

OCTAVIA HILL.

THE FORTHCOMING

ARAB RACE AT NEWMARKET.

On the 2nd of July next a weight-for-age race will be run at Newmarket by horses of pure Arabian blood.—Racing Advertisement.

About four years ago it was permitted me to sketch in the pages of this Review my ideas about the Arabian as a thoroughbred horse, and to call attention to the advantage it might be to English breeders to acquire a fresh strain of pure blood in addition to that already possessed by them. I argued that, the functions of the thoroughbred being twofold-namely, those of a racehorse and of a sire for half-bred stock-the existing English horse could not be relied on as fulfilling either duty in an entirely satisfactory manner. As a racehorse he was degenerating in stoutness if not in speed ; and as a sire he had acquired certain faults of constitution and temper which, while leaving him the best we had, made him no longer the best we could aspire to have. I contrasted him with the Arabian on both these points, and to the Arabian's advantage. Admitting that, as things stood at present, no imported Eastern horse could hope to run with English thoroughbreds successfully on the turf, I nevertheless stated my opinion that speed was distinctly an Arabian quality, and one which a few generations of careful selection under more favourable conditions than any the desert afforded could be developed in England out of pure Eastern sources. I maintained, moreover, that as a sire the Arabian was already the English thoroughbred's superior. He had courage, temper, beauty, and above all, soundness of constitution, such as the other no longer had ; and his inferiority, if inferiority there was, lay only in his size. This defect certainly could be lessened by good feeding and the English climate ; and I expressed my confidence that the Arabian might, even in point of size, become the other's equal. At any rate, a height of 15 hands 2 or perhaps 3 inches might be reached; and beyond this limit there was no practical advantage for breeding purposes.

The paper led to some discussion. In my zeal for the Arabian, I had, fortunately or unfortunately, let drop some disparaging words with regard to his rival more than the occasion required, and the disciples of Admiral Rous were roused. Yorkshire breeders would Vol. XV..No. 87.

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not hear a word of doubt cast on the descendants of Eclipse and Herod, as the best of possible horses in the best of possible worlds; and it was proved to demonstration by sporting writers on the one hand that our modern racing machine was in fact nothing but an improved Arab so far ahead in development that to go back to unimproved sources was a mere retrogression ; and on the other, that the superior qualities of the English horse were due not at all to his Eastern sires, but to certain maternal ancestors of indigenous breed, figured in the stud lists as dams unknown,' and especially to a famous “old Vintner mare,' of unascertained pedigree, but believed to have nothing Eastern in her origin. Mr. John Osborne, of Epsom, was my most powerful opponent, and I fear he got the better of me in his argument respecting the lineage of the English horse, for he is a profound scholar in stud lore, and perhaps I owe him still some apology for having overstated in some degree my case; but others came to my rescue, and notably among them Major Upton, who, with Mr. Henry Chaplin, had first brought the matter forward some years earlier than the date of my own suggestion. Sir Francis Doyle, too, in a learned and amusing treatise, compared the various breeds of antiquity, and argued in my favour, urging that not only should Arabian studs be formed, but studs also of Etruscans, Barbs, and white Anatolians, should such be discoverable still in their ancestral homes; while, finally, a famous statesman and still more famous scholar did me the honour of connecting my experiment with his own classical researches into the origin of the Parthenon horse and the wooden horse of Troy. There, in the bypaths of ancient erudition, the discussion lost its way and stopped.

But, like all discussions where a true principle is involved, it had served its purpose. Attention had been excited, and those who had had most to do with thoroughbreds were those most ready to acknowledge the major premiss of my argument, namely, the fact of their ever-growing and radical defects. With regard to my minor premiss, the merit of the Arabian, I had put my argument already into the practical form of importing eighteen mares from the desert and two stallions, the nucleus of my present stud; and they began to attract visitors. The late Prince Batthyany was, I think, the first member of the Jockey Club who took sufficient interest in the matter to come to see my stud, and he at once pronounced the importations to be thoroughbreds in miniature, and strongly encouraged me to persevere, spreading their fame, moreover, among his friends, and inviting me to Newmarket to preach at headquarters the new gospel of Arabia to the elders of the sporting world. The good old Prince, now alas gathered to his fathers, was himself more than an elder, and his recollections went back to the days of Colonel Sibthorpe and Lord George Bentinck; and some of these little desert mares, he used to say, reminded him of the time when he first rode as a light-weight

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