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the Codex Sinaiticus and other early documents. Thus on fol. 2 we have asani, and in our photograph (248 a. 2. 1) 'aBpaan'.

The letters are remarkable for the fineness of the cross strokes, which makes many passages difficult to read rapidly: and a similar statement might perhaps have been made with regard to the exemplar from which the MS. was copied, seeing that there are frequent errors on the part of the copyist exactly similar to those into which his readers are likely to fall. The letters are well formed, the oval letters, e o C, being much contracted horizontally, and as usual in MSS. of this class, o s with pronounced hooks. 3 has its form made by two strokes of the pen, but on the first facsimile we notice that an omitted 3 has been restored in the common form made by a single ductus.

The punctuation marks are chiefly the high and low point, accompanied by a final colon at the end of passages. I and y have the double diacritical point. And I think that a case of interrogation mark may be found in the MS. (on fol. 15 b for instance). No cases as far as I know occur of iota subscript or ascript.

The arrangement of the matter according to the index and where the disarranged portions of the book are readjusted, is first alphabetical, the various subjects being arranged under heads according to the leading word in a sentence: thus the first title is IIepì åv pátou mládews, and begins the letter a Each title is then illustrated first by extracts from the Old Testament, next from the New Testament, then from the leading Church fathers, and finally from Philo and Josephus. Occasionally sentences and gnomic sayings are introduced from the philosophers.

Thus on the photograph of fol. 248 a, the extract on the left (line 10) begins with a statement written on a gold ground that the passage which follows is from a discourse του αγίου Βασιλείου κατά πλεονεκτούντων (sic). This is followed by a new title on gold, περί παραχωρητικών και ευείκτων ότι ειρηνικών και ψυχοφελές τούτο.

And the first extract under the new title is indicated by the word Tevéoews, and so on throughout the book, with few variations.

The illuminations are the most striking feature of the whole book. The facsimile of fol. 248 a shews us first an ordinary ecclesiastical portrait hundreds of which occur, and which serve to represent the fathers quoted, This one, accordingly, must be Basil.

The picture on the margin of the right-hand column represents the battle between the herdsmen of Lot and Abraham, with plenty of sheep in the foreground. This is followed by a picture representing the conference between Abraham and Lot, and another shewing Abraham in the act of intercession for Sodom.

The book must have been written first and illuminated after, for in our other facsimile over against a passage from S. John's Gospel concerning the true Vine, the artist has by oversight introduced an illustration of a totally different passage, namely the one in which the gardener appeals to his master to spare the unfruitful fig-tree yet another year. Unless indeed it should be that the tree represented is really a vine, in which case the scribe has fused the passages together in his mind. The attitude of the petitioning gardener is very pathetic !

The whole series of illustrations is interesting, and some require no small skill in the interpretation.

At the beginning of the book is a leaf of cursive writing of a considerably later date: it is written in two columns of 30 lines each, and bears something of the appearance of having been copied from an early bicolumnar uncial text. The two columns of the verso are subjoined : έργων" ως δηλοί

και έτεσιν αι μεν και η του σαββά

ούν των ημερών του προσηγορί

εβδομάδες γενα κατάπαυσιν

νωσι την πεντηκοεβραικώς σημαί

στήν, κλήτης [αγί-] [1. κλητην] νουσα: ει δέ τις

αν παρ' αυτούς ηκαι υψηλότερος πε

μέραν· αι δε των ρι ταύτα λόγος

ετών τον ιωβελαίάλλοι φιλοσοφεί

ον παρ' αυτούς οτωσαν. η τιμη

νομαζόμενον, δε αυτοίς ούκ έ

ομοίως γης τε αν ημέραις μόνον

φεσιν έχοντα και αλλά και εις ενιαυ

δουλων ελευθερί- [1. δούλων] τους φθάνουσα.

αν και κτήσεων η μεν ούν των η

ωνητων αναχώμετέρων το σάβ- (1. ημερών)

ρησιν· καθιερούβατον: τουτο δη

σι γαρ, ου γενημάτο συνεχώς πα

των μόνον ουδε ρ' αυτούς τιμώμε

πρωτοτόκων αλνον. καθ' δ και η

λ' ήδη και ημερών 1 Dr Hort identifies this passage as coming from Greg. Naz. Orat. XLI. § 2 in Pentecosten.



της ζύμης άρσις

και ετων απαρχάς ισάριθμος: η δε

τω θεώ τούτο το γέτων ετών εβδο- (1. ετών ο)

νος: ούτως ο εματικός ενιαυτος

πτα τιμώμενος της αφέσεως.

αριθμος την τικαι ουκ εν εβδομά

μην της πεντηκοσι μόνον αλλά και

στης συνήγαγεν: έν εβδομάσιν ε

ο γαρ επτα επί εβδομάδων, ομοί

αυτόν συντιθέμενος ως έν τε ημέραις

γεννα τον πεντήκοντα. Tischen. We have already alluded to the readings which Tischendorf extracted dorf's use of". Paral. from the Parallela Sacra. He seems to have seen the importance of these lels."

quotations in the seventh edition of the New Testament (1859).

In the prolegomena to this text (p. xxiii) he remarks as follows:

“Item Johannis Damasceni perlustravi plura, maxime commentarios in Pauli epistulas et quae in parallelis sacris ad easdem spectant.” And on p. cclxv. in referring to patristic authorities of the eighth century, he observes :

“Prae multis vero eminet Johannes Damascenus, cuius commentarium in epp. Pauli pertractavimus in ed. Mich. Lequien; item permulta ex sacris eius parallelis adscripsimus.”

These quotations in the seventh edition are usually cited without a reference, as they could easily be found in a continuous exposition, but the passages from the parallels have references given. Thus on Heb. xi. 13 we have as follows :

λαβοντες C. DEKL al longe pl Thdrt Dam (et par 371) al.
where the authority of John Damascene is twice appealed to, first in the
ordinary text and commentary of the Hebrews, the latter of which is
sometimes distinguished as Dam com as in Heb. i. 3, and secondly in a passage
found on the 371st page of Lequien's edition of the Parallels. These
references to the Parallels are not however very complete. The seventh
edition refers only to three passages for the text of the Hebrews, viz. to
p. 371 of Lequien, where Heb. xi. 13-16, 32, 33 are quoted,

Το p. 673 Ηeb. xii. 5-11,
And to p. 358 Heb. xiii. 17.

From these passages Tisch. extracts six variants, but it must not be supposed that these references imply anything like an exhaustive treatment.

In the eighth edition much more use is made of the collection, which is cited as Dampar. and Dampar. cod. as intimated above, and I do not think it need be pointed out that a very large further use may be made, by future New Testament collators, of Parallels to be found in the large European libraries.

An important question arises with regard to the MS. from which A collecMangey published fragments of Philo under the name of Johannes Monachus Parallels Ineditus. He obtained these extracts, I believe, from Thomas Carte, and is also

used by writes concerning them as follows:

Mangey, 'Sunt haec fragmenta ex Cod. MS. Collegii Ludovici Magni Soc. Jes. the editor Qui cod. sic inscribitur Ιωάννου πρεσβυτέρου και μοναχού του Δαμασκηνού εκλογών βιβλίον Α' και Β'. Titulorum vero discrepantia tum inversa ordinis ratio liquido sunt argumento excerptorem hunc alium esse a Damasceno illo Sacrorum Parallelorum auctore. Cui sententiae suffragatur Michael le Quien, Johannis Damasceni operum praeclarus editor, qui docet codicem istum noni esse saeculi.'

What has become of this Codex ? At first sight the description seems not unlike Coislin. 276, described by Montfaucon as of the tenth century, diverse from the edited Parallels, and its title being Joannis Monachi et Presbyteri Eclogae. But the order of titles given by Montfaucon does not seem to agree with Mangey's description. Is it possible that in editing fragments from John Monachus Mangey is really going over the ground again with the Codex Rupefucaldinus ? For certainly the title printed by Lequien from this MS. agrees precisely with that given by Mangey. And does not this supposition also explain why which Lequien is quoted as an authority for the date of the Codex (though I cannot verify the passage referred to)? I believe that this supposition is Cod. Rup. the correct one, and will be verified by an examination of the MS. at Cheltenham.

We must also draw attention to the following important copies of Parallels, of which use has been made by collectors.

Mai in his Scriptorum Veterum Nova Collectio, Vol. I. et vil. has pointed out and used the Cod. Vat. 1553 (olim Cryptoferratensis) which bears the title Res Sacrae Leontii et Joannis.

Pitra in Analecta Sacra, II. xxi. and elsewhere has quoted largely from Cod. Coislin. 276, already referred to, and wonders that so little attention has been paid to it. “Codicem Parisiensem, quem miror a nemine, ni

1 But see further on this point on p. xx.

seems the same as

fallor, collatum, comminisci juvat. Coislinianus est sub num. 276', olim fortasse neglectus vel a Maurinis quia visus est eadem continere quam Damasceni Parallela."

And many other copies yet uncollated might easily be pointed out.

From a similar collection, as I suppose, in the Library of the Patriarch of Alexandria at Cairo, Tischendorf extracted in 1853 a number of valuable passages, which he printed at the end of his Philonea.


The whole of the preceding and almost all of the succeeding matter was written out for the press before I was able to undertake the expedition necessary to the verification of the suppositions thus made with regard to Cod. Rup., and even now a complete study of the recovered codex remains to be made, four days being all the time that I have been able to bestow upon it. The results thus arrived at are as follows:

The Codex Rupefucaldi is a magnificently written volume of 285 leaves (in addition a few blank leaves at the beginning and end), the numbered leaves being 284, and one number repeated (=f. 218 bis). To my surprise, it is not an uncial MS. at all, but an early cursive with a few rubricated uncials at the beginning, middle and end; and dating, as near as I can judge, and in accordance with the tradition of the library, from the eleventh century.

The rubricated uncials at the beginning are as follows:
Ιωάννου πρεσβυτέρου και μοναχού του δαμασκηνού των εκλογών βιβλίον α' και β'.

And in the middle, f. 177 b, at the close of Otoixeîove, where perhaps from weariness the scribe was constrained to obtrude his personality more definitely upon his work, are the abbreviated words,

χριστέ ο Θεός, σώσόν με At the end stands the subscription,

τέλος των εκλογών του οσίου πρς ημών μοναχού και πρεσβυτέρου Ιωάννου του Δαμασκηνού + δόξα σοι, χριστέ, ο θεός ημών πάντων ένεκεν.

1 Wrongly given by Pitra as 279.

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