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general corruption, and the state is no plated with that entire composure, that more!
nothing but the innocence, integrity, and You have reason, sir, to encourage us usefulness of his life, and an unaffected in the laborious career to which we are submission to the will of Providence, could doomed. It is the writings of such men
bestow. In this situation he had every as you, which maintain in all nations a consolation from family tenderness, which wholesome morality. We cannot help be- his own kindness to his family had indeed lieving that our fellow-citizens will sooner well deserved. or later do us the justice which we re- Sir Joshua Reynolds was, on very many ceive from foreigners; and that we shall accounts, one of the most memorable men 'revive, in more peaceable times, the prin- of his time. He was the first Englishciples of religion and humanity.
men who added the praise of the elegant I do not speak to you, sir, of those arts to the other glories of his country. other writings, in which I am desirous of In taste, in grace, in facility, in happy inshowing how useful would be the lights vention, and in the richness and harmony of a long and peaceable administration. of colouring, he was equal to the greatest It does not belong to me to judge of the masters of the renowned ages. In porLise which may be made of them, and it trait he went beyond them; for he commust not astonish us, that men are un: municated to that description of the art, in grateful for truths which come from us, which English artists are the most enwho have no passion for revolutions. gaged, a variety, a fancy, and a dignity
Accept, sir, the testimonies of the vene- derived from the higher branches, which ration and attachment, which well-inten- even those who professed them in a sutioned men ought to feel for the enlightened perior manner, did not always preserve and virtuous of all countries. I cannot tell when they delineated individual nature. you how sensible we have been to the His portraits remind the spectator of the attention, which the clergy of England invention of history, and the amenity of have shown towards one of our most landscape. In painting portraits, he apvirtuous and respectable colleagues. You peared not to be raised upon that platform, are equally just to his character in society, but to descend upon it from a higher sphere. as to his principles and courage; and His paintings illustrate his lessons, and such are the regrets of his diocese, that his lessons seem to be derived from his they consider his absence as a public ca- paintings. lamity.
He possessed the theory
as perfectly I have the honour to be, as the practice of his art. To be such a &c. &c. &c. painter, he was a profound and pene
trating philosopher. On the 23d of February 1792, died Sir In full happiness of foreign and domesJoshua Reynolds, the old and constant tic fame, admired by the expert in art, friend of EDMUND BURKE, who, on the and by the learned in science, courted by impulse of the moment, drew up a beau- the great caressed by sovereign powers, tiful sketch of his character, for the public and celebrated by distinguished poets, papers. This eulogium, which has been his native humility, modesty, and candour compared to that of Apelles, by Pericles, never forsook hím, even on surprise or we here insert, as alike honourable to the provocation; nor was the least degree of merits of the deceased, and the feelings of arrogance or assumption visible to the the survivor :
most scrutinizing eye, in any part of his
conduct or discourse. Last night, in the sixty-ninth year of His talents of every kind-, powerful his age, died, at his house in Leicester from nature, and not meanly cultivated by Fields, Sir Joshua Reynolds.
letters-his social virtues in all the relaHis illness was long, but borne with a tions and all the habitudes of life, renmild and cheerful fortitude, without the dered him the centre of a very great and least mixture of any thing irritable or que- unparalleled variety of agreeable socierulous, agreeably to the placid and even ties, which will be dissipated by his death. tenor of his whole life. He had from He had too much merit not to excite the beginning of his malady a distinct some jealousy, too much innocence to view of his dissolution, which he contem- provoke any enmity. The loss of no
man of his time can be felt with more quence of which was, that instead of sincere, general, and unmixed sorrow. one governor they had seven hundred HAIL AND FAREWELL !
With such an instance before their Sir Joshua Reynolds gave a striking eyes, Mr. BURKE said, his advice was, testimony of the steadiness of his attach- "Be wise by experience; hold fast the ment to Mr. BURKE, by appointing him blessings you enjoy, and trust to no theo one of his executors, and bequeathing to retical remedies," him £2,000, in addition to a like sum Soon after this, Mr. Fox came forward which he had lent to him some time be- with a motion in favour of the Unitarian fore, and the bond for which he directed Dissenters; which Mr. BURKE also opto be cancelled.
posed, not upon intolerant grounds, but It has been said, and at one time the from a persuasion that the claimants report was pretty generally credited, that were dangerous subjects, who aimed at the the published discourses of Sir Joshua, downfall of every system which was dear upon the principles of the art which he to the country, and whose religion was adorned, were in a great measure indebted connected with political principles hosfor their elegance to the pen of BURKE ; but tile to the welfare of the establishment this assertion has been so completely both civil and religious. This charge disproved by those who possessed the roused the members around him, (for he best means of information, as to be no still sat on the opposition bench,) to an longer worthy of credit.
ercessive degree of animosity. In anThis was a busy year to Mr. Burke, swer to those who demanded proofs of who, besides his private avocations, and what he alleged, Mr. BURKE narrated the the multiplicity of his correspondence, felt proceedings of some late meetings of the himself bound to stand forward against Unitarian Dissenters, which demonstrated the innovations proposed by his old as. unequivocally their connexion with the sociates. Early in the session, Mr., now French cannibals. This expression being Earl Grey, introduced his motion for a caught up by the supporters of the motion, Parliamentary Reform, which ill-timed produced a repetition on the part of Mr. measure was opposed by Mr. BURKE in BURKE, who said, Gentlemen might cry a very powerful speech. He began by out, “Hear! hear!” as long as they comparing his situation to that of a worn, thought proper; he had, however, assertout invalid in the battles of the state, and ed no more than what he could prove ; who was now left lo guard the citadel for he could show, by documents, that of the constitution. After this exordiurn the French cannibals, after having torn he waived the general subject as offering out the hearts of those they had murdered, nothing new, but he showed the danger squeezed the blood into their wine and of the discussion, by exhibiting proofs drank it. that there was an avowed party in the As the name of Dr. Priestley was country whose object was to overthrow brought up in the course of this debate, and change the constitution. Upon being Mr. Burke took occasion to bestow some urged by the most clamorous calls, to severe censures upon the principles of produce his evidence, he entered into par- that restless polemic. This will account ticular details, and 'named several socie. for the angry tone in which the doctor ties recently formed on revolutionary prin- ever after spoke of his old acquaintance; ciples. “When such persons," said he, but when he circulated the story that Mr. “the advocates for Paine's doctrines, thé BURKE, on hearing of the riots at Birsolicitors of a confederacy with the most mingham, ran about in an ecstacy of joy, infamous foreign clubs, were also the ad- congratulating every body he mei, he was vocates for a Parliamentary Reform, it guilty himself of the very offence against was high time to sound the alarm of dan- charity, which he attempted to fasten upon ger to the constitution. In France, the another, for he had no authority whatever advocates of Reform, at the very moment to adduce in proof of what he related. their king was carrying into effect a real Such was the serious aspect of the times, and substantial change for the national that parliament assembled again at the good, snatched the crown from his head, end of the same year, to adopt measures and overturned his throne; the conse for the security of the country, the peace
of which was threatened by societies affili- and to admire a monarchical form of goated on the pretext of Reform, but palpa- vernment. In the mean time the ranks bly intended to bring about a Revolution, of opposition became thinner every day, similar to that of France. In the debates and many of the friends of Mr. Fox föl that arose upon the address, Fox and She lowed the example of BURKE, when he ridan ridiculed the alarm that had been crossed the floor of the house, and declarexcited, and condemned the speech from ed that he quitted the camp for ever. the throne, as a libel upon the people. On taking a retrospect of these temBURKE, in reply, maintained that with the pestuous scenes, and considering the marsame justice Cicero might have been vellous events, that for a series of years charged with libelling all Rome, when he resulted from the revolutionary abyss announced the conspiracy of Cataline and then opened in France, one cannot help his companions, and their intention to admiring the penetrating genius of the burn the city, and massacre the senate. man who first detected the deceitful mass
Against the proposition of Mr. Fox that lay beneath, and foretold the desolafor a negociation with the French repub- tion which the eruption would produce. licans, he entered his solemn protest in Mr. BURKE might truly be called the Cas. this energetic language : “Stained with sandra of his day, for every speech that crimes, blasting and damning all the courts he uttered, and every line that he wrote on of Europe, ought France to be acknow, the subject of France, received in the issue, ledged ? Ought she to be acknowledged the stamp of an oracle. It is true, thai without waiting in the words of Hamlet) his zeal on this subject, sometimes carriea for the whetting of the axe ?” Ought she him to great lengths, but if in a few into be acknowledged in the teeth of all stances, as when he exhibited a dagger to her decrees of universal hatred to mo- illustrate the character and faith of repubnarchies, and in the teeth of the com- lican amity, he appeared too theatrical; mission of regicide? Oh! if she were, the the integrity of the motive must be admitnation might depend upon it, that the ted, and much allowance therefore is due murder of the king of France would only to the enthusiasm by which he was anibe preliminary to the murder of the king mated. At this critical period, the thoughts of England !
of Mr. BURKE were directed wholly to the Mr. BURKE then proceeded to declare, general welfare, while Mr. Fox courted that as soon as Great Britain acknow the applause of the multitude. The coolledged the existing state of things in France, ness that had subsisted between these two by a formal negociation, from that moment, great men for three years, was not howrebus extantibus, she must bow the neck to ever of such a nature as to preclude all that country. This was a consequence hopes of reconciliation, till this session of which he insisted would be the result of parliament. Efforts indeed had actually such policy: “In her system of conduct," been made, to bringabout a union of parties observed the orator, “ France has fol- for the public benefit, but they were all renlowed that of Mahomet, who, affecting to dered nugatory by the obstinacy of Mr. preach peace, carried his Koran in one Fox, who even refused to consult the most hand, and the sword in the other, to punish respectable members of the opposition, all who would not acknowledge his mis- on the measures proper to be adopted in sion. Thus has acted the French repub- the senate. lic. It has published a declaration of the It seemed therefore evident, that he was rights of man, and propagated them by setting up for himself, and as he espoused the sword.”
the cause of the French abroad, and that Mr. Fox, however, was not to be driven of the republican faction at home, there from his purpose by these arguments, was reason enough to apprehend the most though they were confirmed by the glar- serious consequences from his ascening evidence of facts on every side. He dency., BURKE knew that revolutionary persevered in maintaining that there was principles must produce revolutionary no danger to be apprehended from the practices; and it was this conviction revolutionary doctrines which were then which made him so active in exposing the rapidly spreading over the country, and danger of that friendship with regicides, he still continued to palliate the conduct which his opponents assiduously sought of the French republícans, though at the and earnestly recommended. At the end same time he professed to abhor regicide, of this stormy session, Mr. BURKE drew
up, and communicated to the Duke of friends, assisted by a servant, was carryPortland, a narrative of the proceedings ing him into another room, he faintly said, of Mr. Fox and his cabal, in which many “ God bless you,” fell back, and expired extraordinary facts were developed, full without a groan. His remains were inenough to justify the separation that had terred, on the 15th, in the church of Beataken place, and the necessity of giving consfield in Buckinghamshire, in which support to the government for the preser- parish he had long resided, on an estate vation of the constitution.
which is said to have been given him by the In 1794, Mr. BURRE had two severe marquis of Rockingham. But it is extrials, in the death of his brother, followed traordinary, and little to the credit of the by that of his only son Richard, who was age, that as yet no monument has been his colleague in the representation of Mal- raised to his memory. Mr. Burke in his ton. The next year he retired from par- person was about five feet ten inches in liament; and soon after received the grant height, erect, and well formed ; his counof a pension for himself and his wife, tenance was pleasing, but being very nearpayable out of the civil list. But this sighted, his action in public speaking lost mark of the royal favour, though bestowed much of its cffect. Of his talents there when he was no longer in a situation to cannot be two opinions; his knowledge assist ministers by his vote, brought upon
was so various that he could converse him a load of illiberal abuse; and two upon all subjects, and that with such a peers did themselves no honour by the grasp of mind and felicity of expression, manner of their noticing Mr. Burke and as delighted the bearer, who, on parting his pension in the House of Lords. from him naturally exclaimed, “What
These illiberal attacks, (for such they a wonderful man!" unquestionably were,) produced a spirit- As an orator he stood confessedly in ed retort in a letter addressed to Lord the very first class, but he had the fault Fitzwilliam. In this tract the venerable of prolixity, and too generally overloaded author gave abundant proof, that neither his argument with an exuberance of illusage nor misfortune had weakened his trative imagery. His metaphors were mental energies; and if those who so wan- sometimes incongruous, and his language tonly provoked him did not writhe under was occasionally so low as to excite surthe scourge, their nerves must have been prise and disgust
. In his manners he was of a peculiar construction.
urbane and generous, very communicaThe next and last performance which tive of his advice, and ready to patronize Mr. Bukke gave to the public, was a merit. Of this he gave a proof in his series of “ Letters on the Proposals for liberality to Barry the painter, whom he Peace with the Regicide Directory of took under his protection in Dublin, and France;" and of all his works this may sent him at his own expense to Italy. fairly challenge the pre-eminence for å While there, the most friendly correspondcomprehensive view of foreign and do-, ence passed between them, and through mestic policy, strength of reasoning, and life Mr. Burke behaved kindly to his powerful appeals to the understanding ingenious countryman, although the be
The design of it was as exalted as the haviour of Barry was far from being such execution was masterly; being no less as he could approve. than to rouse the nation from a state of The literary character of Mr. BURKE despondency under difficulties, to confi- is above all praise. Though he wrote dence in its resources, and a vigorous ex- rapidly, not a line dropped from his pen ertion of its powers, in a struggle, the but what bore the striking impress of his glorious termination of which our politi- powerful mind, and in truth he can hardly cal Nestor foresaw and foretold.
be said to have written a single page with At length these incassant labours ope- outcommunicating to the most enlightenrated upon the constitution of Mr. Burke ed reader something new, either in thought in a manner that soon gave indications or illustration. Wisdom and eloquence, of a rapid decay. Still, amidst all his which others attain with labour, were in Bodily weakness, his mind preserved its him the habitual and ordinary niarch of vigour, and on the seventh of July, 1797, his ideas; whence his style constantly exne conversed with animation on the great hibits such a superabundance of argument subject which had so long occupied his and imagery, that while our attention is thoughts. The next day, while one of his pursuing the track of his reasoning, wo are in danger of losing ourselves amidst the regulation of their conduct in perilous the various beauties with which it is en- times, were driven about by every'wind forced and embellished. The same cha- that blew, having no point of certain disracteristics distinguished the oratory of tinction, nor any principles upon which Mr. Burke, that are still perceived in his they could depend for their guidance and compositions; but though he rarely, if security, amidst the sea of revolutionary ever, failed to delight his hearers by his strife, from which, as they and others manner and his matter, he too frequently vainly
, flattered themselves, a new world weakened the effect of his elocution by of perfection was about to arise. Most not stopping at the right period of his ar- of these visionaries have dropped into gument; the consequence of which was, oblivion, and the few that remain are so that those who had been charmed and little known, that their very names will convinced by the former part of the speech, in a short space be forgotten. BURKE, became, at the close of it, languid, tired, on the contrary, has left an imperishable and indifferent.
memorial ; every day increases its value, In domestic life Mr. BURKE exhibited and future ages will have recourse to it such a strik ing contrast to his associates, for the maxims of political wisdom in the that it is a matter of some surprise how a government and direction of life. Whatperson of his philosophical principles and ever may be thought of those infirmities temperate habits could endure aconnexion which he possessed in common with the with men, most of whose time was dissi- rest of mankind, or of the errors into pated, to use no worse term, in midnight which he occasionally fell, he had the revelry over the bottle, or at the gaming- singular merit of dissolving the links of table. To reconcile private vice with party, at a critical period, when that party public virtue is a task which no casuist began to assume the dangerous part of has yet ventured to undertake in a free a faction, under a leader whose ambition, and impartial spirit; nor would any one admitting no restraint, engage in the proof that the union is
Sprung upwards, like a pyramid of fire consistent, were it not from a desire to Into the wild expanse, and through the shock justify particular characters, whose morals or fighting elements, on all sides round have been at variance with the professions
won his way."
Environ'd, which they set up in the face of the world.
Taking, therefore, a retrospective glance Dr. Price was well aware of this, and
at that part of our national history, and therefore, in one of his political sermons,
looking steadfastly upon the opposite conhe took occasion, sharply, to reprobaté duct of the men who distinguished themthe pernicious maxim, that patriotism and selves when the horrors of the Revolution profligacy could exist in the same person. had nearly broken in upon the shores of He did this in reference to the leaders of Britain, one cannot help admiring the inthe party to which he belonged, and he
trepid spirit that first and last opposed lamented most devoutly and sincerely,
the torrent, and for so doing brought upon that while, by their oratorical powers,
himself the hatred of his compeers. Not these great men were upholding and pro
in the least intimidated by their taunts and pagating the same doctrines with himself,
reproaches, he pursued his course, and as being essential to human happiness,
by that firmness became a main instruthey rendered them altogether nugatory ment of rousing the nation to that resist. by the most scandalous conduct in the ance against anarchy, which ultimately ordinary transactions of life.
gave peace to the world. Like the faith When the French Revolution broke
ful seraph, so admirably painted by the out, it was seen that public and private
poet, he stood virtue cannot be separated, without en
1. Among innumerable salse, unmop'd,
Unshaken, unseduc'd, unterrified ; dangering the fundamental principles His loyalty he kept, his love, his zeal; upon which all social order must stand, Nor number, nor example, with him wrought and by the consummation of which the To swerve from Truth, or change bis constant
(pass'd rights of individuals can alone be secured.
Though single. From amidst them, forth he In that storm, Burke appeared im
Long way through hostile scorn, which he sug. pregnable, like the rock whose basis is
tain'd infixerl in the foundation of eternal mora
Superior, nor of insolence feared aught;
And with retorted scorn bis back he turn'd lity, while the political sophists of the day,
On those proud towns to swift desa uction having nothing stable in their minds for