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raised above the others, is completed by their met with no where else. High, low, men, suspicions, and their dread of losing an autho women, clergy, and laity, are all alike. Tho rity, which has no support in the common utility ruling nobility are no less afraid of one another, of the nation. A Genoese, or a Venetian re- than they are of the people; and for that reason, public, is a concealed despotism; where you find politically enervate their own body by the same the same pride of the rulers, the same baso effeminate luxury, by which they corrupt their subjection of the people, the same bloody max- subjects. They are impoverished by every ims of a suspicious policy. In one respect, the means which can be invented; and they are aristocracy is worse than the despotism. A body kept in a perpetual terrour by the horrours of a politic, whilst it retains its authority, never state-inquisition. Here you see a people des changes its maxims; a despotism, which is this prived of all rational freedom, and tyrannized day horrible to a supreme degree, by the caprice over by about two thousand men; and yet this natural to the heart of man, may, by the same body of two thousand, are so far from enjoying caprice otherwise exerted, be as lovely the next; any liberty by the subjection of the rest, that in a succession, it is possible to meet with some they are in an infinitely severer state of slavery ; good princes. If there have been Tiberiuses, they make themselves the most degenerate Caligulas, Neros, there have been likewise the and unhappy of mankind, for no other purpose serener days of Vespasians, Tituses, Trajans, than that they may the more effectually contriand Antonines; but a body politic is not influ- bute to the misery of a whole nation. In short, enced by caprice or whim; it proceeds in a the regular and methodical proceedings of an regular manner; its succession is insensible; aristocracy, are more intolerable than the very and every man as he enters it, either bas, excesses of a despotism, and in general, much or soon attains the spirit of the whole body. further from any remedy. Never was it known, that an aristocracy, which Thus, my Lord, we have pursued aristocracy was haughty and tyrannical in one century, through its whole progress; we have seen the became

easy and mild in the next. In effect, seeds, the growth, and the fruit. It could boast the yoke of this species of government is so none of the advantages of a despotism, miseragalling, that whenever the people have got the ble as those advantages were, and it was overleast power, they have shaken it off with the loaded with an exuberance of mischiefs, unutmost indignation, and established a popular known even to despotism itsclf. In effect, it form. And when they have not had strength is no more than a disorderly tyranny. This enough to support themselves, they have thrown form therefore could be little approved, even in themselves into the arms of despotism, as the speculation, by those who were capable of more eligible of the two evils. This latter was thinking, and could be less borne in praetice by the case of Denmark, who sought a refuge from any who were capable of feeling. However, the oppression of its nobility, in the strong hold the fruitful policy of man was not yet exhausted. of arbitrary power. Poland has at present the He had yet another farthing-candle to supply name of republic, and it is one of the aristocra- the deficiencies of the sun. This was the third tic form; but it is well known, that the little- form, known by political writers under the name finger of this government, is heavier than the of democracy. Here the people transacted all loins of arbitrary power in most nations. The public business, or the greater part of it, in people are not only politically, but personally their own persons: their laws were made by slaves, and treated with the utmost indignity. themselves, and upon any failure of duty, their The republic of Venico is somewhat more officers were accountable to themselves, and to moderate ; yot even here, so heavy is the aris- them only. In all appearance, they had seLocratic yoke, that the nobles have been obliged cured by this method the advantages of order to enervate the spirit of their subjects by every and good government, without paying their sort of debauchery; they have denied them the liberty for the purchase. Now, my Lord, wo liberty of reason, and they have made them are come to the master-piece of Grecian refineamends, by what a base soul will think a more ment, and Roman solidity, a popular governvaluable liberty, by not only allowing, but en- ment. The carliest and most celebrated recouraging them to corrupt themselves in the public of this model, was that of Athens. It most scandalous, manner. They consider their was constructed by no less an artist, than the subjects, as the farmer does the hog he keeps to

celebrated poet and philosopher, Solon. But feast upon. He holds him fast in his stye, but

no sooner was this political vessel launched allows him to wallow as much as he pleases in from the stocks, than it overset, even in the his beloved filth and gluttony. So scandalously life-lime of the builder. A tyranny immedidebauched a people as that of Venice, is to be ately supervened; not by a foreign conquesty

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not by accident, but by the very nature and nullo sermone exceptus, turbæ servicntium inconstitution of a democracy. An artful man

mistus est." Yet in that worst season of this Decame popular, the people had power in their worst of monarchical* tyrannies, modesty, hands, and they devolved a considerable share discretion, and a coolness of temper, formed of their power upon their favourite ; and the some kind of security even for the highest only use he made of this power, was to plunge merit. But at Athens, the nicest and best those who gave it into slavery. Accident studied behaviour was not a sufficient guard restored their liberty, and the same good for- for a man of great capacity. Some of their tune produced men of uncommon abilities and bravest commanders were obliged to fly their uncommon virtues among them. But these country, some to enter into the service of its abilities were suffered to be of little service enemies, rather than abide a popular detereither to their possessors or to the state. Some mination on their conduct, lest, as one of them of these men, for whose sakes alone we read said, their giddiness might make the people their history, they banished; others they im- condemn where they meant to acquit; to throw prisoned ; and all they treated with various in a black bean even when they intended a circumstances of the most shameful ingrati- white one. tude. Republics have many things in the spirit

The Athenians made a very rapid progress of absolute monarchy, but none more than this; to the most enormous excesses.

The people a shining merit is eve: hated or suspected in a under no restraint soon grew dissoluto, luxuripopular assembly, as well as in a court; and


and idle. They renounced all labour, and all services done the state, are looked upon as began to subsist themselves from the public dangerous to the rulers, whether sultans or revenues. They lost all concern for their senators. The Ostracism at Athens was built

common honour or safety, and could bear no upon this principle. The giddy people, whom advice that tended to reform them. At this we have now under consideration, being ciated time truth became offensive to those lords the with some flashes of success, which they owed people, and most highly dangerous to the to nothing less than any merit of their own, speaker. The orators no longer ascended the began to tyrannize over their equals, who had rostrum, but to corrupt them further with the associated with them for their common defence. most fulsome adulation. These orators were With their prudence they renounced all ap- all bribed by foreign princes on the one side or pearance of justice. They entered into wars the other. And besides its own parties, in this rashly and wantonly. If they were unsuccess- city there were parties, and avowed ones too, ful, instead of growing wiser by their misfor- for the Persians, Spartans, and Macedonians, gune, they threw the whole blame of their own supported each of them by one or more demamisconduct on the ministers who had advised, gogues pensioned and bribed to this iniquitous and the generals who had conducted those service. The people, forgetful of all virtue wars; until by degrees they had cut off all and public spirit, and intoxicated with the flatwho could serve them in their councils or their teries of their orators (these courtiers of repubbattles. If at any time these wars had an lics, and endowed with the distinguishing chahappy issue, it was no less difficult to deal with racteristics of all other courtiers) this people, I them on account of their pride and insolence. say, at last arrived at that pitch of madness, Furious in their adversity, tyrranical. in their that they coolly and deliberately, by an express successes, a commander had more trouble to law, made it capital for any man to propose an concert his defence before the people, than to application of the immense sums squandered plan the operations of the campaign. It was in public shows, even to the most necessary not uncommon for a general, under the horrid purposes of the state. When you see the despotism of the Roman emperors, to be ill people of this republic banishing and murderreceived in proportion to the greatness of his ing their best and ablest citizens, dissipating services. Agricola is a strong instance of the public treasure with the most senseless this. No man had done greater things, nor extravagance, and spending their whole time, with more honest ambition. Yet on his return as spectators or actors, in playing, fiddling, to court, he was obliged to enter Rome with dancing and singing, does it not, my Lord, all the secrecy of a criminal

. He went to the strike your imagination with the image of a palace, not like a victorious commander who sort of complex Nero? And does it not strike had merited and might demand the greatest you with the greater horrour, when you observe, rewards, but like an offender who had come to

* Sciant quibus moris illicita mirari, posso supplicate a paruon for his crimes. His re

etiam sub malis principibus magnos viros, &c ception was answerable : “ Brevi osculo, el See 42 to the end of it.

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not one man only, but a whole city, grown A republic, as an ancient philosopher has obe drunk with pride and power, running with a served, is no one species of government, but a rage of folly into the same mean and senseless magazine of every species; here you find every debauchery and extravagance? But if this sort of it, and that in the worst form. As people resembled Nero in their extravagance, there is a perpetual change, one rising and the much more did they resemble and even exceed other falling, you have all the violence and him in cruelty and injustice. In the time of wicked policy, by which a beginning power Pericles, one of the most celebrated times in must always acquire its strength, and all the the history of that commonwealth, a King of weakness by which falling states are brought to Egypt sent them a donation of corn. This a complete destruction. Rome has a more they were mean enough to accept. And had venerable aspect than Athens; and she conthe Egyptian prince intended the ruin of this ducted her affairs, so far as related to the ruin city of wicked bedlamites, he could not have and oppression of the greatest part of the taken a more effectual method to do it, than by world, with greater wisdom and more uniform, such an ensnaring largess. The distribution ity. But the domestic economy of these two of this bounty caused a quarrel ; the majority states was nearly or altogether the same. An set on foot an enquiry into the title of the citi- internal dissension constantly tore to pieces zens; and upon a vain pretence of illegitimacy, the bowels of the Roman commonwealth. You newly and occasionally set up, they deprived find the same confusion, the same factions, of their share of the royal donation no less which subsisted at Athens, the same tumults, than five thousand of their own body. They the same revolutions, and in fine, the same went further; they disfranchised them; and slavery; if perhaps their former condition did having once begun with an act of injustice, not deserve that name altogether as well. All they could set no bounds to it. Not content other republics were of the same character. with cutting them off from the rights of Florence was a transcript of Athens. And the citizens, they plundered these unfortunate modern republics, as they approach more or less wretches of all their substance; and to crown to the democratic form, partake more or less of this master-piece of violence and tyranny, they the nature of those which I have described. actually sold every man of the five thousand as We are now at the close of our review of slaves in the public market. Observe, my the three simple forms of artificial society, and Lord, that the five thousand we here speak of, we have shewn them, however they may differ were cut off from a body of no more than nine- in name, or in some slight circumstances, to teen thousand; for the entire number of citizens be all alike in effect; in effect, to be all tyranwas no greater at that time. Could the tyrant nies. But suppose we were inclined to make who wished the Roman people but one neck; the most ample concessions; let us concede could the tyrant Caligula himself have done, Athens, Rome, Carthage, and two or three nay, he could scarcely wish for, a greater mis. more of the ancient, and as many of the chief, than to havo cut off, at ono stroko, a modern commonwealths, to have been, or to be, Sourth of his people? Or has the cruelty of free and happy, and to owe their freedom and shat series of sanguine tyrants, the Cæsars, happiness to their political constitution. Yet ever presented such a piece of flagrant and allowing all this, what defence does this make extensive wickedness? The whole history of for artificial society in general, that these inthis celebrated republic is but one tissue considerable spots of the globe have for some rashness, folly, ingratitude, injustice, tumult, short space of time stood as exceptions to a violence, and tyranny, and indeed of every charge so general ? But when we call these species of wickedness that can well be imo- governments free, or concede that their citigined. This was a city of wise men, in zens were happier than those which lived une which a minister could not exercise his func- der different forms, it is merely ex abundanti. tions; a warlike people, among whom a ge- For we should be greatly mistaken, if we really neral did not dare either to gain or lose a bat- thought that the majority of the people which te; a learned nation in which a philosopher filled these cities, enjoyed even that nominal could not venture on a free enquiry. This was political freedom of which I have spoken so the city which banished Themistocles, starved much already. In reality, they had no part of Aristides, forced into exile Miltiades, drove it. In Athens there were usually from ten to put Anaxagoras, and poisoned Socrates. This thirty thousand froemen: this was the utmost, was a city which changed the form of its go But the slaves usually amounted to four hun vernment with the moon ; eternal conspiracies, dred thousand, and sometimos to a great many revolutions daily, nothing fixed and established

The freemen of Sparta and Rome philosopher has obe f government, but a - here you find every


worst form. AS , one rising and the

the violence and e beginning power rength, and all the ates are brought to ome has a moro ns; and she can related to the ruin Cest part of the ad more uniform, emy of these two the same. An

tore lo pieces monwealth. You same factions,

same tumults, fine, the same condition did

as wel. All me character. ns. And the more or less re or less of scribed. - review of ociety, and

were not more numerous in proportion to those upon which all artificial legislative power is whom they held in a slavery, even more terrible founded. It was observed, that men had unthan the Athenian. Therefore state the mat- governable passions, which made it necessary ter fairly: the free states never formed, though to guard against the violence they might offer they were taken altogether, the thousandth part to each other. They appointed governours of the habitable globe; the freemen in these over them for this reason! but a worse and states were never the twentieth part of the more perpexing difficulty arises, how to be people, and the time they subsisted is scarce defended against the governours ? Quis cusany thing in that immense ocean of duration todiet ipsos custodes? In vain they change in which time and slavery are so nearly com- from a single person to a few. These few mensurate. Therefore call these free states, have the passions of the one, and they unite to or popular governmonts, of what you please; strengthen themselves, and secure the gratifiwhen we consider the majority of their inha- cation of their lawless passions at the expense bitants, and regard the natural rights of man- of the general good. In vain do we fly to tho kind, they must appear in reality and truth, many. The case


worse; their passions are no better than pitiful and oppressive oligar- less under the government of reason, they are chies.

augmented by the contagion, and defended After so fair an examen, wherein nothing against all attacks by their multitude. has been exaggerated ; no fact produced which I have purposely avoided the mention of the cannot be proved, and none which has been mixed form of government, for reasons that produced in any wise forced or strained, while will be very obvious to your Lordship. But thousands have, for brevity, been omitted ; my caution can avail me but little. You will after so candid a discussion in all respects; not fail to urge it against me in favour of powhat slave so passive, what bigot so blind, litical society. You will not fail to shew how what enthusiast so headlong, what politician so the errours of the several simple modes are hardened, as to stand up in defence of a system corrected by a mixture of all of them, and a calculated for a curse to mankind? a curse proper balance of the several powers in such a under which they smart and groan to this hour, state. I confess, my Lord, that this has been without thoroughly knowing the nature of the long a darling mistake of my own; and that of disease, and wanting understanding or courage all the sacrifices I have made to truth, this has to supply the remedy.

been by far the greatest. When I confess that I need not excuse myself to your Lordship, I think this notion a mistake, I know to whom nor, I think, to any honest man, for the zeal I I am speaking, for I am satisfied that reasons háve shewn in this cause; for it is an honest are liko liquors, and there are some of such a zeal, and in a good cause. I have defended nature as none but strong heads can bear. natural religion against a confederacy of athe- There are few with whom I can cominunicate ists and divines. I now plead for natural soci- so freely as with Pope. But Pope cannot bear ety against politicians, and for natural reason every truth. He has a timidity which hinders against all three. When the world is in a fitter the full exertion of his faculties, almost as temper than it is at present to hear truth, or effectually as bigotry cramps those of the gewhen I shall be more indifferent about its neral herd of mankind. But whoever is a temper; my thoughts may becomo more public. genuine follower of truth, keeps his eye steady In the mcan time, let them ropose in my own upon his guide, indifferent whither he is led, bosom, and in the bošoms of such men as aro provided that she is the leader. And, my fit to be initiated in the sober mysteries of truth Lord, if it be properly considered, it were inand reason. My antagonists have already finitely better to remain possessed by the whole done as much as I could desire. Parties in legion of vulgar mistakes, than to reject some, religion and politics make sufficient discoveries and at the same time to retain a fondness for concerning cach other, to give a sober man others altogether as absurd and irrational. The a proper caution against them all. The mo- first has at least a consistency, that makes a narchic, and aristocratical, and popular parti- man, however erroneously, uniform at least; sans have been jointly laying their axes to the but the latter way of proceeding is such an inroot of all government, and have in their turns consistent chimera and jumble of philosophy, proved cach other absurd and inconvenient. and vulgar prejudice, that hardly any thing In vain you tell me that artificial government is more ridiculous can be conceived. good, but that I fall out only with the abuse. therefore freely, and without fear or prejudice, The thing! the thing itself is the abuse ! Ob examine this last contrivance of policy. And serve, my Lord, I pray you, that grand errour without considering how near the quick our

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instruments may come, let us search it to the jarring interests may chance to prevail; and as' bottom.

they prevail, the balance is overset, now upon First then, all men are agreed that this junc- one side, now upon the other. The governtion of regal, aristocratic, and popular power, ment is one day, arbitrary power in a single must form a very complex, nice, and intricate person ; another, a juggling confederacy of a machino, which being composed of such a few to cheat the prince and enslave the people ; variety of parts, with such opposite tendencies and the third, a frantic and unmanageable deand movements, it must be liable on every ac- mocracy. The great instrument of all these cident to be disordered. To speak without changes, and what infuses a peculiar venom metaphor, such a government must be liable to into all of them, is party. It is of no conse frequent cabals, tumults, and revolutions, from quence what the principles of any party, or its very constitution. These are undoubtedly what their pretensions are; the spirit which as ill effects as can happen in a society; for in actuates all parties is the same; the spirit of such a case, the closeness acquired by com- ambition, of self-interest, of oppression, and munity, instead of serving for mutual defence, treachery. This spirit entirely reverses all the serves only to increase the danger. Such a principles which a benevolent nature has erectsystem is like a city, where trades that require ed within us; all honesty, all cqual justice, and constant fires are much exercised, where the even the ties of natural society, the natural houses are built of combustible materials, and affections. In a word, my Lord, we have all where they stand extremely close.

seen, and if any outward considerations were In the second place, the several constituent worthy the lasting concem of a wise man, wo parts having their distinct rights, and these have some of us felt, such oppression from party many of them so necessary to be determined government as no other tyranny can parallel. with exactness, are yet so indeterminate in We behold daily the most important rights, their nature, that it becomes a new and con- rights upon which all the others depend, we stant source of debate and confusion. Hence behold these rights determined in the last reit is, that whilst the business of government sort, without the least attention even to the should be carrying on, the question is, Who appearance or colour of justice; we behold has a right to exercise this or that function of this without emotion, because we have grown it, or what men have power to keep their up in the constant view of such practices; and offices in any function? Whilst this contest we are not surprised to hear a man requested continues, and whilst the balance in any sort to be a knave and a traitor, with as much incontinues, it has never any remission; all difference as is the most ordinary favour were manner of abuses and villapies in officers re- asked; and we hear this request refused, not main unpunished; the greatest frauds and rob- because it is a most unjust and unreasonable beries in the public revenues are committed in desire, but that this worthy has already en defiance of justice; and abuses grow, by time gaged his injustice to another. These and and impunity, into customs; until they pre- many more points I am far from spreading to

I scribe against the laws, and grow too inveterate their full extent. You are sensible that I do often to admit a curo, unless such as may be not put forth half my strength; and as bad as the diseaso.

be at a loss for the reason. A man is allowed Thirdly, the several parts of this species of sufficient freedom of thought, provided he knows government, though united, preserve the spirit how to choose his subject properly. You may which each form has separately. Kings are am- criticise freely upon the Chinese constitution, bitious; the nobility haughty; and the populace and observe with as much severity as you tumultuous and ungovernable. Each parly, please upon the absurd tricks, or destructive however, in appearance peaceable, carries on bigotry of the bonzees.

But the scene is a design upon the others; and it is owing to changed as you come homeward, and atheism this, that in all questions, whether concerning or treason may be the names given in Britain, foreign or domestic affairs, the whole generally to what would be roason and truth if asserted turns more upon some party-matter than upon of China. I submit to the condition, and the naturo of the thing itself; whether such a though I have a notorious advantage before step will diminish or augment the power of the ine, I wave the pursuit. For else, my Lord, it crown, or how far the privileges of the subject is very obvious what a picture might be drawn are like to be extended or restricted by it. of the excesses of party even in our own nation, And these questions are constantly resolved, I could shew, that the same faction has in ono without any consideration of the merits of the reign promoted popular seditions, and in the cause, merely as the parties who uphold these next been a patron of tyranny; I could shew,

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