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THE INFLECTIONS. An Infection is a bending or a sliding of the voice, either upwards or downwards.
There are two inflections—the upward, or Rising Inflection; and the downward, or Falling Inflection. The former is represented by the mark of the acute accent; the latter, by that of the grave accent.
The union of these two infections upon the same syllable, is called a Circumflex.
When the circumflex terminates with the rising infleclion, it is called the Rising Circumflex; when with the falling, it is designated the Falling Circumflex.
When the tone of the voice is not inflected, it is called the Monotone.
TABLE OF THE INFLECTIONS.
The Rising, followed by the Falling.
ould we say eager', or eager?
We should not say all', but all'.
The Falling, followed by the Rising.
Rising and Falling. If you said so, then I said sô. And it shall go hărd but I will ûse the information.
Falling and Rising. ô but he păused upon the brink. But nôbody can bear the death of Clodius.
RULES FOR THE INFLECTING OF SENTEN.
CES, OR PARTS OF SENTENCES. RULE I.-The Falling Inflection takes place where the sense is complete and independent, whether it be at the termination of a sentence, or a part of a sen. tence* -as,
It is a dangerous mistake which prevails amongst men, that it is sufficient for their eternal happiness, if they feel some serious emotions at their latter end'.
It is to the unaccountable oblivion of our mortality, that the world owes all its fascination'.
Age, in a virtuous person, carries with it an authority, which makes it preferable to all the pleasures of youth'.
Every desire, however innocent or natural, grows dangerous, as, by long indulgence, it becomes ascendant' in the mind.
You may lay it down as a maxim, confirmed by universal experience, that every man dies as he lives'; and it is by the general tenor of the life, not a particular frame of mind at the hour of deach, that we are to be judged at the tribunal of God.
Mary's sufferings exceed, both in degree and in duration, those tragical distresses which fancy has feigned, to excite sorrow and commiseration': and, while we survey them, we art apt altogether to forget her frailties; we think of her faults with less indignation ; and approve of our tears, as if they were shed for a person who had attained much nearer to pure virtue.
RULE II.-Negative Sentences, or Members of Sentences, must end with the Rising Inflection.
You are not left alone to climb the arduous ascent--God is with you; who never suffers the spirit which rests on him to fail, nor the man who seeks his favour to seek it in vain.
It is not enough that you continue steadfast and immoveableyou must also abound in the work of the Lord, if you expect your labours to be crowned with success.
• Mr. Walker's rule of the loose sentence is altogether superfluous. The inflertron is governed by the completeness of the sense; and that is all we have to tako into consideration.
Rule III.-The Introductory, or Commencing part of a Sentence, is distinguished by the Rising Inflection.*
If to do, were as easy as to know what were good to do-chapels bad been churches, and poor inen's cottages, princes' palaces.
While dangers are at a distance, and do not immediately' approach us—let us not conclude that we are secure, unless we use the neces. sary precautions against them.
As the beauty of the body always accompanies the health of it-80 is decency of behaviour a concomitant to virtue.
Sympathizing with the hatred and abhorrence which other men must entertain for him—the murderer becomes, in some measure, the object of his own hatred and abhorrence.
Forined to excel in peace, as well as in war-Cæsar was endowed with every great and noble quality, that could give a man the ascendant in society.
* The introduotory, or commencing part of a sentence, is that part of it which indispensably relates to what follows; either affecting it, or affected by it, in sense; or connected with it in construction-as, with regard to the nominative case and its adjuncts, the preposition and the word or phrase which it governs, &c.
Whoever examines the various examples that refer to this rule, will find, that in all of them, the reading is governed by the same principle--that it is not a question of corresponding conjunctions or adverbs of parts of direct periods, depending vron participles, or adjectives, &c.; but that each of the sentences is resolvable into two principal parts, the one commencing, or introductory, and the other concluding. This will appear at once, if the reader will only construct a series upon the commencing part of any of the above examples. For instance, with regard to the very first
“ If to do, were as easy as to know what were good to do, and mankind, with the power of the heavens, retained the passions of earth'-chapels,” &c. Here we should have a series of two members, and we should call it a commencing series. Now this, according to Mr. Walker, is an example of a direct period, having its two principal parts connected by corresponding conjunctions. Take, again, the fourth sentence
“ Sympathizing with the hatred and abhorrence which other' men must entertain for him, rankling with conscience', and feeling that his torments are the infliction of his own hand-the murderer,” &c. Here we should have a series of three members, and we should call it a commencing series. Now this, according to Mr. Walker, is an example of a direct period, commencing with a participle of the present tense. Once more; take the sixth sentence
“ Full of desire to answer all' demands-indefatigable in the service of beavenborn charity--superior to the little weaknesses and delicacies of worldly pridel-emulous of the approbation of God alone the truly benevolent,” &c. Here we should have a series of four members, and we should call it a commencing series. Now this, according to Mr. Walker, is an example of a part of a sentence depend. ing upon an adjective.
Thus, to go no farther, we have three sentences, the reading of which, Mr. Walker refers to three different rules, in one part of his work; and to one rule, in another. It is obvious, that the principle by which that reading is directed, is one and the same, and that it consists in the circumstance of the parts which have the rising infection, being the commencing parts of the sentences to which they belong.
The same kind of test will show the propriety of taking in the examples, under the head of the inverted period, and that of the concessive member-which is quite as inseparable, in sense, from the subsequent part of the sentence, as the first part of the direct period is from the latter; because it is an assertion, introductory to a qualification-which leads you to expect a direct or implied negation; and hence, is absolutely inseparable from what follows. Thus,
“ Your enemies may be formidable by their numbers, or by their poner, or are for midable, &c.—but He who is with you, is mightier than they.” Here is an implied negation with respect to the subject, enemies, which negation being expressed, would stand thus but they are not as mighty as He that is with you.
Full of desire to answer all demands the truly benevolent, when their own funds are insufficient, think it not troublesome to ask assistance, and plead the cause of the wretched.
No man can rise above the infirmities of nature, unless assisted by God.
Your enemies may be formidable by their numbers and by their power'—but He who is with you, is mightier than they.
Virtue nere a kind of misery, fame were all the garland that crowned her.
To all the charms of beauty, and the utmost elegance of external form', Mary added those accomplishments which render their inpression irresistible.
Cæsar was celebrated for his great generosity-Cato, for his unsul. lied integrity.*
GENERAL EXCEPTION TO THE FIRST AND
THIRD RULE. When the commencing member of ap antithesis requires the relative emphasis (1), or is opposed in the concluding member, by a negation (2), the latter has the rising, and the former the falling inflection
(1) If we have no regard for our character, we ought to have some regard for our interest'.
If you will not make the experiment for your own' satisfaction, you ought to make it for the satisfaction of your friends'.
(2) We have taken up arms to defend' our country, not to be tray' it. The duty of a soldier is to obey', not to direct' his general.
If the antithesis commences with the negation, or has a negation in the commencing, as well as in the concluding member, it is read in the ordinary style.
We have taken up arms, not to betray', but to defend' our coun. try.
Behold what manner of love the Father hath bestowed on us, that we should be called the Sons of God! Therefore, the world knoweth us' not, because it knew him' not.
INTERROGATION. RULE IV.-Questions asked by pronouns or adverbs, end with the falling inflection.
• Upon mature deliberation, I have included the antithesis under this rulo --tne mutual reference of the parts of which, shows sucbe relation in sense, as, I conceive, warrants my doing so.