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Who ever left the precincts of mortality, without casting a trcm. bling eye on the scene that is before' him What evil can come nigh to him, for whom Jesus' died?

Rule V.—Questions asked by verbs, require the rising inflection.

Does the law which thou hast broken, denounce vengeance against thee? Behold that law fulfilled in the meritorious life of thy Redeemer.

Shall dust and ashes stand in the presence of that uncreated glory, before which principalities and powers bow down, tremble, and adore'? Shall guilty and condemned creatures appear in the presence of Him, in whose sight the heavens are not clean, and who chargeth his angels with folly'?- This is the sting of death.

RULE VI.—When the interrogation affects two objects, taken disjunctirely, the former has the rising, and the latter the falling inflection.

Are you toiling for fame', or for fortune'?

Exemplification of the Three preceding Rules. (1) Who are the persons that are most apt to fall into peevish. ness and dejection'? that are continually complaining of the world, and see nothing but wretchedness' around them? (3) Are they the affluent or the indigent'? (2) Are they those, whose wants are administered to by a hundred hands besides their own'? who have only to wish and to have'?—Let the minion of fortune answer you. (2) Are they those whom want compels to toil for their daily meal, or (and) nightly pillow'—who have no treasure, but the sweat of their brows'—who rise with the rising sun, to expose themselves to all the rigours of the seasons, unsheltered from the winter's cold, or [and] unshaded from the summer's heat'? No! the labours of such are the very blessings of their condition.

EXCEPTIONS. 1. When a question commencing with a pronoun or an adverb, is used as an exclamation, it has the rising inflection.

Will you for ever, Athenians, do nothing but walk up and down the city, asking one another, what news'?—what news'? Is there any thing more new, than to see a man of Macedonia become mas. ter of the Athenians, and give laws to all Greece?

You are perpetually asking me how are we to accomplish' itHow are we to accomplish it'! Do you think you will accomplisha it by fearing to attempt it?

2. When a question asked by a verb, is very long, or concludes a paragraph, it may end with the falling inflection.

The Brigantines, even under a female leader, had force enough to burn the enemy's settlements, to storm their camps, and, if success had not introduced negligence and inactivity, would have been able entirely to throw off the yoke: and shall not we, untouched, unsubdued—and struggling, not for the acquisition, but for the continuance of liberty, declare at the very first onset, what kind of men Caledonia has reserved for her defence'?

Note 1. When an assertion gives rise to a question, the assertion is delivered in a louder tone (1); —when a question gives rise to an assertion, the question is the more audible—(2).

Observe the other now; (1) In the first place sallying out on a sud. den from his seat-For what reason ?-In the evening-What urged bim?--Latem For what purpose? especially at that season!– He calls at Pompey's seat-With what view? (2) To see Pompey ?-He knew he was at Allium!

-To see his house ?-He had been in it a thousand times ! - What, then, could be the reason of his loitering and shifting about ?—He wanted to be upon the spot when Milo came up.

Note 2. The inflections at the note of exclamation, are the same as at every other point; except where masterless passion uses them as it pleases. Emotion is your only guide in this instance.*

Note 3. The accented words of a question beginning with a verb, either have the rising inflection, or are pronounced in a monotone.

PARENTHESIS. Rule VII.-The Parenthesis must be pronounced in a lower tone, and with a more rapid delivery, than the rest of the sentence; and must conclude with the same pause and inflection that immediately precede it.

For God is my witness'whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son'—that, without ceasing, I may make mention of you always

* Notes 1, 2, and 3, in Ewing's abstract of Mr. Walker's system, are entirely superfluous—there not being, in the examples to which they refer, any peculiarity which renders the principal rules insufficient as a guide to the reading of thuse examples.

in my prayers, making request'—if by any means now at length I might have a prosperous journey, by the will of God—to come unto you.


say, is it

EXCEPTION. Whatsoever be the inflection that precedes it, the parenthesis must have the falling inflection, when it ends with a word which requires the relative emphasis.

If you, Æschines, in particular, were thus persuaded—and it was no partial affection for me that prompted you to give me up the hopes, the applauses, the honours which attended that course 1 then advised, but the superior force of truth, and your utter inability to point out any more eligible' coursemif this was the case, not highly cruel and unjust to arraign those measures now, when you could not then propose any better?

Note 1. When the parenthesis is long, as in the above example, the greater part of it may be delivered in the monotone.

Note 2. The small intervening members, said ), says he, replied he, &c. follow the inflection of the member that precedes them, in a feebler, and in a higher or lower tone of voice.

You perceive', then, said I, that the cause is a hopeless one. How can that be? said he. It is obnoxious to the ministry', replier. I. Justice', exclaimed he, will carry it. Justice, versus Power', rejoined 1, is a desperate law-suit.

SERIES. A Series is a number of particulars, immediately following one another, whether independent, (1), or having one common reference, (2).

Examples. (1) The wind and rain are over': Calm is the noon' of day: The clouds are divided' in heaven: over the green hill flies the inconstant sun': Red through the stony vale comes down the stream of ibe bill'.

(2) The characteristics of chivalry were—valour', humanity', cour tesy', justice', and honour'.

• See Emphasis.

When the numbers of a series consist of several words, as in the former example, the series is called compound; when of single words,* as in the latter, it is called simple:

When a series begins a sentence, but does not end it, it is called a commencing series; when it ends it, whether it begins or not, it is called a concluding series.t


RULE VIII.-In a commencing compound series, every member, except the last, has the falling inflection; in a concluding one, every member except the last but one.

Commencing Series. That charity is not puffed up', doth not behave itself unseemly', seeketh not her own', is not easily provoked', thinketh no evil rejoiceth in the truth, beareth' all things, believeth all things, bopeth all things, endureth all things is taught by the Apostle Paul, in his first epistle to the Corinthians.

Concluding Series. Charity is not puffed up', doth not behave itself unseeinly', secketh not her own', is not easily provoked', thinketh no evil', rejoiceth in the truth', beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth' all things, endureth' all things.

The only exception which I would admit of, is in the reading of certain tender passages in poetry, where the rising inflection seems preferable—and this is altogether a question of taste or feeling.

So when the faithful pencil has design'd
Some bright idea of the master's mind';
Where a new world leaps out at his command,
And ready nature waits upon his hand';
When the ripe colours soften and unite,
And sweetly melt into just shade and light';
When mellowing years their full perfection give,
And the bold figure just begins to live-
The treacherous colours the fair art betray,
And all the bright creation fades away!

The addition of an article, a preposition, or a conjunction, does not render a series compound: nor the introduction of a compound member, when the majority of the members are simple.

The wind and rain are over, &c., is an example of a series commencing and concluding a sentence.




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Rule IX.-In a series of ten members, each set of three members is marked with different inflections, till you come to the last member; which, if the series is a commencing one, must have the rising inflection; if a concluding one, the falling inflection.

Judgment', patience', perseverance',-fortitude, courage, generosity', -continence', piety', opportunity', fortune',-must combine to make a great man. But the first member of the last set changes its inflection, when the series consists of only four members; as,

Continence', piety', opportunity', fortune',-were conspicuous in the life of Scipio.

Numerical Table of the Simple Series.

No. of Members.

No. of Members.
1'2' 2

l' 2'
1'2' 3' 3

l' 2' 3' 4 1'2' 3' 4' 4

l'2' 3' 4' 5 1' 2' 3' 4'5' 5

1'2' 3' 4' 59 6 l'2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 6

1'2' 3' 4' 5' 6 7 1'2' 3' 4' 5' 6'7' 7

1'2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7 8 1'2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 8 1'2' 3' 4' 5' 6'7' 8' 9. 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 78' 9' 9 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6'7' 8' 9' 10 1'2' 3' 4' 5'6' 7' 8' 9' 10'10 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6'7'8' 9' 10'

Mr. Ewing's table for the reading of pairs of nouns, is quite superfluous; the illustrations are nothing more than examples of the compound series; each member of which has always two inflections, whether it contains two accented words or not. * Who, for instance, can perceive the minutest difference between the reading of the two following examples: the first of which Mr. Ewing gives as an example of a compound series; and the second, as an example of pairs of nouns ?

Absalom's' beauty', Jonathan's' love', David's' valour', Solomon's wisdom', the patience' of Job', the prudence of Augustus', the eloquence of Cicero', the innocence' of wisdom', and the intelligence of all'—though faintly amiable in the creature, are found in immense perfection in the Creator.

Unless, in the latter case, the accented word begins the member; and if a word more than one syllable, commences with the accented syllable; as, “ ponder &c.

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