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The wise' and the foolish', the virtuous' and the evil', the learned' and the ignorant', the temperate and the profligate'-must often be blended together.

Note ). When a simple series occurs in the member of a compound series, the simple members are inflected according to the inflection with which the compound member ends: for instance, if it ends with the falling inflection, they are inflected as the members of a simple concluding series; if with the rising, as the members of a simple commencing series.

The soul can exert herself in many different ways of action: she can understand', will', imagine'-see' and hear-love' and discourse_and apply herself to many other like exercises of different kinds and natures'.

Here we have a compound concluding series of four members, three of which consist eac of a simple series, and the first two simple series are read as a simple concluding series, because the compound members which they compose, are marked with the falling inflection; and the third, as a simple commencing series, because the compound member which it forms, must end with the rising inflection.

The rules for inflecting the voice in the series, preclude the necessity of even remarking, that the penultimate member of a sentence has the rising inflection, subject to the exceptions which have been made in the preceding part of the Introduction, with reference to the relative emphasis.

Note 2. Phrases and accented words, though not occurring in the form of a series, are inflected in the

same manner.


The rule for what is called the harmonic inflection, is so extremely indefinite, that it is any thing but a rule. I am persuaded, that not one reader in twenty, can profit by

The reading of the examples, is unexceptionable; but the rule would establish it to be a thing, not of principle or method, but of mere fancy. The fact is the reading consists in inflecting the phrases in the latter part of a sentence, as you would the members of a compounil series, viz.


1. We may learn from this observation which we have made on the mind of man, to take particular care, when we have once settled in a regular course of life, how we too frequently indulge ourselves in any the most innocent diversions and entertainments; since the mind may insensibly fall off from the relish of virtuous actions, and by degrees' exchange - that' pleasure which it takes in the performance of its duty, for delights of a much inferior and more un. profitable nature.

2. One of the most eminent mathematicians of the age, has assured me,

that the greatest pleasure he took in reading Virgil, was in examining Æneas's voyage by the map; as I question not but many a modern compiler of history, would be delighted with little more in that divine author'-than the bare matters of fact.

3. Since I have mentioned this unaccountable zeal which appears in atheists and infidels, I must further observe, that they are likewise, in a most particular manner, possessed with the spirit of bigotry. They are wedded' to opinions full of contradiction and impossibility-and at the same time'-look upon the smallest difficulty' -in an article' of faith'-—as a sufficient reason for rejecting it.

In the first of these examples, the phrases—by degrees' erchange —that pleasure, and the relative clause, which it takes in the performance of its duty-are read as the first three menibers of a compound concluding series of four members.

In the second, the phrases—with little more', and in that divine author'- '-are read as the first two members of a compound concluding series of three members.

In the last, the phrases-wedded to opinions --full of contradiction' and impossibilityare also read as the first two members of a compound concluding series of three members, the last of which is again read as a compound concluding series of four members, with reference to the phrases, same time'-look upon the smallest difficulty in an article of faith- 'Las a sufficient reason for reject

ing it.*

To the same rule may be referred the following example, which is unnecessarily made the subject of a distinct rule.

A brave' man struggling —in the storms' of fate',
And greatly falling'with a falling state'.

* Nothing is more common than for a member of a series to involve another series; nay, it often happens, that a member of that other involves a third. For example: the member, if I may call it so, as a sufficient reason for rejecting it, though not marked, is, nevertheless, read as a series of two members, with reference to the phrases, as a sufficient rcason', and for rejecting it.

EXCLAMATION. Rule X.—When a word is repeated in form of an exclamation, it has generally the rising inflection.

Newton was a Christian. Newton'! whose mind burst forth from the fetters cast by nature, on our finite conceptions.

ACCENT. Rule XI.-Words which are the same, in part of their formation, when opposed to, or distinguished from each other, howsoever ordinarily accented, have the accent on that syllable in which they differ. There is a material difference between giving and forgiving.

In this species of composition, plausibility is much more impur tant than probability.

RHETORICAL DIVISION OF WORDS. Words are rhetorically divided into emphatic, accented, and unaccented or feeble.

Words are emphatic, when they have an antithesis expressed or understood, or when we wish to enforce particularly, the ideas which they represent; they are accented, when they consist of principal verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, not connecting ones, and unaccented or feeble, when they consist of auxiliary verbs, pronouns, * conjunctions, prepositions, , and articles, or words of any description, depending upon an emphatic word.+

I can assure you, that I speak from long experience ; and that you may implicitly believe me, when I say, that exercise and temperance will undoubtedly strengthen even an INDIFFERENT constitution.

Here, the word indifferent, because it is opposed, by implication, to the epithet sound, is emphatic: the words assure, speak, believe, say, strengthen, because they are principal verbs; experience, exercise, temperance, because they are nouns; long, because it is an adjective; implicitly, undoubtedly, and (with Mr. Walker's leave) even, because

* Personal and adjective pronouns, when they are antecedents; and relative pronouns, when their antecedents are not expressed, become accented words.

He that runs may read.
Great is your kindness who can thus allow.
I cannot give credit to him who has once deceived me.

Who seeks for glory, often finds a grave. + Except when such words can be separated into phrases; in which case the last phrase has the inflection proper to the sentence to which it belongs : as, “ To say that she was always unfortunate, will not account for that long and almost unin. terrupted success or ot calamities' which befel her.”

, they are adverbs, and not connective ones—are accented : and can, may, will, because they are auxiliary verbs; I and

you, because they are pronouns; that and and, because they are conjunctions; and when, because it is a connective adverb; an, because it is an article; and constitution, because it depends upon an emphatic word—are unaccented, or feeble words.

Note. Whensoever a word represents an idea which has been expressed or implied in the preceding part of the sentence; that word, unless inserted for the sake of emphasis, becomes necessarily unac

cented: as,

Our caution increasing as our years increase, rEAR becomes, at last, the prevailing Passion of the mind, &c.

The idea, passion, being implied in the word, fear—the word, passion, becomes unaccented, and follows the inflection of the preceding word.

EMPHASIS.* Emphasis is of two kinds, absolute and relative. Relative emphasis has always an antithesis, either expressed or implied: absolute emphasis takes place, when the peculiar eminence of the thought is solely -singly considered.

'Twas base and poor, unworthy of a peasant',
To forge a scroll so villanous and loose,

And mark it with a noble lady's name. Here we have an example of relative emphasis; for, if the thought were expressed at full, it would stand thus

Unworthy not only of a gentleman, but even of a peasant.f

* I apprehend, that, notwithstanding all that has been written upon the subject, the true definition of emphasis remains still to be discovered.

+ This demonstrates the impropriety of asserting, that what we have taken the liberty of calling relative emphasis, and what Mr. Walker designates by the name of the strong emphasis, excludes the antithesis; for the quality unworthy, is here referred to both the gentleman and the peasant. The fact is, it either excludes or includes the antithesis. In the above instance, it includes it; in the following, it excludes it.

I'll be, in men's despite, a monarchThat is, not with the consent of men, but in their despito.

'Twas base and poor, unworthy of a man,
To forge a scroll so villanous and loose,

And mark it with a noble lady's name. Here we have an example of absolute emphasis; for, if the thought were expressed at full, it would stand thus

Unworthy a being composed of such perfections as constitute a

man. *


The rules under this head are every way superfluous. Single, double, and treble emphasis, are nothing but examples of antithesis. Antithesis, abstractedly considered, is a series of two members, each of which may consist of one or more parts. + (1) We can do nothing-against the truth, but for the truth. Here each member consists of one part. Custom—is the plague' of wied menand the idol of fools'.

Here each member consists of two parts, which are inAlected as the members of a series; the one cominencing, and the other concluding.

(2) As it is the part of justice -never to do violence; so it is of modesty

-never to commit offence'. Here, again, each member consists of two parts, which are inflected as the members of a compound series; the one commencing, and the other concluding.

(3) A friend cannot be known'-in prosperity'; and an enemy canwt be hidden'in adversity'.

The same thing takes place here.

* In reasoning upon this example, Mr. Walker, by the most palpable contradic. tion, refutes his own theory. He says, “ this inflection intimates, that something is affirmed of the emphatic, which is not denied of the antithetic object;” and this position he thus illustrates, or proves~

Unworthy of a man, though not unworthy of a brute. Is this affirming, or not denying, of the subject brute, what is affirmed of the subject man? Is this the alleged act unworthy of both the brute and the man? Assuredly not! The implied antithetic subject, brute, is here positively excluded; and Mr. Walker has absolutely attributed to the weak emphasis, what he asserts to be the sole—the characteristic property of the strong emphasis! Nothing less could be expected. His premiss was false. All emphasis has not an antithesis either ex. presset or understood, or else the rising and the falling emphasis are the same ; or, if not the same, the former has no antithesis.

+ Examples of harmonic infection. I have a faint idea of a more philosophical theory upon this subject; but I have not space here for the discussion.

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